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of time, i. e., boundless one in space and time.--Rivus : Psalm xlvi., 4; Rev. xxii., 1.–38. Lapis vivus : 1 Peter ii., 4.-43. Tota negotia (sunt) tonare, (et) conjubilare mala debita (absent), etc. –45. Urbs Syon aurea. Here begins the third hymn in Schaff, the prime favorite in Neale's rendering :

" Jerusalem the golden,

With milk and honey blest,
Beneath thy contemplation

Sink heart and voice opprest.” –51. Syon: undeclined.—53. Afflua, from affuus, abounding, or, as every body now says of every thing, replete with tender (grasses). It is in the last edition of White and Riddle's Dictionary. –59. Debita glorificandis, to be bestowed on those to be glorified, " the accessory of our glorification.”—62. Sorte, by condition, by possession.—67. Nemo sustinet retexere (to build up in imagination), nemoque promere (to express) ore, quo decore tua moenia (sunt) plena.—74. Flagro, love. 75. Meto: I reap to perish, death is my harvest, I deserve to die.-76. Quod : conjunction; supply sum.—84. Unctio : appositive with gratia.—85. David : undeclined.—87. Praesta, grant.-90. Agmine: see line 54.

XXV. PETRUS VENERABILIS. Life.—PETER THE VENERABLE was born about 1092, of a noble family of Auvergne, and was in 1122 elected abbot of Clugny, in Burgundy, which made him chief of a reformed branch of the Benedictine order, the “ black monks.” He caused the Koran to be translated into Latin, that Mohammedanism might be understood and refuted. He received Abelard into his monastery, and brought about a reconciliation between him and St. Bernard. He was probably second only to St. Bernard in general influence. He died in 1156. He left a few poems of some merit and ingenuity. Trench, p. 99.

HYMN I. In Bibliotheca Cluniacensis, p. 1349; Trench, p. 157. A translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 181. Ingenious rhyming seems to have been a favorite occupation at Clugny. Compare the last hymn of Bernard.

Theme. The Resurrection.

Line 1, 2. Fortior (Christ) sustulit vim fortis (Death).–5. For the descent of Christ to Hades, see p. 227, note on Hymn IV., line 19, inferos. — 15. Mi, Satan.-17. Qui, Satan. For the thought that Satan destroyed himself in destroying Christ, see p. 229, note on Hymn VIII., line 25.—21. Die prima, on the first day of the week. John xx., 1.

HYMN II. In Königsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesänge, 2, 166, with a German translation.

Theme. The Resurrection.

Line 8, 9. Reddita, restored by man-and-God, i. c., Christ.–10. Quam (vitam) he bore in himself and conferred on thee.-12. Deposita, set aside, conquered:-14, 15. Dat locum, gives place, yields the throne to human dust, i. e., to Christ.—16, 17. Se praeferet vel conferet, will pretend to be greater than or equal to this.-19. Calcabilis, calco+ -bilis, to be trampled, late Lat.22, 23. Summis virtutibus contremescentibus. Compare lines 13, 14, on p. 71.-25-30. Genesis iii., 5.—32. Potuit: Adam is the subject. This stanza explains the former.-37.“ Hic, quem horrida sedes habuit, meruit tenere paternum solium per Dei Filium," He, whom Hades held, deserves heaven. - 46. Penitus, remote.

-47. Coelitus: adv. from heaven. For the ending -tus, see March's Comparative Anglo-Saxon Grammar, p. 36. This word is common (post classic), though not in Andrews's Lexicon.

XXVI. ADAM DE ST. VICTORE. Life.—ADAM OF St. Victor was born in Britannia, whether Great Britain or Bretagne is not known, nor is the date of his birth. He studied in Paris, and there entered the religious foundation of St. Victor, and died there between 1172 and 1192. Several of his hymns were in early use, but only thirty-seven or thirty-eight were known till M. Gautier examined the manuscripts of the abbey and published 106 hymns (Euvres Poétiques d'Adam de St. Victor. Paris, 1858). Trench says:

“ His profound acquaintance with the whole circle of the theology of his time, and eminently with its exposition of Scripture; the abundant and admirable use, with indeed the drawback already mentioned (too free and curious use), which he makes of it, delivering, as he thus does, his poems from the merely subjective cast of those, beautiful as they are, of St. Bernard; the exquisite art and variety with which for the most part his verse is managed and his rhymes disposed; their rich melody, multiplying and ever deepening at the close; the strength which he often concentrates into a single line; his skill in conducting a story; and, most of all, the evident nearness of the things which he celebrates to his own heart of hearts—all these and other excellences render him, as far as my judgment goes, the foremost among the sacred Latin poets of the Middle Ages.”—P. 57, 58.

Neale thinks,“ if this estimate have a fault, it hardly does this wonderful poet justice.” Rambach calls him “the Schiller of the Middle Ages.” It needs a good deal of peculiar familiarity with poetical pietistic ingenuities to rise to these heights of enthusiasm about him, but, remembering George Herbert, it becomes intelligible. Inexpressible love makes all dallying dear.

Hymn I. In Mone, 2, 85; Gautier, 1, 10; Trench, p. 111; Neale, Sequentiae, p. 80. “The richest and fullest of the Nativity hymns.” Trench.

Theme. The Nativity.

Line 1. “ Christus natus non est per conditionem, sed per potestatem.” Augustine, De Trin., 3, 26; Mone, 2, 86.—3. Factura, the thing made, man. So Factor factus creatura, p. 104, line 38.—6. Locus, aetas, space, time.—7. 'O áxúpntos xwpɛīrai. Mone, 2, 87.-8. Compare Hildebert, p. 104, lines 45–50.—11, 12. Luke ii., 10–13; Matt. iv., 11; Luke xxii., 43; Matt. xxviii., 2.-13-16. Luke ii., 14.–17. Causa, the material cause, the explanation from nature.—Modus, the modal or final cause, the shaping reason. Guilty men are the visible, material cause of the incarnation, the real reason is the will of God, just and kind. “Si veritatem quaeris natura, humanam cognosce materiam, si rationem scrutaris originis, virtutem confitere divinam.” Leo, Serm. 22, 2.17-21. He plays with rei, and conditum, condimentum.-22. Pig. ment is spiced wine-and-honey, Webst.; late Lat.—23, 24. Matt. xxvii., 34; Psalm lxix., 21.-26-28. Luke x., 34.–29-32. 2 Kings iv., 7–37. See St. Bernard on Elisha as a type of Christ, in Cant. Serm., 15, 16; Mone.-33. Gigas: see p. 12, Hymn IV. of Ambrose, line 15, and the note, p. 227.-35, 36. Matt. xviii., 13; Luke xv., 3–7.–38. Orco: abl. of separation.-Lapsum pomo,

Genesis iïi.—39, 40. The parable of the ten pieces of silver was interpreted to relate to the nine ranks of angels who were not lost, and the one race of men who were. Luke xv., 7-9.



HYMN II. In Daniel, 2, 68; Gautier, 1, 82 ; Trench, p. 153; Königsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesänge, 1, 134, with translation into Ger

Translation into English by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 183.

Theme. The Resurrection of Christ. The coincidence of the natural and spiritual spring.

Νύν έαρ κοσμικών, έαρ πνευματικόν" έαρ ψυχαίς, έαρ σώμασιν· ίαρ ópápevov, fap áóparov. - Gregory of Nazianzum, Easter Sermon : Trench, p. 153.

Line 7. Sollemnia, festivities of spring at Easter.–12. Alta, heights, upper regions.—14. Renovantur, are renewed so as to freely exhibit their qualities.-23. Princeps mundi, Satan. John xiv., 30.—27. Quo, Christ. John xiv., 30.-33. Praebet: cherubim is sometimes incorrectly used as a singular. Perhaps we should read praebent, or the punctuation may be changed so as to read (Vita, Christ) “praebet viam facilem amovendo versatilem gladium cherubim.” Cherubim: undeclined, genitive plural. — 34. Versatilem: Genesis iii., 24.

In Trench, p. 175. A translation in Mrs. Charles's Christian
Life in Song, p. 187, where it is given, I know not on what
grounds of external evidence, to Adam of St. Victor.

Theme. The Holy Ghost.
Line 3. Coelitus, from heaven. See note on line 47 of Hymn

II. of Petrus Venerabilis, p. 282.–4. Donum was used as a proper name of the Holy Ghost, the gift by eminence. So Augustine (Enchir., 12), Aquinas (Sum. Theol., 1, 38), and elsewhere. – 5. Digitus, the finger, that wrote the law. See line 10 of Hymn VI. of Gregory, on p. 77, and the note, p. 260. Other copies read Rex for lex.-9, 10. Septiforme donum septiformis gratiae. Isaiah xi., 2. See, on p. 260, note on line 9 of Gregory's Hymn.-11. Septifarius, late adj., sevenfold beatitudes. Matt. v., 3–10.-12. The seven petitions of the Lord's Prayer. Matt. vi., 9; Luke xi., 2-4. “Septem ergo petitiones in Dominica Oratione, ut septem dona mereamur Spiritus Sancti, quibus recipiamus septem virtutes, per quas, a septem vitiis liberati, ad septem perveniamus beatitudines.” Hugh of St. Victor.–13. Nix: Isaiah i., 18. Compare note on lues, p. 242, line 12 of Hymn I.–14. Ignis: Exod. iii., 2.--15. Pugil, wrestler. Genesis xxxii., 24.–16. Propinator, -is, m., giver of drink first, then giver of other things, from propino, which is in the dictionaries. Luke xxi., 15.–18. Flamen, Spiritus, common in the Hymns.

HYMN IV. In Daniel, 2,73; Gautier, 1, 115; Trench, p. 187. It is simple as need be except in its rhyming.

Theme. The Holy Ghost.

Line 25. Supply est.-66. Disparitas, -tatis, f., inequality, late Latin. See disparity in Webster's Dictionary. Supply est.

HYMN V. In Daniel, 2, 84; Gautier, 2, 425; Wackernagel, 1, 128; Trench, p. 62; and elsewhere. It usually begins with a stanza here omitted:

“Iucundare, plebs fidelis,” etc. Translation in Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 107.

Theme. The Holy Evangelists, as seen in Rev. iv., 6-8; Ezek. i., 4-28; X.,

9-22. Line 1-4. Animalia (5ữa), living creatures, rather than “beasts.Rev. iv., 6.45-8. Rev. iv., 7.-9-16. The distribution of the living creatures to the evangelists here made is that of Jerome (Comm. in Ezek. i.; Prol. in Matt. ; Ep. 50), Ambrose (Prol. in

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