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tion of Gabri-el as the strength of God, see the dictionaries in Cruden's Concordance, Webster, Gesenius's Hebrew Dict., p. 177, 173.--4. Suum: others read suam, his own fortitude, an archangel. Fortitudo must be used as a sort of proper name.—6. Ex. pediat, he (amator hominis) dispatched. 9. Praejudicium, that he may do injury to nature, or possibly make an exception to nature.–14. Zyma (Suun), leaven, 1 Cor. v., 8, accusative singular undeclined; not in the dictionaries. Adam of St. Victor has a hymn beginning Zyma vetus expurgetur, “Let the old leaven be purged out.” Neale, Mediaeval Hymns, p. 118.–22. Mundanum principem : John xii., 31.—28-30. The words of the angel to Mary are taken from the Old Testament. He makes their meaning plain.--32. Dan. ix., 23.--33. Dan. x., 11.-34. Judges vi., 12.-36. Isaiah vii., 14. Some texts read:

“ Virgo, concipies

Magnum Emanuel,
In quo conficiet
Cuncta bonus Pater,

Ut oves liberet." -46-50. Isaiah ix., 6.

XXIII. BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. Life.—ST. BERNARD was born 1091, at Fontaine, a castle and lordship of his father, near Dijon, in Burgundy. He was educated for the Church, and became in 1113 a monk of Citeaux, and in 1115 first abbot of Clairvaux. He founded it in a wretched region called the Valley of Wormwood, but it came to be known as Clara Vallis, whence Clarval, and also CLAIRVAUX. He refused further preferment, but was one of the most influential men in Europe. He prevailed on the French and English kings to recognize Innocent II. as pope, preached the crusade of 1146, put down heresies (notably those of Abelard), and wrote many sermons, epistles, religious treatises, and poems. In eloquence and personal influence he was one of the first of men. He was called Doctor Mellifluous. He died in 1153, and was canonized in 1174.

HYMN I. In Daniel, 2, 359; Mone, 1, 162; Wackernagel, 1, 120; Trench, p. 137. Translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 161. This and the two next pieces are taken from a poem of seven parts, containing nearly four hundred lines, addressed to the members of Christ on the Cross : “Omnia quae omnes divini amoris spirant aestus atque incendia, ut nil possit suavius dulciusque excogitari." Daniel.

Theme. Christ on the Cross ; His Feet.

Line 8. Mundum: others, nudum.15. Meorum: others, tuorum.—32. Fixuras : the wounds of nails.


HYMN II. In Daniel, 1, 232; Wackernagel, 1, 124; Trench, p. 139. Translations: a famed version in German, by Paul Gerhardt:

O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden.” In English, by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 159; Schaff's Christ in Song, p. 162; Alexander, and others. It is the best of the seven passion hymns mentioned at Hymn I.

Theme. The Face of Christ on the Cross.

Line 7. Immutatus : Isaiah lii., 14.–19. Intersignum, proof, late Lat.—23. Judges, xiv., 8, 9.-31, 32. I should rejoice that I am associated with thy holy passion.—46. Emigrare: Emigravit is the inscription on the tombstone where he lies ; Dead he is not, but departed.



HYMN III. Another of the seven passion hymns described at Hymn I. It is in Daniel, 4, 227; Wackernagel, 1, 123. A translation in Schaff's Christ in Song, p. 410.

Theme. The Heart of Christ.

Line 5. Animes: optative; may you inspire me that I may speak to you.—21. Praedilectum, much loved; praediligo appears in the late Latin, and predilection is in the Romanic languages.22. Illectum, beguiled.—24, Timoratum, devout, Luke ii., 25.35. Quid patitur: pregnant with a negative; he suffers nothing.

Bernardi Opera, ed. Ben., ii., 915; Trench, p. 255.
Theme. The Vanity of the World.

Line 1. Omnis homo foenum : Isaiah xl., 6.—3. Ut quid, a translation of 'iva , that what (may be done), why. Psalm 8., 1; lxxiv., 1. Gildersleeve.-5. Psalm ciii., 15.–6. Eccles. iii., 20.8. Detrimenta : playing with the resemblance in sound to incrementa.--10. Job xiv., 2.–13. Sound etymology.–14. James iv., 14.–29. Gal. vi., 7.

HYMN V. Königsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesänge, 2, 202, with a German translation. A companion-picce to Hymn IV.

Theme, Vanity of Vanities.
Line 8. Judges xv., 14; Nahum i., 10.

HYMN VI. In Daniel, 1, 227; Mone, 1, 329; Wackernagel, 1, 117; Trench, p. 246; and elsewhere. The original has in Daniel 200 lines ; Trench gives 60, picking and arranging, as do others. The Roman Breviary takes from it three separate hymns, the second beginning with “Iesu, Rex admirabilis,” line 25; the third with “ Iesu, decus angelicum,” line 49. Translations many, beginning with the old German. In English, Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 163; Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 405; Neale, R. Palmer, J. W. Alexander, and others. Schaff describes it as “the sweetest and most evangelical (as the Dies Irae is the grandest and the Stabat Mater the most pathetic) hymn of the Middle Ages.” The stanzas here given are those translated by Mrs. Charles, arranged in her order, with two or three additional stan

That the hymn can be made over in so many ways shows a certain fond lingering around the subject, and no steady flight of the imagination.

Theme. Jesus.

Line 1. Supply est.-3, 4. Supply est.–12. Quid : a pregnant question. Thou art unutterable.-13. Dulcedo : Canticles v., 1316.–14. Fons vivus : Jeremiah ii., 13; Zach. xiii., 1; John iv., 10; vii., 38.-Lumen: John i., 9.-21. Cum Maria: John xx., 1.


-33. Intus fervet: Luke xxiv., 32.–37. Hoc, this, i. e., the statement in the stanza before, not included in this selection, that the love of Jesus is most sweet and most tender:

“Amor Iesu dulcissimus

Et vere suavissimus." 42. Bibunt: “Bibe Christum quia vitis est; bibe Christum, quia petra est quae vomit aquam; bibe Christum, quia fons vitae cst; bibe Christum, quia flumen est cuius impetus laetificat civitatem Dei; bibe Christum, quia pax est; bibe Christum, quia flumina de ventre eius fluent aquae vitae; bibe Christum, ut bibas sanguinem quo redemptus es; bibe Christum, ut bibas sermones eius.” Ambrose, in Psalm i., $ 33; Mone, 1, 332.—45. Ebriat: of this sobria ebrietas, see note on p. 226, line 1.-73. Rev. xxii., 1. –74. Rev. xxi., 23.—78. Luke xxii., 69.-81-84. Rev. v., 9, 10. -93. Psalm xxiv., 7.

XXIV. BERNARDUS CLUNIACENSIS. Life.—BERNARD OF CLUGNY, sometimes called Bernard of Morlaix, was a contemporary of St. Bernard, but exact dates are wanting for the events of his life. He was born at Morlaix, in Brittany, of English parents, and was a monk of Clugny under Peter the Venerable (1122–1156). He is known chiefly as the author of the poem from which the following hymn was made.

THE HYMN. In Trench, p. 304. The original poem, “De contemptu Mundi,"contains nearly 3000 lines, mostly of bitter satire on the corruptions of the age, but opening with a description of the heavenly land. From this Trench made the poem here presented, by freely canceling and transposing. It was translated freely by Dr. Neale, “The rhythm of Bernard de Morlaix on the Celestial Country,” and again in Mediaeval Hymns, p. 68. Some verses of this have gone home to the imagination and affections of Christians, and been introduced into many collections of hymns. In Schaff's Christ in Song there are three hymns from it, p. 642, 645, 647. He says, “ This glowing description is the sweetest of all the New Jerusalem lıymns of heavenly homesickness which have taken their inspiration from the last two chapters of Revelation.” Dr. Neale says that it is “the most lovely, in the same way that the Dies Irae is the most sublime, and the Stabat Mater the most pathetic, of mediaeval poems.” The meter is made very difficult by its rhymes, and regular division of the hexameter into three parts, and the author was enabled to master it only, as he believed, by special inspiration.

Part I. The last time. These are the first lines of the poem. They are given, with a translation imitating the rhythm of the original, in The Seven Great Hymns, p. 2, and in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 643—two translations by Dr. A. Coles and S. W. Duffield: “These are the latter times, these are not better times;

Let us stand waiting ;
Lo! how, with awfulness, He, first in lawfulness,

Comes arbitrating.”
Line 3. Terminet: subjunctive of purpose, G., 545.
Part II. The heavenly land.

Line 1. Vivitur: impersonal, the subject implied in the verbvita vivitur.—2. Non-breve-vivere: the subject of retribuetur.4. Plenis: dative for whom.-9. Syon, the Church.—Babylon, the world.–13. Hebraeus, a Jew in deed, one having faith.18. Ibi, in heaven; hic, on earth.—25. Tunc Iacob Israel : Israel =Videns Deum (Augustine); Lia (Ačiav), Leah, a laboring Christian; Rachel, a contemplative Christian :

“Lia, quae interpretatur laboriosa, significat vitam activam, quae est foecunda in fructu boni operis, sed parum videt in luce contemplationis. Rachel, quae interpretatur visum principium, designat vitam contemplativam, quae est sterilis foris in opere, sed perspicax in contemplatione. Contendunt ergo contemplatio et actio pro amplexu sapientiae,” id est, Christi, sui sponsi.—Hugh of St. Victor: Trench, p. 306. —27. Hymn II. in Schaff.—Lumina sobria, sad eyes.—33. Hỳsőpo, i. e., hyssopo.-34. Rev. xxi., 18,19.–36. Concio coelica: 1 Peter ii., 5.-Gemma, lapis pretiosus. 1 Peter ii., 6. Neale translates :

“Thy saints build up its fabric,

And the Corner-stone is Christ." -37. Tu, thou (sea) without shore, thou (day) without measure

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