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expeditions—the best seamen of the age, were ap- | Lord Howard of Effingham, was a Catholic, they pointed to the command under the high admiral, served in the ranks like common soldiers, or they Lord Howard of Effingham. The entire number embarked in the ships to do the work of common of ships collected on this critical occasion was sailors. When the lord-lieutenants of the dif191; the number of seamen was 17,400, the total ferent counties returned their numbers, it was amount of tonnage being 31,985. The Dutch found that there were under arms 130,000 men, were applied to for their assistance, “and,” says exclusive of the levies furnished by the city of Stow, “they came roundly in with threescore | London. The force assembled at Tilbury Fort sil, brave ships of war, fierce, and full of spleen.” consisted of 22,000 foot and 2000 horse, and beThe fleet was distributed at various points, for it tween them and London were 28,000 men levied could not be known where the enemy would at- for the protection of her majesty's person, comtempt their landing. The lord-admiral, who manded by her kinsman Lord Hunsdon, and guarded the western coast, divided his force into | 10,000 Londoners. A confident hope was enterthree squadrons. Drake was detached towards tained that the feet would be able to prevent Ushant to keep a look-out; Hawkins cruised be- any disembarkation, but it was provided, in case tween the Land's End and Scilly Islands; Lord of a landing, that the country should be laid Henry Seymour cruised along the coast of Flan- waste, and the invaders harassed by incessant ders, blocking up the Spanish ports there; and attacks. The queen never shone to more advanother captains constantly scoured the Channel. tage than at this warlike crisis, and though she

As it was given out that the Spaniards intended kept her person between the capital and the near to sail up the river and strike their first blow at camp at Tilbury Fort, the fame of her brave deLondon, both sides of the Thames were fortified, under the direction of Federico Giambelli, an Italian deserter from the Spanish service. Gravesend was strongly fortified, and a vast number of barges were collected there, for the double purpose of serving as a bridge for the passage of horse and foot between Kent and Essex, and for blocking up the river to

sam the invaders. At Tilbury Port, directly opposite to Gravesend, a great camp was formed. Nor was there less stir and activity inland. There was not a corner of England which did not ring

TILBURY FORT.-From a view by Stanfield. with preparation, and muster its armed force. The maritime counties, portment and her encouraging words were spread from Cornwall to Kent, and from Kent to Lin- everywhere. She reviewed the Londoners, whose colnshire, were furnished with soldiers, both of enthusiasm was boundless; and when the arrival themselves and with the auxiliary militia of the of the Armada was daily expected, she reviewed neighbouring shires, so that, upon any spot where the army at Tilbury Fort, riding a war-horse, a landing might be effected, within the space of wearing armour on her back, and carrying a marforty-eight hours an army of 20,000 men could shal's truncheon in her hand. The Earls of Essex be assembled. The Catholics vied with the Pro- and Leicester held her bridle-rein, while she detestants in activity, in zeal, in patriotism; and livered a stirring speech to the men. “My loving as their gentlemen of rank were generally ex- people," said the queen, “we have been persuaded cluded from command by the jealousies of the by some that are careful of our safety to take heed Protestants, although the lord-admiral himself, how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, Southey's Naval History. In the Armada there were only

for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not three ships of size saperior to the Triumph, the largest of the desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving English ships; but there were forty-five ships ranging from 600 people. Let tyrants fear! I have always so beto 1000 tons; and though the English fleet outnumbered the

haved myself, that, under God, I have placed Armada, ita entire tonnage was less than one-half of that of the

my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal



hearts and good-will of my subjects; and, there- discharge their crews. But Lord Howard of
fore, I am come amongst you at this time, not as Effingham nobly replied to this letter, that, rather
for my recreation and sport, but being resolved than dismantle any of his ships, he would take
in the midst and heat of the battle to live or die upon him to disobey his mistress, and keep them
amongst you all-to lay down for my God, for afloat at his own charge. The admiral now called
my kingdom, and for my people, my honour, and a council of war, wherein it was determined to
my blood, even in the dust. I know that I have sail for the Spanish coast, to complete the de-
but the body of a weak and feeble woman; but struction of the Armada, if so enabled, or to
I have the heart of a king, and of a King of Eng- ascertain, at all events, its real condition. A
land too, and think foul scorn that Parma or brisk north wind soon carried him to Corunna,
Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to whither he chased before him fourteen Spanish
invade the borders of my realms !”! Everything ships which were at sea. Having ascertained
in this camp speech was exciting and appropriate the truth, he became anxious to return, lest a
except a laudation bestowed on the general; for part of their fleet might make the coast of Eng.
her lieutenant was none other than that carpet- land in his absence. Favoured by a change of
knight and most inefficient commander, the Earl, wind, he soon reached his station at Plymouth,
of Leicester.

where he allowed his men a little relaxation ou It had been arranged by the Spanish court shore. On the 19th of July, one Fleming, a Scotthat the Armada should leave Lisbon in the be- tish pirate or privateer, sailed into Plymouth, ginning of May, but the Marquis de Santa Cruz with intelligence that he had seen the Spanish was then sinking under the fever of which he feet off the Lizard. At the moment most of died; and, by a singular fatality, the Duke of the captains and officers were on shore playing Paliano, the vice-admiral, and an excellent officer, at bowls on the Hoe. There was an instant busfell sick and died nearly at the same time. Philip tle, and a calling for the ships' boats, but Drake found a difficulty in replacing these two con- insisted that the match should be played out, manders. After some delay he gave the supreme as there was plenty of time both to win the command to the Duke of Medina-Sidonia, who, game and beat the Spaniards. Unfortunately instead of being the best sailor in Spain, was no the wind was blowing hard in their teeth, but sailor at all, and wholly ignorant of maritime they contrived to warp out their ships. On the affairs. Martinez de Recaldo, who was appointed following day, being Saturday, the 20th of July, vice-admiral, was, however, a seaman of good they got a full sight of the Armada standing experience. At last, the INVINCIBLE ARMADA, as majestically on-the vessels being drawn up in the Spaniards called it in their pride, set sail from the form of a crescent, which, from horn to horn. the Tagus on the 29th of May. It consisted at measured some seven miles. Their great height this time of about 130 vessels of all sizes; 45 of and bulk, though imposing to the unskilled, gave these were galleons and larger ships; 25 were confidence to the English seamen, who reckoned pink-built ships; 13 were frigates. They mounted at once upon having the advantage in tackin. altogether 2431 guns of different calibres. In ad and manæuvring their lighter craft. At first it dition to the mariners, they carried nearly 20,000 was expected that the Spaniards might attemp. land troops, among whom were 2000 volunteers a landing at Plymouth, but the Duke of Mediua of the noblest families in Spain. But this mighty adhered to the plan which had been prescribe! fleet, when steering towards Corunna, where it was to him, and which was to steer quite through to take on board more troops and stores, was the Channel till he should reach the coast of overtaken off Finisterre by a great tempest, and Flanders, where he was to raise the blockade of dispersed. Four large ships foundered at sea; the harbours of Nieuport and Dunkirk, mainthe rest reached Corunna and other ports on that tained by the English and Dutch, make a junccoast, but considerably damaged by the storm. tion with the Duke of Parma, and bring that This occasioned a fresh delay, which, however, prince's forces with him to England. Lond might have proved fatal rather than favourable Howard let him pass, and then followed in his if Elizabeth's advice had been followed by her rear, avoiding coming to close quarters, and watchbrave commanders. A report reached London ing with a vigilant eye for any lucky accident that the enemies’ships had suffered so much that that might arise from cross winds or irregular they could not possibly proceed on their expedi- sailing. And soon a part of the Spanish fleet tion this year; and as the cost of the English fleet was left considerably astern by the main division, was great (though the government only bore a where the Duke of Medina kept up a press of part of it), the queen, from motives of economy, sail, as if he had no other object in view than to made Secretary Walsingham write to the admiral get through the Channel as fast as possible. He to tell him to lay up four of his largest ships, and made signals to the slower ships to keep up, Cabala.

· which they could not, and he still kept every


sail bent. The Disdain, a pinnace, commanded the money amongst the sailors. The Duke of by Jonas Bradbury, now commenced an attack by Medina hove-to, till the slower ships came up, pouring a broadside into one of the laggards. and then all of them, under press of sail, stood Lord Howard, in his own ship, the Ark Royal, en- farther up the Channel. This first brush gave gaged a great Spanish galleon, and Drake, in the great spirit to the English, and there were in it Recenge, Hawkins, in the Victory, and Frobisher, several encouraging circumstances. It was seen, in the Triumph, ranging up gallantly, brought for example, that the tall Spanish ships could into action all the galleons which had fallen astern. not bring their ordnance to bear, firing, for the The rear-admiral Recaldo was with this division, greater part, over the English without touching and fought it bravely; but his lumbering ships them; and that the surer fire of the latter told lay like logs on the water in comparison with the with terrific effect on those huge ships crammed lighter vessels of England, which were manage- with men, soldiers, and sailors. Howard reable and in hand like well-trained steeds. Before turned towards Plymouth, where he was to be any assistance could come from the van, one of joined by forty sail. In the course of the night the great Spaniards was completely crippled, and one of the greatest of the Spanish ships was another-a treasure-ship, with 55,000 ducats burned, purposely, it is said, by a Flemish gunner aboard, was taken by Drake, who distributed on board. It was a dark night with a heavy sea,


THE SPANISH ARMADA. -- From the Tapestry in the House of Lords, engraved by the Society of Antiquaries.

and some of the Spaniards ran foul of each other, | English squadrons cut off a division of the Armato their great mischief.

| da, and crippled every ship in it. Then Howard, On the 233, Howard, who was reinforced, and from the Ark Royal, signalized, and this victorious who had received into his division Sir Walter squadron, by means of sweepers and tow-boats, Raleigh, came up with the whole Armada off was brought into position to the rescue of FroPortland, when a battle began, which lasted bisher. These victorious ships reserved their fire nearly the whole of that day. The English fought till they were close alongside the Spaniards. The loose and at large, avoiding a close combat or darkness of night interrupted the battle: in the boarding. They kept separate, but always in course of the day the English had taken a large motion, tacking and playing about the enemy, Venetian argosy and several transports. Next pouring in their fire and then sheering out of day the Spaniards showed small inclination to range, returning before the Spaniards had time renew the fight; and it was apparent that they to reload, giving them another broadside, and wished to hold on to the place appointed for their then sheering off as before. According to Sir junction with the Duke of Parma. The English, Walter Raleigh, Sir Henry Wotton compared it on their side, were not in tighting condition, for, all to a morrice-dance upon the waters! But by a shameful parsimony, they had been poorly once or twice the dying away of the wind ren- supplied with gunpowder, and by this time they dered these maneuvres impracticable. A divi. had burned all they had on board. Howard, howsion of five merchantmen, led by the gallant Fro- ever, detached some barques and pinnaces, which bisher in his great ship the Triumph, was cut off returned with a supply towards night; but a day from the rest, and brought to close action for two had been lost. On the morning of the 25th, he whole hours. But, at the same time, one of the came up with part of the Armada, off the Isle of

Wight, where Captain Hawkins took a large and he was hemmed in by 140 English sail“ fit Portuguese galleon. Presently it fell a calm : the for fight, good sailors, nimble and tight for great ships of Spain lay motionless upon the tacking about." The Spaniards, however, were water, and were much too heavy to be towed. well ranged, their greatest ships being placed The English craft, of the lighter kind, were easily seaward, next the enemy, like strong castles, towed by their long boats. When a breeze sprung the lesser being anchored between them and the up, Frobisher was set upon by several galleons, shore. The English found that in this position and was in great peril, but the White Bear and they must fight to disadvantage, but they hit upun the Elizabeth Jonas came up to his relief. Other a stratagem which presently broke this array. ships ranged up on either side, and the battle Eight small ships were gutted, besineared with seemed becoming general, but the English had pitch, rosin, and wild-fire, filled with combustiagain burned all their gunpowder! Having shot bles, and placed under the desperate guidance of away the mainmast, and otherwise shattered the Captain Young and Captain Prouse, who, at the Duke of Medina's own ship, they took advantage dead of night, favoured by wide and tide, led them of the wind and sheered off.

close to the Spanish line, took to their boats, On the morrow, the 26th of July, the Armada fired the trains, and escaped. The Spaniards, sailed up the Channel with a fair breeze: Howard who remembered some terrible fire-ships which hung on their rear, now and then keeping up a had been used against them by the Dutch in the feeble fire. He had resolved not to renew the Scheldt, began to cry, “The fire of Antwerp! struggle till they came to the Straits of Dover, the fire of Antwerp!" Some cut their cables, for he knew that a strong squadron, under Lord others let their hawsers slip, and in haste, fear, Henry Seymour and Sir Thomas Winter, would and confusion, put to sea. In this dreadful disbe ready there to take part in the action. As order the largest of the galeasses ran foul of he followed in the wake of the Spaniards, he re- another ship, lost her rudder, floated about at the ceived ammunition and all proper supplies from mercy of the tide, and was then stranded. When shore; and his force was continually increased by the fire-ships had exploded, and the danger was small ships and men out of all the havens of the over, a gun was fired from the duke's ship as a realm; for the gentlemen of England hired ships signal to the Spaniards to return to their former from all parts at their own charge, and with one position; but the gun was heard by few, because accord came flocking thither. There was a clear “they were scattered all about and driven by sky and a leading wind, which enabled the Span- fear, some into the wide sea, some among the iards to come to anchor before Calais on the 27th. shoals of Flanders." When morning dawned, Hence Medina-Sidonia would have proceeded to the English renewed the attack on the scattered Dunkirk, but he was strongly advised to remain squadrons. One fierce attack was made on the where he was; and he sent, over-land, a messen- great galeass, stranded near Calais, but the small ger to the Duke of Parma, entreating him to de-craft could not board her until the admiral sent tach some fly-boats, without which he could not 100 men in his boats under Sir Amyas Preston. cope with the light and active English ships, and The Spaniards made a brave resistance; but in to hasten the embarkation of his troops, which, the end their captain was shot through the head; he represented, might effect a landing in Eng. they were boarded at all points, cut to pieces, or land under cover of his fire. But both these re- thrown overboard and drowned. In this huge quests were childish and absurd. Although Sey- bottom were found 50,000 ducats. At other mour and most of the English ships had left the places, Drake, Hawkins, Raleigh, Cumberland, station to co-operate with Howard, a small divi- Seymour, and Frobisher, gained many advansion remained with the Dutch, who closed Parma's tages. One of the capital ships of the Armada, only outlets, Nieuport and Dunkirk, and who a large galleon of Biscay, sank under the English were more than sufficient to scatter and sink his fire. The San Matteo, commanded by Diego flat-bottomed boats, if they had put to sea. But, Pignatelli, a Neapolitan, in attempting to cover besides that these boats, which had been hastily another ship, was raked by the Rainbow and constructed with bad materials, were already rot- Vanguard, and finally compelled to surrender by ting and falling to pieces, disease had broken out a decisive broadside from a heavy Dutchman. among the land-troops, and owing to the delayed Another great Spaniard, dismantled and rent, arrival of the Armada, their provisions were al- drifted, fell ashore, and was taken by the marimost exhausted. Thus Parma could do nothingners of Flushing. Two ketches foundered at sea. till the blockade was cleared and proper ships Still, however, the rest of the fleet rallied, and with provisions were supplied to him. When he the Spaniards, who had shown no deficiency of had lost a whole day, the Duke of Medina courage, cried for revenge: but the Duke of Me thought of making for Dunkirk; but in the mean-dina-Sidonia had had enough of this war, and while Seymour and Winter had joined Howard, calling a council, he resolved to make his way

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1. Silver Medal struck in Holland. 2, 3. Reverse and Obverse of Silver Medal of Queen Elizabeth 4 Gold Medal of

Queen Elizabeth. 5 Silver Medal struck in Holland 6,7. Reverse sides of two Silver Medals, called Middelburg Jettons, struck in Holland

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