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STUDENT'S

HISTORY OF ENGLAND

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO 1885

BY

SAMUEL R. GARDINER, DC.L., LL.D.

FELLOW OF MERTON COLLEGE, OXFORD

ETC.

VOL I.

B.C. 55—A.D. 1509

NEW IMPRESSION

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CQ..
39 PATERNOSTER ROW,; LONDON
NEW YORK AND BOMBĄY,

1869

All rights reservier

WORKS

BY

SAMUEL RAWSON GARDINER, D.C.L. LL.D.

HISTORY OF ENGLAND, from the Accession of James I.

to the Outbreak of the Civil War, 1603-1642. 10 vols. crown 8vo.

6s, each. A HISTORY OF THE GREAT CIVIL WAR, 1642-1649.

4 vols. crown 8vo. 6s. each. A HISTORY OF THE COMMONWEALTH AND PROTECTORATE. 1649-1660.

Vol. I. 1649-1651. With 14 Maps. 8vo. 215.

Vol. II. 1651-1654. With 7 Maps. 8vo. 215. WHAT GUNPOWDER PLOT WAS: a Reply to Father

Gerard. With 8 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 55. CROMWELL'S PLACE IN HISTORY. Founded on Six

Lectures delivered in the University of Oxford. Crown 8vo. 35. 6d.
A STUDENT'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. From the

Earliest Times to 1885.
Vol. I. (B.C. 55-A.D. 1509.) With 173 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 45.
Vol. II. (1509-1689.) With 96 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 45.
Vol. III. (1689--1885.) With 109 Illustrations.

Crown 8vo. 45.
Complete in One Volume, with 378 Illustrations, crown 8vo. 125.
A SCHOOL ATLAS OF ENGLISH HISTORY. Edited

by SAMUEL Rawson GARDINER, D.C.L. LL.D. With 66 Coloured Maps and 22 Plans of Battles and Sieges. Fcp. 4to. 55.

* This Atlas is intended to serve as a companion to Mr. S. R. Gardiner's 'Student's History of England.' In addition to the historical maps of the British Isles, in whole or in part, are others of Continental countries or districts which were the scenes of events connected more or less closely with English History. Indian and Colonial development also obtain due recognition. THE FIRST TWO STUARTS AND THE PURITAN

REVOLUTION, 1603-1660. 4 Maps. Fcp. 8vo. 25. 6d. THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR, 1618-1648. With a Map.

Fcp. 8vo. 29. 6d. OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY, B.C. 55-A.D. 1895.

With 67 Woodcuts and 17 Maps. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, 1789-1795.

S. R. GARDINER. With 7 Maps. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d.

By Mrs.

LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO. 39 Paternoster Row, London

New York and Bombay.

PREFACE

THE PRESENT WORK is intended for such students as have already an elementary knowledge of the main facts of English history, and aims at meeting their needs by the use of plain language on the one hand, and by the avoidance, on the other hand, of that multiplicity of details which is apt to overburden the memory.

At the close of the book I have treated the last eleven years, 1874 to 1885, in a manner which precludes all expression of my own views, either on the characters of the actors or on the value of the work performed by them; and something of the same reticence will be observed in the pages dealing with the years immediately preceding 1874. We have not the material before us for the formation of a final judgment on many points arising in the course of the narrative, and it is therefore better to abstain from the expression of decided opinion, except on matters so completely before the public as to leave no room for hesitation. Especially is this rule to be observed in a book addressed to those who are not yet at an age when independent investigation is possible.

vergir Frizzell & Br.

I hope it will be understood that in my mention of various authors I have bad no intention of writing a history of literature, however brief. My object has been throughout to exhibit

that side of literature which connects itself with the general political or intellectual movement of the country, and to leave unnoticed the purely literary or scientific qualities of the writers mentioned. This will explain, for instance, the total omission of the name of Roger Bacon, and the brief and, if regarded from a different point of view, the very unsatisfactory treatment of writers like Dickens and Thackeray.

Those of my readers who have complained that no maps were to be found in the book may now be referred to a "School Atlas of English History,' recently edited by me for Messrs. Longmans & Co. To include an adequate number of maps in this volume would have increased its size beyond all fitting limits.

In the spelling of Indian names I have not adopted the modern and improved system of transliteration. Admirable as it is when used by those who are able to give the right sound to each letter, it only leads to mispronunciation in the mouths of those who are, as most of the readers of this volume will be, entirely in the dark on this point. The old rough method of our fathers at least ensures a fair approximation to the true pronunciation.

My warmest thanks are due to Mr. GEORGE Nutt, of Rugby, and to the Rev. W. HUNT. Mr. Nutt not only looked over the proof-sheets up to the death of Edward I. with excellent results, but gave me most valuable advice as to the general arrangement of the book, founded on his own long experience of scholastic teaching. The Rev. W. Hunt looked over a considerable portion of the remaining proof-sheets, and called my attention to several errors and omissions which had escaped my eye.

The illustrations have been selected by Mr. W. H, ST. JOHN

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HOPE, Assistant-Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries. He wishes to acknowledge much valuable assistance given to him in the choice of portraits by GEORGE SCHARF, Esq., C.B., F.SA., who is recognised as the highest authority on the subject.

I am indebted to Her Majesty the QUEEN for permission to engrave two of the portraits appearing in the following pages

- viz., those of Bishop Fisher, on p. 393, and the Duke of Norfolk, on p. 410—the originals in both cases being at Windsor Castle

I have to thank Earl SPENCER for permission to engrave the portrait on p. 362 ; the Earl of Essex for that on p. 476 ; the Earl of WARWICK for that on p. 403 ; the Earl of CARLISLE for that on p. 459; the Viscount Dillon, F.S.A., for that on p. 376; the Hon Sir SPENCER PONSONBY-FANE, K.C.B., for that on p. 365 ; Sir John FARNABY LENNARD, Bart., for that on p. 463 ; Dr. Evans for those on pp. 2, 4, 6 ; EDWARD HUTH, Esq., for that on p. 387 ; Mrs. DENT, of Sudeley, for that on p. 395 ; H. Hucks Gibbs, Esq., for that on p.419 ; T. A. HOPE, Esq., for that on p. 487 ; E B. NICHOLSON, Esq., for the portrait of Lord Burghley in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, engraved at p. 479; the authorities of the University of Cambridge for that on p. 477 ; of Jesus College, Cambridge, for that on p. 414 ; and of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, for that on p. 567 ; and the Treasurer of Christ's Hospital, London, for the portrait of Charles II. on p. 579. I have also to thank Mr. John MURRAY for permission to engrave the figures on pp. 130, 150, 160, 166, 177, 188, 260 ; Messrs. PARKER & Co., Oxford, for those on pp. 19, 51, 75, 91, 107, 128, 170, 192, 197, 230, 245, 246, 247, 253, 409, 451 ; Mr. W. Nives for those at pp. 381, 409, 451 ; Mr. J. G. WALLER for those on pp. 219, 229, 292, 298, 515 ; Mr. BRUCE for those on pp. 17, 18, 21 ; Messrs. Poulton & Sons, Lee, for those on pp. 7,

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