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laste at they were heredey, ani they sale. On Christmas Eve 1601) the Earl of Ti2. irudz auraviy for a ruins of grievan- rode avance to the assistance of his friends

The Burnt Details of the abuses which with a native Irish and #x) foreigners. His d.grund the civil zaferlinen: oi Eizabeth were project was to attack the English besiegers his 2ne1. string of my pies, which had been surprise before daylight, but Mountjoy, who was for the most part bextewed by the queen on her awake and readiv, repulsed him from all print favourite All kind us wine, vil, salt, stareh. of his camp, and finally defeated him with great tin, steel, coals, and numerous other commoi- lise. Thereupon D'Aguilar capitulated, and w* tie, were monopolized by men who hai the er- i permitted to return to Spain, with arnas, lacrae clusive right of vending them, and fixing their and ammunition. His departure and the de own priera. The commons complaints were not 'structive ravages of famine brought the Irish ti new; they hal pressed them many years before, extremities, and Tyrone, after fleeing from plan but they had been then silenced by authority, to place, capitulated, and, upun promise of life and told that no one must speak against licenses and lands, surrendered to Mountjoy at the end and monopolimsy lest the queen and conneil should of 1602.? be angry thereat. Of course, in the interval, Mountjoy's great victory at Kinsale somethai they had gone on increasing. When the list of revived the spirits of Elizabeth, who found forthem was now read over in the house, a member ther consolation in a tall Irish favourite. “Her anked whether bread was not among the num-leye," writes Beaumont, the French au lassador, ber! The house seemed amazeil. “Nay," said "is still lively; she has good spirits, and is for he, “ if no remedy is found for these, bread will of life, for which reason she takes great care of

Robertaun, Hist, Scot.

1

2 Camden.

herself: to which may be added an inclination | gone to her, I believe she means to die as cheerfor the Earl of Clancarty, a brave, handsome fully as she has lived." Irish noblemán. This makes her cheerful, full On the ylst of March, she was laid in bed, of hope and confidence respecting her age; this partly by force, and listened attentively to the inclination is, besides, promoted by the whole prayers and discourses of the Bishop of Chichester, court with so much art that I cannot sufficiently the Bishop of London, but chiefly to Whitgift, wonder at it. ... The flatterers about the court Archbishop of Canterbury. It is scarcely necessay this Irish earl resembles the Earl of Essex; sary to put the reader on his guard against an the queen, on the other hand, with equal dis- over-positive belief in any of the accounts of what simulation, declares that she cannot like him be passed in these moments of mystery and awe, cause he too strongly revives her sorrow for that when the people about her were determined to erl; and this contest employs the whole court.” inake her say the things that made most for their A few months afterwards, on the 19th of March, interest and plans. The narrative more generally 1603, Beaumont informed his court that Eliza- received is, that, on the 22d of March, Secretary beth was sinking, and that disease, and not, as Cecil, with the lord-admiral and the lord-keeper, she alleged, her grief at the recent death of the approached the dying queen and begged her to Countess of Nottingham, had prevented her from name her successor: she started, and then said, showing herself abroad—that she had scarcely “I told you my seat has been the seat of kings; any sleep, and ate much less than usual—that I will have no rascal to succeed me!" The lords, she had so great a heat of the mouth and stomach not understanding this dark speech, looked the that she was obliged to cool herself every instant, one on the other; but, at length, Cecil boldly in order that the burning phlegm, with which asked her what she meant by those words—“no she was often oppressed, might not stifle her. rascal ?” She replied that a king should succeed Some people, he said, were of opinion that her her, and who could that be but her cousin of illness had been brought on by her displeasure Scotland? They then asked her whether that touching the succession; some, that it had been was her absolute resolution? whereupon sho caused by the Irish affairs, her council having begged them to trouble her no more. Notwithconstrained her (against her nature and inclina- standing, some hours after, when the Archbishop tion) to grant a pardon to the Earl of Tyrone; of Canterbury and other divines had been with while others affirmed that she was possessed with her, and had left her in a manner speechless, the grief for the death of the Earl of Essex. “It is three lords repaired to her again, and Cecil becertain," adds the ambassador, “that a deep me- sought her, if she would have the King of Scots lancholy is visible in her countenance and actions. to succeed her, she would show a sign unto them. It is, however, much more probable that the suf-Whereat, suddenly heaving herself up in her bed, ferings incident to her age, and the fear of death, she held both her hands joined together over her are the chief causes of all.” In his next despatch head in manner of a crown. Then she sank vn, he says that the queen, who would take no medi- fell into a dose, and, at three o'clock on the morneine whatever, was given up by the physicians. ing of the 24th of March, which Bacon accounted She would not take to her bed, for fear, as some as a fine morning before sun-rising,” meaning supposed, of a prophecy she should die in that thereby the rising of James, she died in a stupor, bed. “ For the last two days,” he adds, “she has without any apparent pain of mind or body, at heen sitting on cushions on the floor, neither ris- her palace of Richmond. She was in the sevening nor lying down, her finger almost always in tieth year of her age, and the forty-fifth year of her mouth, her eyes open and fixed on the ground. her reign.' Yet, as this morning the queen's band has

I Camden; Somers; Birch; D'Israeli; Raumer; Lodge.

one, proposed by an eminent historian, would be there before the next parliament." The mir:trace the attempt directly to the contrivance of isters and courtiers could not withstand the ir Elizabeth: in support of which view it is alleged petuous attacks which ensued. Raleigh, who that, besides the Earl of Gowrie's known attach- dealt largely in tin, and had his fingers in other ment to the English interest, he had, during his profitable monopolies, offered to give them all residence in Paris, contracted an intimate friend-up: Cecil and Bacon talked loudly of the preroship with Sir Henry Neville, the queen's ambas- gative, and endeavoured to persuade the house sador there, and was recommended by him to his that it would be fitter to proceed by petition court as a person of whom great use might be than by bill ; but it was properly answered that made; that he had been received by Elizabeth, nothing had been gained by petitioning in the as he returned home through England, with dis- last parliament. After four days of such debate tinguished marks of respect and favour; that as the house had not heard before, Elizabeth Elizabeth's participation in the affair was matter sent down a message that she would revoke all of general suspicion at the time; that for some grants that should be found injurious by fair months before an English ship was observed trial at law; and Cecil, seeing that the commons hovering in the mouth of the Firth of Forth; that were not satisfied with the ambiguous generali'y after the failure of the conspiracy the earl's two of this expression, gave an assurance that the younger brothers fled into England, and were existing patents should all be repealed and no protected by Elizabeth; and, finally, that James, more be granted. The commons hailed their though he prudently concealed what he felt, is victory with exceeding great joy, though in effect well known to have at this time taken great um- her majesty did not revoke all the monopolies. brage at the behaviour of the English queen. Elizabeth now employed an oblique irony against The object of the Govrie conspiracy, it is as- some of the movers in the debate, but the impesumed on this supposition, was not to murder rious tone, the harsh schooling, of former years, but only to coerce James, and control the govern- were gone. Her resolute will was now struggling ment, as had been the object of the authors of the in vain against the infirmities of her body, and Raid of Ruthven, sixteen years before—an enter- she saw that there was a growing strength and prise which was in like manner instigated and spirit among the representatives of the people. supported by Elizabeth.'

In the meantime the Lord Mountjoy, the suiIn the month of October, 1601, Elizabeth met cessor to Essex in the command of Ireland, hail her parliament for the last time, sick and failing, to maintain a tremendous struggle, for Don Juan but dressed more gaily and gorgeously than ever. D’Aguilar landed at Kinsale with 4000 Spanish She was in great straits for money in order to troops, fortified himself skilfully in that position, carry on the war in Ireland. The houses voted and gave fresh life to the Catholic insurgents. her much more than had ever been voted at a But Mountjoy acted with vigour and decision; time, viz.—four subsidies, and eight tenths and he collected all the forces he possibly could, and fifteenths; but the commons were as free of their shut up the Spaniards within their lines at Kincomplaints as they were of their money, and they sale. On Christmas Eve (1601) the Earl of Ty. called loudly and boldly for a redress of grievan- rone advanced to the assistance of his friends ces. The most notorious of the abuses which with 6000 native Irish and 400 foreigners. His disgraced the civil government of Elizabeth were project was to attack the English besiegers by an endless string of monopolies, which had been surprise before daylight, but Mountjoy, who was for the most part bestowed by the queen on her awake and ready, repulsed him from all points favourites. All kind of wine, oil, salt, starch, of his camp, and finally defeated him with great tin, steel, coals, and numerous other commodi- loss. Thereupon D'Aguilar capitulated, and was cies, were monopolized by men who had the ex- permitted to return to Spain, with arms, baggage, clusive right of vending them, and fixing their and ammunition. His departure and the deown prices. The commons' complaints were not structive ravages of famine brought the Irish to new; they had pressed them many years before, extremities, and Tyrone, after fleeing from place but they had been then silenced by authority, to place, capitulated, and, upon promise of life and told that no one must speak against licenses and lands, surrendered to Mountjoy at the end and monopolies lest the queen and council should of 1602.? be angry thereat. Of course, in the interval, Mountjoy’s great victory at Kinsale somewhat they had gone on increasing. When the list of revived the spirits of Elizabeth, who found furthem was now read over in the house, a member ther consolation in a tall Irish favourite. “Her asked whether bread was not among the num- eye,” writes Beaumont, the French ambassador, ber? The house seemed amazed. “Nay," said " is still lively; she has good spirits, and is fond he, “ if no remedy is found for these, bread will of life, for which reason she takes great care of herself: to which may be added an inclination gone to her, I believe she means to die as cheerfor the Earl of Clancarty, a brave, handsome fully as she has lived.” Irish nobleman. This makes her cheerful, full On the ylsi of March, she was laid in bed, of hope and confidence respecting her age; this partly by force, and listened attentively to the inclination is, besides, promoted by the whole prayers and discourses of the Bishopof Chichester, court with so much art that I cannot sufficiently the Bishop of London, but chiefly to Whitgift, wonder at it. . . . The flatterers about the court Archbishop of Canterbury. It is scarcely necessay this Irish earl resembles the Earl of Essex; sary to put the reader on his guard against an the queen, on the other hand, with equal dis-over-positive belief in any of the accounts of what simulation, declares that she cannot like him be passed in these moments of mystery and awe, cause he too strongly revives her sorrow for that when the people about her were determined to earl; and this contest employs the whole court." | make her say the things that made most for their A few months afterwards, on the 19th of March, interest and plans. The narrative more generally 1603, Beaumont informed his court that Eliza- received is, that, on the 22d of March, Secretary beth was sinking, and that disease, and not, as Cecil, with the lord-admiral and the lord-keeper, she alleged, her grief at the recent death of the approached the dying queen and begged her to Countess of Nottingham, had prevented her from name her successor: she started, and then said, showing herself abroad—that she had scarcely “I told you my seat has been the seat of kings; any sleep, and ate much less than usual--that I will have no rascal to succeed me!" The lords, she had so great a heat of the mouth and stomach not understanding this dark speech, looked the that she was obliged to cool herself every instant, one on the other ; but, at length, Cecil boldly in order that the burning phlegm, with which asked her what she meant by those words—“no she was often oppressed, might not stifle her. rascal?” She replied that a king should succeed Some people, he said, were of opinion that her her, and who could that be but her cousin of illness had been brought on by her displeasure Scotland? They then asked her whether that touching the succession ; some, that it had been was her absolute resolution? whereupon she caused by the Irish affairs, her council having begged them to trouble her no more. Notwithconstrained her (against her nature and inclina- standing, some hours after, when the Archbishop tion) to grant a pardon to the Earl of Tyrone ; of Canterbury and other divines had been with while others affirmed that she was possessed with her, and had left her in a manner speechless, the grief for the death of the Earl of Essex. “It is three lords repaired to her again, and Cecil becertain," adds the ambassador, " that a deep me sought her, if she would have the King of Scots lancholy is visible in her countenance and actions. to succeed her, she would show a sign unto them. It is, however, much more probable that the suf- Whereat, suddenly heaving herself up in her bed, ferings incident to her age, and the fear of death, she held both her hands joined together over her are the chief causes of all.” In his next despatch head in manner of a crown. Then she sank down, he says that the queen, who would take no medi- fell into a dose, and, at three o'clock on the morncine whatever, was given up by the physicians. ing of the 24th of March, which Bacon accounted She would not take to her bed, for fear, as some “ as a fine morning before sun-rising,” meaning supposed, of a prophecy she should die in that thereby the rising of James, she died in a stupor, bed. “ For the last two days,” he adds, “she has without any apparent pain of mind or body, at been sitting on cushions on the floor, neither ris- her palace of Richmond. She was in the sevening nor lying down, her finger almost always in tieth year of her age, and the forty-fifth year of her mouth, her eyes open and fixed on the ground. her reign.'

| Robertson, Hist. Scot.

2 Camden.

Yet, as this morning the queen's band has I Camden; Somers; Birch; D'Israeli; Raumer; Lodge.

CHAPTER XX.-HISTORY OF RELIGION

A.D. 1485-1603.

Predominance of Popery during the earlier part of this period—Ineffectual attempts of Henry VII. to restrict it

- Martyrdoms during his reign-Doctrines held by those who suffered martyrdom—Internal history of the church during the reigy of Henry VII.— Theological controversy at the accession of Henry VIII.—Difficulty of punishing ecclesiastical offenders—Attempt to limit benefit of clergy–Trial of Richard Hunne for heresy -His death in prison—Trial and punishment of his dead body-Consequences to the church from this event -Wolsey's ascendency and influence-Share of Henry VIII. in the English Reformation-Career of Luther in Germany-Controversy between Henry VIII. and Luther-Change in Henry's proceedings from his love of Anne Boleyn-Protestantism set up in England—Suppression of the monastic institutions—Charges brought against them-Waste of the confiscated church property-The Bible translated into English, Previous attempts to make the Scriptures accessible to the laity—The new translation made patent to the people-Its effects—Alterations made in the Directory for Public Worship—Publication and character of “King Henry's Primer”-Waverings of Henry VIII. in the progress of the Reformation-Doctrinal articles ratified in the convocation of 1536—Their compromising character-Destruction of images, relics, &c.—Reaction in the progress of the Reformation-Henry VIII. assumes to himself the authority of pope-His enactments in this new character–The six articles of the “Bloody Statute” - They are established as the rule of faith in England—They terminate the reformation of Henry VIII.-Injunctions issued by Bishop Bonner to his clergy-Their denunciation of miracle plays and interludes, Act of parliament to suppress these exhibitions—Parliamentary act to regulate the reading of the Scriptures—Publication of the “Bishops' Book”—Its subsequent editions and alterations—The "Bloody Statute” still continued-Martyrdoms in consequence of its violation State of the English church at the close of the reign of Henry VIII.- Numeral superiority of the Papists over the Protestants at the accession of Edward VI.—Circumstances favourable to the Reformation-Its rapid rise-Homilies introduced by Cranmer into the churches—Cautious proceedings of Cranmer and the Reformers-Removal of images and religious emblems from the churches—The Book of Common Prayer introduced—Settlement of doctrine finally effected—Reform of the canon law–The reign of Mary advances the Reformation in England-Her proceedings as the opponent of the Reformation-Martyrdoms during her reign-English Protestants driven into exile-Accession of Elizabeth—Her leanings towards Popery-Her first steps to restrain the ardour of her Protestant subjects—Re-establishment of Protestantism – The oath of supremacy rejected by the bishops-General visitation of the National clergyIts injunctions Completion of the Protestant re-establishment in England, in 1562—Coverdale's new translation of the Bible— Middle position of the English church complained of—Legislative church enactments during the reign of Elizabeth-Abolition of the Papal supremacy-Act for uniformity in religious ordinances and public worship-Penalties for their infringement—Their execution against Papists—Rise of Puritanism in England-Its increase by the return of English exiles from abroad—Doctrine of the English on the right of private interpretation of Scripture—Sentiments of the earlier Puritans on the subject—Their ideas of toleration-Persecution commenced against the Puritans—They withdraw from the Established church-Strength of Puritanism in the English colleges-Continued war between Puritanism and the Established church-Statutes against the Puritans—Ori, in of the Brownists or Independents-Archbishop Whitgift's severe measures against the Puritans—Revival of the statute for the burning of heretics—It is brought into act against the Anabaptists. The Reformation in Scotland—Previous exemption of the country from the a gressions of the Popedom-Undue power obtained in consequence by the Scottish priesthood-Corruptions of the Scottish clergy-Their ignorance-Early facilities for a Reformation in Scotland - Patrick Hamilton, the first Scottish Reformer–His martyrdom-Martyrdom of George Wishart-Account of John Knox-He commences his public career at St. Andrews—His banishment—His return to Scotland-The question of religious reform brought before the Scottish parliament- The Confession of Faith established -The First Book of Discipline subscribed by the privy council-Summary of its principles-Office-bearers of the church-Different orders of church courts-Rules of church discipline—Their urgent necessity-Pecu. liarities of the Scottish Reformation-Knox's plans of reform opposed by the Scottish nobles--Pernicious effects of their opposition—The order of bishops continued in Scotland-Selfish purposes of the court in continuing them-James VI. attempts to rule the church through the bishops-His arbitrary proceedings to coerce the church.

[graphic]

OT only the history of the changes has necessarily been given in the preceding chap

that took place during this period ters. The task that remains to us here is little in the constitution of the National more than to fill up the outline already drawn. church, but also, to some extent, of Throughout the reign of Henry VII., however, the new opinions, the controversies, and the first half of that of his son and successor

and the persecutions out of which —that is to say, for rather more than a third of they arose, or by which they were accompanied, the present period—the ancient Roman faith was

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