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back to Spain in the best manner he could; and Western Isles, some were stranded in Norway. as it was held dangerous to attempt the English some went down at sea with every soul on board. in their narrow seas, he resolved to steer north-some were cast upon the iron coast of Argyle. wards and return to Spain by sailing round Scot and more than thirty were driven on the coast land.
of Ireland, where the popular name of Port-naOn the last day of July, Drake wrote to Wal- Spagna, bestowed on a place near the Giant's siugham –"There was never anything pleased Causeway, recals a part of the fearful catastrophe. me better than the seeing the enemy flying with Those who fell among the Scotch were made pria southerly wind to the northward. We have soners by King James; but the poor Spaniards the Spaniards before us, and mind, with the grace who fell amoug the Irish had a worse fate-an of God, to wrestle a pull with them.” No one eternal blot on the glory of those who inflicted can doubt of the activity and good-will of Drake, it. The English feared that they might join the of Frobisher, of any one of the great captains Irish Catholics, who were again in insurrection; engaged; but yet the Spaniards were allowed to and Sir William Fitzwilliam, the lord-deputy, go down the wind without much pursuit. “The sent his marshal, who drove them out of their opportunity," says Sir William Monson, “was hiding-places and butchered 200 of them in cold lost, not through the negligence or backwardness blood. The rest, sick and starved, con:mitted of the lord-admiral, but merely through the want themselves to the greater mercy of the waves in of providence in those that had the charge of their shattered vessels, and for the most part furnishing and providing for the fleet; for at that were drowned. A small squadron was driven time of so great advantage, when they came to back to the English Channel, where, with the examine their provisions, they found a general exception of one great ship, it was taken by the scarcity of powder and shot, for want of which English, or by their allies the Dutch, or their they were forced to return home. Another other friends the Huguenots, who had equipped opportunity was lost, not much inferior to the many privateers at Rochelle. The Duke of other, by not sending part of our fleet to the west Medina, about the end of September, arrived at of Ireland, where the Spaniards of necessity were Santander, in the Bay of Biscay, with no more to pass, after so many dangers and disasters as than sixty sail out of his whole fleet, and these they had endured. If we had been so happy as very much shattered, with their crews all worn to have followed their course, as it was both out with cold, and hunger, and sickness, and thought and discoursed of, we had been absolutely looking like spectres. The Lord-admiral of Engvictorious over this great and formidable navy; land had anchored safely in the Downs on the for they were brought to that necessity that they | 8th of August, having lost but very few men and would willingly have yielded, as divers of them only one vessel of any consequence. Military confessed that were shipwrecked in Ireland." skill and flat-bottomed boats could avail the Duke In effect, when the Spaniards had rounded the of Parma nothing against the victorious navy of Orkneys, they were dispersed and shattered by a England; and though an alarm was absurdly tremendous tempest, the more perilous from their kept up for some months, the danger was over want of a proper knowledge of those seas and from the moment that the disorganized Armada coasts. They threw overboard horses, mules, retreated to the north.? About the middle of artillery, and baggage. Some of the ships were August, the camp at Tilbury Fort was broken dashed to pieces among the Orkueys and the up."
"Tre and Eract Account of the lare in Spain. The remark seemed to have been endowed with so much ability and activity able feet of the fleet being left bare of amamunition is confirmed only for mischief. He looked with a sort of horror on the in ha letter written on the 8th of August. from the camp at dependence of the human mind, and believed himself caller Tilbury Port, by Secretary Walsingham to tbe lord-chancellor upon to destroy it everywhere; the freedom of subjects and the --Wright. It appears, however, that a part of the fleet followed liberty of consciences to him appeared alike sacrilegious; he saw the Spaniards all along the English and Scottish coast, as far as a revolt in every pretension to enlightenment; and as he had the Firth of Forth.
placed his civil and religious despotism under the safeguard of * Camden: Slow; Strada: Bentiroglio; Strype; Burghley Papers; his faith, as he believed he was God's champion in destroying Hardwick Papers; Southey; Buis; Wright.
all liberty on the earth, all means seemed good to him, no scruple * The Armada must have cost Philip immense efforts, for stopped him, his conscience recoiled from no cruelty, no perfidy; vismondi represents him as too weak effectually to repel eren he went straight towards his object through more blood and the hostilities of Catherine de' Medici, acting independently of more crimes than were ever lavished by any other monarch; France." The attacks niade by Catherine and Monsieur, how he believed he would succeed, for he subdued province after evet, did not bring down," he says, “on France very serious province, he extinguished one rebellion after another in blood; reprisals, for Philip II. had annihilated the power, wealth, and but his pestilential breath dispeopled the kingdoms that were energy of all the states over which he had extended his domina- subject to him, and notwithstanding the immensity of his states, ton. This prince-who, in the silence of his solitude, amid his he could not keep on foot armies equal to those of any of the apparent repose, was so active and so entirely devoted to the sovereigns whom he had succeeded in Castile, in Aragon, at purenit of his vast project--who himself directed the whole Granada, in the Two Sicilies, at the Duchy of Milan, in the policy of his cabinet--who wrote ont with his own hand the Low Countries, in the kingdoms of Peru and of Mexico."Teater part of his despatches-who, in fine, was so truly king- Sismondi, Hist. de Français, tom. xx. p. 23.
When the disbanding of the troops was over, that kingdom, had taken refuge in England, the Earl of Leicester took his departure from where for some time he was left to pine in abject court for Kenilworth Castle, but he fell suddenly poverty. But now Elizabeth resolved to use ill on the road, and died at Cornbury in Oxford- him as a means of annoying Philip of Spain, in shire, on the 4th day of September. The queen his recent usurpation of Portugal. She boldly did not appear to grieve much for his loss, and set forth that Don Antonio was a legitimate almost immediately after his death she caused prince, and her parliament, breathing revenge his effects to be sold by auction, for the satisface and conquest, voted her most liberal supplies, tion of certain debts he owed her treasury. The and petitioned her to carry the war into Philip's fact was, the queen had been for some time pro- dominions. She told them that she was very vided with another darling, to whom she trans poor, and needed all the money they had voted; ferred the strange affection which for so many but thereupon an association, headed by Drake years she had bestowed on Leicester. This new and Norris, undertook to defray the greater part favourite was Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, of the expenses, and in a short time they collected
an armament of about 200 sail of all sizes, carrying nearly 20,000 men. Don Antonio embarkei in royal state, and the fleet commanded by Drake set sail. It was scarcely gone out of Plymouth when the queen was thrown into tender anxieties by missing the young Earl of Essex, who had disobeyed her orders, and gone to indulge his taste for war. The expedition was badly planned, miserably supplied with money and ammunition, and but lamely conducted after the landing oi the troops. It was also disgraced by cruelties unusual even in that age. Drake repaired in the first instance to Corunna, where he took four ships of war and burned the lower town. The troops, which were commanded by Sir John Norris, defeated a body of Spaniards intrenched in the neighbourhood, but they could not take the upper town; and as their powder began to fall short, and sickness to rage in their ranks, they were re-embarked and carried to Peniche,
on the Portuguese coast. From Peniche the ROBERT DEVEREUX, Earl of Essex. --After Oliver.
fleet proceeded to the mouth of the Tagus, while
the army marched through Torres Vedras to son of the unfortunate earl who had died in Ire- Lisbon, proclaiming everywhere their Don Anland, and whose wife had been very irregularly tonio. But, contrary to their expectations, no married to Leicester. At first the queen hated one joined the Don, and they found the country him on his mother's account, but this feeling laid waste and bare. There was only a weak gave way to an admiration of his handsome Spanish garrison within Lisbon, and the English person and vivacious disposition. He was made said they would certainly have taken that capital master of the horse, knight of the Garter, and if it had not been for their total want of proper captain-general of the cavalry in 1587, before artillery ! Famine was now added to sickness; he was twenty years of age. Upon the death and Norris, who had disagreed with Drake as to of Leicester ne succeeded at once to the dan- the management of the campaign, thought the gerous post of prime favourite-a post almost as best thing to do was to re-embark and return disagreeable as it was dangerous, for it called home. The young Earl of Essex displayed a for the daily and hourly exercise of flattery romantic bravery, yet the campaign, on the whole, and gallantry towards an old woman, a sort of was exceedingly inglorious. When they counted service which ill suited the frank and impe- | their numbers at Plymouth, more than one-half tuous character of Essex.
of their 20,000 had perished, or were missing. FOO D on Antonio, an illegitimate On his return to court, Essex found that he
· 1000. nephew of Henry, King of Por- had been nearly supplanted in the royal favour tugal, and one of the pretenders to the crown of hy Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Charles Blount,
the latter, second son of Lord Mountjoy, and a " It appears that there were two stories, one being that he was poisoned by his wife; the other, that his death had been
student in the Temple; but he soon prevailed hastened by magic and conjuring.
over these aspirants. Raleigh was sent into
Ireland, where he remained for several years; and, i perfidy and double-dealing; but when the French after fighting a duel with him, Essex contracted king agreed to maintain an offensive and defena great friendship for Blount, who soon after- sive war against Philip, as long as Philip should wards became Earl of Mountjoy. But though remain at war with England, she was fain to be Essex enjoyed the queen’s good graces, and readily' satisfied. obtained gifts and favours for himself, he was Henry IV, derived no very great advantage generally unsuccessful in his applications for his from his war with Spain, to which Elizabeth had friends, being constantly thwarted by the jealousy bound him. He saw Champagne invaded and of the Cecils, and their party. In 1590, when Burgundy threatened, Picardy overrun and DoulWalsingham, the principal secretary, died, Essex lens and Cambrai taken by the Spaniards; and earnestly pressed the claims of the unfortunate in the month of April, 1596, the Archduke AlWilliam Davison, who had been sacrificed to abert, who had succeeded to the government of the state subterfuge; but the “old fox," as Essex Spanish Netherlands, took from him the town called Lord Burghley, was resolved to put his and citadel of Calais. Elizabeth, who had of late son Robert, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, in Wal- been very sparing of her money and troops, was singham's place. The queen, beset by these rival alarmed at the latter conquest, which brought parties, had recourse to one of those middle means the Spaniards, who were again talking of invawhich were familiar to her; she desired Burghley sion, to the very threshold of her own door, and to take upon himself the vacant place, with per- / her grief and consternation were great, as her mission to his son to act as his assistant. Essex, two chief naval commanders, Drake and Hawwho was rather passionate than malicious, soon kins, had died of sickness and vexation in the preforgot the dispute, but it was treasured up in ceding year, in the course of a very unsuccessful the cold, hollow heart of Sir Robert Cecil. About expedition to Spanish America. She now took to this time Essex married the widow of the lamented writing prayers, and Sir Robert Cecil told Essex Sir Philip Sidney, who was a daughter of Wal- that no prayer is so fruitful as that which prosingham. This was gall and wormwood to the ceedeth from those who nearest in nature and queen, who, however, gradually seemed to forget power approach the Alnighty; but the Lord the offence.
Howard of Effingham, thinking that something In the following year, 1591, the earl, whose more was wanting, suggested another attack upon ruling passion was a love of military glory, passed the Spanish coast; and in the month of June, over to France with a small army of 4000 men, 1596, a fleet of 150 sail, with 14,000 land troops, to assist Henry of Navarre, now Henry IV. of sailed from Plymouth. The lord-admiral took the France. Henry, on the death of his predecessor, command of the fleet, and the Earl of Essex of found himself opposed by the French Catholic the army; but to make up for the inexperience League, and obliged to strengthen his right of and rashness of the young earl, he was ordered birth with the right of conquest. He attempted, to submit all important measures to a council of indeed, to disarm the hostility of the Catholic war, composed of Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir George party by large concessions ; but this so incensed Carew, and other tried officers. In the month the Huguenots, who had hitherto been his sup- of June the fleet sailed into Cadiz Bay, and in port, and in whose religion he had been brought defiance of the fire from the forts and battlements up, that they threatened to leave him to the fury and fifteen large men-of-war, they got into the of his enemies. He was forced to abandon for harbour, where, after a fierce fight, which lasted a time the siege of Paris, and to retire into Nor- six hours, three of the largest of the Spanish ships mandy. At this crisis he applied to his old secret were taken, and about fifty sail were plundered ally, Queen Elizabeth, who very opportunely sup- and burned. As soon as this was over, Essex plied him with £20,000 in gold, and with some disenibarked a part of the land force, and on the troops. Essex greatly distinguished himself, and next day he forced the city of Cadiz to capitulate. lost by a musket-shot his only brother, Walter The inhabitants paid 12,000 crowns for their Devereux, to whom he was fondly attached. lives; their houses, their merchandise, their goods Other expeditions were sent over from time to of all kinds were plundered by the conquerors, time, that contributed to check the enemies of and the whole loss sustained by the Spaniards Henry, particularly in Brittany, where the on this occasion was estimated at 20,000,000 duSpaniards, in alliance with the lords of the League, cats. Essex, who was the real hero of this short had landed a considerable force. This war, though campaign, would have retained the conquest, and somewhat costly, and contributing in no very he offered to remain at Cadiz and Isla de Leon lirect manner to any English interest, was very | with 3000 men, but he was overruled, and compopular with the Protestants; but in 1593, Hen- pelled to re-embark, having first seen the fortiry, to secure peace to his throne, embraced the fications razed. Catholic religion. Elizabeth charged him with On the return of this expedition, which was not
absent above ten weeks, dissensions and jealousies the destruction of the new Armada in its own broke out among the commanders, and the queen ports, for the intercepting of the treasure ship was incensed at the small portion of the plunder and the harassing the Spanish coasts and colonies. which was brought to her treasury. The Cecils The command was given to the ardent Essen, had taken advantage of his absence to undermine who had under him Lord Thomas Howard and the great credit of Essex, and now he was insi- Sir Walter Raleigh. The fleet sailed from Plr
mouth in the month of July, 1597, but
it was almost im Sua Maria
mediately driven ELaja
back upon the coast by a tremendous storm, which dis
abled many of the Trocadero
ships. It did not Gagong
get to sea again till the 17th of August, by which time the men had eaten up
all their provisions. tle of St Sebastian The Harbour of
Although Esser Ꮯ Ꭺ D I Ꮓ
• 1 3
Eng Müles captured three SpaSoundinge in fathoma
nish ships, which
were returning diously assailed from all sides, and Sir Walter Ra- | from the Havannah, and which were valued at leigh intrigued against him, and claimed to him- £100,000, and although he took, in the Azores, the self the chief merit of the expedition. Essex was isles of Fayal, Graciosa, and Flores, which the Eng. sinking to rise no more, when a lucky accident | lish could not keep, his expedition was considered came to his assistance. The Spanish treasure 1 a failure. A Spanish fleet had threatened the ships from the New World arrived safely in Spain, English coast in his absence, and on his return the with 20,000,000 dollars on board. Essex main- queen received him with frowns and reproaches. tained that he had projected a voyage from Cadiz The earl, who was further incensed by some steps to Terceira, for the purpose of intercepting this gained in the government by Sir Robert Cecil and rich prize, and that he certainly should have his friends, retired to his house at Wanstead in succeeded in doing so had he not been thwarted Essex, and, under pretence of sickness, refused to and overruled by the creatures of the Cecils. Old go either to court or parliament. But the queen, Burghley, who made some false steps to recover who was constantly quarrelling with him when the good-will of Essex—things almost unaccount- i present, could not bear his prolonged absence, able in such a man—was called to his face a mis- and she got him back by creating him hereditary creant and coward, and driven for a time from earl-marshal. court. Essex was somewhat over-proud and con- ! At this moment Spain, which for some time fident on this victory, but not being capable of had been secretly negotiating with France, inti a lasting hatred, he consented, in the course of a mated that it would gladly include England in a few months, to a regular treaty of peace and general peace, and in the month of May, 1598, amity with the Cecils, which was managed, for Sir Robert Cecil, who had been on a mission to his own purposes, by Sir Walter Raleigh. But Paris, brought direct proposals for a treaty. The in the beginning of the year 1597 Essex quar- Cecils, with all the rest of that tribe, insisted relled with the queen for promoting his personal that these proposals should be entertained, but eneny, Henry Lord Cobham, to the office of the warlike Essex argued hotly for a continuation warden of the Cinque-ports, which he, Essex, had of hostilities. The dispute in the cabinet grew petitioned Elizabeth to grant to his near connec- violent, and old Burghley, losing his temper al tion, Sir Robert Sidney. He left the court, and together, told Essex that he thought of nothing was mounting his horse to go into Wales when but blood and slaughter, and drawing out of the queen pressingly recalled him, and to pacify his pocket a psalm - book, pointed to the words him made him master of the ordnance. Philip "blood-thirsty men shall not live out half their of Spain was now preparing a new Armada. The days." The Cecil party carried the majority of English cabinet resolved to anticipate this attack, the nation with them. In the meanwhile Henry and after some struggles with the queen's eco- IV. of France had signed with Philip the treaty nomy, they fitted out a powerful armament for of Vervins, by which he recovered possession of