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musical compositions, among which the best known are those of Palestrina, Pergolesi, and Haydn. There is a literature of essays and critical discussions of the history, authorship, and merits of the
poem. It is ascribed by Benedict XIV., De Festis Jesu Christi, 2, c. 4, § 5, to Pope Innocent III., who died in 1216—the pope to whom the English King John submitted, the most learned and able man of his age, and under whom the papal power reached its height. Mone and Wackernagel both accept the statement, and select stanzas 1,4, 3, 5, 7, 9, somewhat moditied, as the original hymn, which they think was supplemented and brought to its later form by Jacopone. Mone complains that so little critical study has been given to the hymn itself; but, aside from the questions of original text, which include those on a large number of various readings, there seems little difficulty or remote suggestion, or even subtle Biblical allusion in it. It is simple Mariolatry, most of it. It is familiarly known as the “Stabat Mater" and the “Mater Dolorosa."
Theme. The Mother of Christ at his Cross.
Line 1, 2. Stabat mater juxta crucem: John xix., 25. “Stabat ante crucem mater, et, fugientibus viris, stabat intrepida; spectabat piis oculis filii vulnera.” Ambrose, De Inst. Virg., c. 7, $ 49.—Dolorosa, lacrymosa : “Stantem illam lego, flentem non lego." Ambrose, De Ob. Valent., 39; Mone, 2, 149. The Greek
rice often speaks of her as weeping: παρίστατο το ξύλο ή παρgévos klaiovoa, Oct. 17. So Sprvwdovoa, Jan. 22, Oct. 6.--4. Cuius (matris).—10, 11. Note the effect of the repeated rhymes.—16. Non-contristari.—19-24. Mark xv., 15–34.–Suae, his. Matt. i., 21.–30. Sibi, to Christ.—Complaceam: con-, i. e., cum te.—32. Crucifixi, the crucified.-34-37. Divide poenas nati.-Dignati, deigning.–40-42. Desidero stare. For line 41, others read “Meque tibi sociare.”—46. Portem, bear about. 2 Cor. iv., 10.—47. Fac (me), consorten passionis, et (also) recolere (to experience) plagas. For plagas some read poenam.-50. Inebriari. See note on line 23, Hymn III., p. 226.-52. Inflammatus, kindled by the love of Christ.—55-57. In place of these lines, other copies read:
“ Christe, cum sit hinc transire,
Ad palmam victorine.''
HYMN II. In Königsfeld, with a German translation, Lat. Hymnen und Gesänge, 2, 242; Seven Great Hymns, p. 118, with Neale's translation into English ; Christ in Song, p. 97, two verses. The hymn was first made known by Ozanam, Les Poëtes Franciscains en Italie au troisième siècle, Paris, 1852. It is spoken of as “the Mater Speciosa,” a “companion-hymn,” a “twin sister of Mater Dolorosa," " the product of the same genius," and the like. It is really a rather servile parody, which a great author would hardly make of a great poem of his own.
Theme. The Mother of Christ at the Manger of Bethlehem.
Line 1. Luke ii.,7.—2. Gaudiosa=gaudens, late Lat.-6. Iubilus, i. e., iubilum (not found elsewhere).—24. Diversorio, inn, Luke ii., 7.-28. Senex, Joseph.-Puella, Mary.—30. Stupescentes agrees with senex cum puella, as though cum were et. H., 438, 6; A. and G., 47, 1; M., 403, b.—44. Iesuline, a double diminutive from Iesus, Iesulus; see puerino, line 47. -inus was not a diminutive in the old Latin; it meant formed from, descended from; but we pass easily from younger to smaller. Diminutives in -inus occur as early as the eighth century, and are common in Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. See Diez. Rom. Gram., III., 314, 315.—54. Tradere vitam, to give life to men.—56. Nato : Christ.—57. Tripudio, from tripudium, joy, delight. Dict. Med. Latin.-Stantem: others, stans.
HYMN III. In Königsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesänge, 1, 128; Trench, p. 264; Bernardi, Op., 2, 913; Mohnike, Hymnol, Forschungen, 2, 173. Translations in Hymns to the Virgin and to Christ, Early English Text Society's publication, p. 36; The Paradise of Dainty Devices, poem I.; and Tusser.
Theme. The Vanity of the World.
Line 1. Sub, over, concerning. Dict. Med. Lat.–5. Fide: imperative.—6. Plus quam fallaciae.-9. Vitris: others, viris veracibus.—13. Dic, ubi Salomon, etc., will remind the Anglo-Saxon student of Alfred's meters :
Hpåêr sind nû þæs pisan Dêlandes bân,
Rômânâ pita ...
Brûtus nemned ? Hpâr is eâc se pîsa and se peorðgeorna, cene and craftig, þæm pæs Catôn nama ?
March's Anglo-Saxon Reader, p. 65. -13. Salomon, the common spelling in Latin, Greek, and other languages. 1 Kings iv., 34 (=v., 14).-14. Judges xiii. xvi.15. Absalon, a common corruption of Absalom, the spelling in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew of the Bible. 2 Samuel xiii.-xviii.16. 1 Samuel xviii.-xxiii. 18. Dives: Luke xyi. The Latin word for rich man, erroneously taken as a proper name.-20. Trench compares the foll wing lines from funeral John of Damascus:
« πού εστίν ή του κόσμου προσπάθεια ;
πάντα κόνις, πάντα τέφρα, πάντα σκιά.” -24. Claudentur: others, clauduntur.—26. Eius: the world's. -27. Quae (gaudia).-30. Ros: Hos. vi., 4; xiii., 3.—Extolleris : passive.—33. Tanti : price.-34. Flos: Job xiv., 2; Psalm ciii., 15; Isaiah xxviii., 1-4; 1 Peter i., 24.--35, 36. Luci subtrahitur, is taken from the light into the dark grave. Similar was the heathen Anglo-Saxon's comparison of life to the flight of a sparrow through a banqueting-hall on a stormy winter night-a glance, and he is gone into the night—a comparison better suited to a heathen than a Christian. Beda, Hist. Ec., 2, 13; March's Ang.-Sax, Reader, p. 39.
XXXII. THOMAS À KEMPIS. Life.—THOMAS HAMERKEN was born in 1380, in the diocese of Cologne, at Kempen, or Kampen, and is hence called À KEMPIS. He became an inmate of the monastery of Mount St. Agnes, and spent much time in copying-fifteen years, it is said, on one copy of the Bible. He wrote various ascetic and devotional treatises, and among them, as is generally believed, The Imitation of Christ,“ next to the Bible the most widely diffused and oftenest reprinted book in the world.” Trench, p. 321. He wrote a few poems. He died in 1471.
HYMN I. Wackernagel, 1, 225; Königsfeld, with German translation, 2, 254.
Line 1-8. “Prosperity is the blessing of the Old Testament, adversity is the blessing of the New, which carrieth the greater benediction, and the clearer revelation of God's favor." Bacon, Essay on Adversity.-3, 4.
"Satan now is wiser than of yore,
Theme. The Joys of Heaven.
“O, qualis quantaque laeticia
Laeto vultu, dulci melodia."
Archangeli; a full description of which may be found in Greg., M. Hom. in Evang., 2, 34, 10; Mone, 1, 442, 443.
XXXIII, IOHANNES MAUBURNUS. Life.-.MAUBURNE, or MOMBOIR (JEAN), was born at Brussels in 1460; was a friend and correspondent of Erasmus, and the author of several ascetic treatises, from one of which, the Rosetum Spirituale, the following hymn is taken. He died abbot of the cloister of Livry, near Paris, in 1502.
THE HYMN. In Daniel, 1, 335; Königsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesänge, 2, 252; Trench, p. 114. A translation by Mrs. Charles in Christian Life in Song, p. 174. It is from a poem of thirteen stanzas, and was early used in this forın as a Christmas Hymn. It continued to be a great favorite in the Protestant churches as long as they sang Latin hymns. An old translation is still used in Germany:
“Warum liegt in Krippelein." Theme. The Nativity.
Line 11-20., an answer to the first stanza.-13. Quod (genus), occidit se noxâ sceleris profani.-15. Inopiis, i, e., stabulo, penuria, etc.—17. Pergo ditare: I am going to enrich thee. Note the idiom, like the English; the French, Je vais lire; the AngloSaxon, Ic gå rêdan, and the like. March's Anglo-Saxon Grammar, 415, 4.
XXXIV. AUCTORES INCERTI. The approximate date, and any suggested authorship, will be mentioned with each hymn.
HYMN I. In Daniel, 1, 334; Wackernagel, 1, 198–201, gives ten forms; Trench, p. 97. There are many old German forns ; in English there is a translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song,