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Scott was heard to repeat parts of the original hymn on his death-bed.—52-58. These lines adapt the hymn to the service. See them on p. 294.-55. Ergo: the day will be tearful, therefore I cry parce. Huic, guilty man; the race. See older line, p. 294. –57. Requie, oftener requiem, but the rhyme and the common construction of dona favor requie. See note on dono, p. 261, I., 15.

XXIX. BONAVENTURA. Life.—John of Fidanza was born at Bagnarca in Tuscany, 1221. He was educated at Paris, and there entered the order of Franciscans, under the name of Bonaventura, said to have been given by an exclamation of St. Francis, by whose prayers he had recovered from illness, and who greeted him with buona ventura, i. e., good luck. He was made professor of theology at Paris, 1245; in 1256, general of his order; 1273, cardinal of Alba. He died, 1274, at Lyons, attending a council with Pope Gregory X. He was called “Doctor Seraphicus,” and regarded as the greatest scholar among the Franciscans. Among his works are a life of St. Francis, " The Progress of the Mind towards God," and much poetry. Dante gives him a place in his Paradise.

HYMN I. In Daniel, 2, 101; Königsfeld, 1, 151. Translations in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 165; by Dr. J. W. Alexander; by Dr. Harbaugh. Schaff pronounces it the best of the hymns of Bonaventura.

Theme. The Holy Cross, and Dying.

Line 1. Crucis: H., 406, 11; A. and G., 50, 4, a; M., 315.-3. Delectare iugiter, continual delight, obj. of ducis; viam is a factitive object.–40. Eruuntur, are drawn forth, or led out of wretchedness.

In Mone, 1, 114, 115; Wackernagel, 1, 140. Translation by
Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 176.

Theme. The Hours of the Passion.
Primam (horam), the first canonical hour, following the lauds,

which follow matins. Mark xv., 1.-Line 1. Velatus : “Christus velamine corporis splendorem maiestatis suae, quem visus hominum non ferebat, obtexit.” Leon., M., Serm. 25, 2.—2. Sol: Malachi iv., 2.-3. Illusus: Mark xv., 19.—4. Caesus: Luke xxii., 64.—Tertiam : 9 o'clock. Mark xv., 25.-Sextam: 12 o'clock. Mark xv., 33.—Nonam: Mark xv., 34.—Completorium: the last service of the day. See p. 234, note on Hymn VIII.

HYMN III. In Daniel, 1, 340 (the beginning); Mone, 1, 113; Königsfeld, 2, 208, with German translation. The last line of each stanza is taken from one of the Ambrosian hymns—a common artifice.

Theme. The Passion.

Line 6. This is from a hymn in Daniel, 1, 247.–12. Hymn V. of Ambrosiani, p. 25.-18. Hymn III. of Ambrosiani, p. 22.-24. In Daniel, 1, 74.-30. Hymn IV. of Hilarius, p. 5.

HYMN IV. Bonaventurae Opera, vi., 424; Trench, p. 146. Theme. The Passion.

Line 1. Hamum: the use of this figure in regard to Satan, as in Hymn VIII. of Ambrose (see note on p. 229), is more common, and more pleasing than in regard to Christ.–17. Pavit, he fed. -26. Ad quid, to why, to the reason why.—27. Alas crucis.27, 28. Nec (ignavus) attendit quod (Christus) praetendit hoc (cor) vices reclinatorii.-Reclinatorium, i, n, a little table on which the sacred vessels are placed at sacrament; here, the food set on a table, a repast. Lex. Med. Latin.

XXX. THOMAS AQUINAS. Life.—THOMAS AQUINAS was born at Aquino, Naples, about 1225, of noble family. At sixteen he became the pupil of Albertus Magnus and joined the Dominicans. He taught and preached at Paris and Rome, and his fame filled Europe, but he steadily refused preferment. He died in 1274. He left many works on theology, morals, and metaphysics. He is called the Angelic Doctor, and is the most eminent of the Dominicans, and the ablest of all the schoolmen.

HYMN I. In Daniel, 1, 255; Mone, 1, 275; Wackernagel, 1, 145. A translation by Neale, Mediaeval Hymns, p. 176.

Theme. The Eucharist.

Line 1. Deitas : Mone reads veritas.3, 4. “Haec est laus fidei, si, quod creditur, non videtur." Augustine in Ev. John, 79, 1.–12. Domine, memento mei, cum veneris in regnum tuum. Luke xxiii., 42.-13. John xx., 24–29.–18. John vi., 35–48.20. Illi (menti).—21. Pelicane: it was believed that the pelican, when other food fails, gives its own blood to its young for food. Hence Christ is often compared to the pelican, and the figure of it was often used in the decoration of churches.—26. Quando fiet: when shall come to pass. Others read oro: fiat.

HYMN II. In Daniel, 2, 97; Mone, 1, 276; Wackernagel, 1, 143. Extracts translated in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 586, where see other translations mentioned, p.

584. Theme. The Body of Christ.

Line 5. Supply est.—11. Fratrum, fraternitas are common words for Christians among the early fathers, as with us.-21. Phase (Sept. Gr., pacéx; 2 Chron. xxxv., 1, from Hebrew for pascha)-indeclinable, neuterthe passover, the Lord's Supper. Phasis, in the same sense, is given in the Med. Lat. Dict.—23. Umbra: compare line 9, Hymn VIII., p. 146, and the note. — 25-27. Luke xxii., 19; 1 Cor. xi., 25.-29, 30. In hostiam salutis : “ Offerimus hostiam puram, hostiam sanctam, hostiam immaculatam, panem sanctum vitae aeternae et calicem salutis perpetuae.” The Latin service. For the English word host, from hostia, see Webster's Dict.–31. Dogma: transubstantiation.—36. Praeter, etc., outside of the natural order.—40-48. An application to the wafer of the scholastic statement of the omnipresence of God: “All in the whole and all in every part.”—52. Mors est malis : 1 Cor. xi., 29.—57-62. Transubstantiation, as in 46-48. The words tegitur, scissura, are perhaps suggested by the seamless coat of Christ (John xix., 23, 24), but there is no distinct use of that fig. ure.—59. Rei, the substance, Christ.–60. Signi, the phenomenal appearance of the bread.—62. Signati: Christ.--63. Panis ange. lorum: Psalm lxxviii., 25; John vi., 32.–64. Luke xi., 3. See viaticum, in Webster.—65, 66.

26.-68. Gen. xxii.69. Exod. xii.-70. Exod. xvi.; Rev. ii., 17.—78. Commensales (con and mensalis), table companions, communicants. Med. Lat. Dict. For tuos others read tu nos.

Matt. XV.,

Neale says:

HYMN III. In Daniel, 1, 251; Wackernagel, 1, 145. Translations in Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 178; Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 584, where other translations are mentioned.

" This hymn contests the second place among those of the Western Church, with the 'Vexilla Regis,' the 'Stabat Mater,' the “Jesu dulcis Memoria,' the 'Ad Regias Agni Dapes,' the ‘Ad Supernam, and one or two others, leaving the 'Dies Irae' in its unapproachable glory.”

Theme. The Body and Blood of Christ.

Line 1. Pange, frame in song. See Hymn I. of Fortunatus, p. 64, from which this opening is imitated.—4. Quem (sanguinem). -In pretium, for the ransom.--5. Fructus : appositive with Rer. -9. Conversatus: deponent.--10. Matt. xiii., 37.-11, 12. He closed in a wonderful method (ordine) the protracted periods of his sojourn.-13. Luke xxii., 20.–15. Legalibus : prescribed by the law of Moses.-17, 18, See lines 10, 11 of Hymn II., p. 165. --Cibum, appositive with se.—19, 20. Verbum caro (the Word made flesh) efficit verbo panem (esse) verum carnem.-21. Merum (pure wine), fit sanguis.-22. Though our senses fail to discern the change.—26. Cernui, bowed we revere.—27. Documentum, showing, shadow, the Passover,

HYMN IV, In Daniel, 2, 369; Königsfeld, 1, 148. Translations in Schaff's Christ in Song, p.589; in the Andover Sabbath Hymn-book, No. 105, by Ray Palmer; in Shipley's Lyra Eucharistica, p. 174. It is ascribed to Aquinas by Königsfeld and Palmer. It will by seen to be a happy echo of the former hymns.

Theme. The Body of Christ.

Line 1. Line 64 of Hymn II.—2. Line 63, Hymn II.-3. Line 70, Hymn II.-4. Line 73, Hymn II.-5. Dulcedine: H., 419, 2; A. and G., 54, 1.-10. Pota, give drink, refresh. Dict. Med. Lat.17, 18. Aperta acie, with open vision.

XXXI. IACOPONUS. Life.-JACOPONE DA TODI, sometimes called Benedetto and JACOBUS de Benedictis, was born at Todi, in Umbria, of a noble family, in the early part of the thirteenth century. The date is unknown. He became a Franciscan upon the death of his wife, though only a lay brother. He wrote much, and many spiritual songs and satires in Italian have been preserved. The freedom with which he satirized the abuses and vices of the priests drew on him long imprisonments from Boniface VIII. “An earnest humorist, he carried the being a fool for Christ into every-day life.” His extravagances and buffoonery “often leave one in doubt whether he was indeed perfectly sound in his mind, or only a Christian Brutus, feigning folly, that he might impress his wisdom the more deeply, and utter it with more freedom.” Of his Latin poems, only the three here printed are preserved. He died in 1306. His epitaph (1596) reads: “Ossa B. Jacoponi de Benedictis, Tudertini, qui, stultus propter Christum, nova mundum arte delusit, et coelum rapuit.” Trench.

HYMN I. In Daniel, 2, 131–154; Mone, 2, 147–154; Wackernagel, 1, 136, 161; the Breviaries and collections. Translations are numerous in many languages. Lisco (Stabat Mater, Berlin, 1843) gives fifty-three German versions. In English, a translation of part of it is in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 169; a prose translation in Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, p. 208; and there are versions by Lord Lindsay, Caswall, Coles, Benedict, and others. “It is the most pathetic, as the Dies Irae is the most sublime hymn of the Middle Ages, and occupies the second rank in Latin hymnology.” Schaff. It has furnished the text for many renowned

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