Page images

fied legends of saints. His poem “De Gemmis was a great favorite in the Middle Ages. It contains the whole rich mythology of the period in regard to precious stones and their virtues. His poems are mostly written in leonine verse, i. e., with a middle rhyme to the end, like Hymn II., but he has some good hexameters. Trench, p. 275.

POEM I. Hildeberti et Marbodi Opera, p. 1615; Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry, p. 284.

Theme. The resurrection of the dead.

Marbod follows closely Tertullian, De Res. Carnis, 12; De Anima, 43; Trench, p. 284. The poem presents no difficulties. It has been selected partly for its meter.

POEM II. Hildeberti et Marbodi Opera, p. 1557; Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry, p. 275. Leonine trochaic tetrameters are often printed in two lines, as here.

Theme. A prayer to God-man for pity.

Line 16. Non est tecum, is not with you, not in accordance with your character. Note the rhyme, aequum : tecum; qu=c, i. e., k; ae=e; others mecum. Lines 1, 2, 21, 22 are from another hymn.

XXI. HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS. Life.- HILDEBERT was born at Lavardin, in France, in 1057; was a scholar of Berengarius; teacher of theology at Mans; bishop of Mans, 1097; archbishop of Tours (hence called Turonensis), 1125; died in '1134. He was one of the most eminent men of his time for learning and piety, and left many writings, among them more than ten thousand verses. Dr. Ncale and Archbishop Trench express the liveliest admiration for a few passages of his poetry.

HYMN I. Königsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesänge, 2, 174, where also is a translation into German. Hild. et Marbod. Opera, p. 1178.

Theme. The Christian's love of Christ.
Line 1. Turtur: usually masculine, is here feminine.-Inane,

idly, in contrast with the effects of love mentioned in verses 3, 4.

-8. Tenebit (maritum in memoria). Many poets have celebrated the turtle. Compare :

“I heard a stock-dove sing or say

His homely tale, this very day ;
His voice was buried among trees
Yet to be come at by the breeze;
He did not cease; but cooed-and cooed.
And somewhat pensively he wooed ;
He sang of love with quiet blending,
Slow to begin and never ending;
Of serious faith and inward glee;
That was the song—the song for me!”

WORDSWORTH. -12. Se, Christo.—16. Aeth(e)re.-17. Inde futurum, will come thence.—18. Microcosmum, mankind, the little world, in distinction from the macrocosm.

HYMN II. In Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry, p. 323; Hildeberti et Marbodi Opera, p. 1337; Mone, 1, 14 (90 lines); Neale's Hymns on the Joys and Glories of Paradise, p. 27, an extract with a translation; Königsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesänge, 2, 176, an extract with translation. Hugh of St. Victor quotes from it and praises it. Trench reserves it as a “grand close” to his book. “It rises,” he

says, “in poetical animation, until towards the end it equals the very best productions which Latin Christian poetry any where can boast."

Theme. The Father, the Son, the Holy Ghost, the Trinity, the New Jerusalem.

Line 1. Read by its sound, as we read the letter 0 in English—not by its name, omega. Compare p. 51, line 9: “A et 2 cognominatus.” Rev. i., 8.-2. Heli, i. e., Eli. Mark Matt. xxvii., 46. The confusion of H's in foreign proper names is great. The letter was slightly sounded or silent in France.3. Totum posse, to be able to do all. Supply est.—7. Supply qui €8.—25. Necesse : used substantivelynecessity does not change thy being.—27. Nostrum heri, our yesterday is always now to thee.


34; - 31. Hoc, i. e., sempiterno hodierno.-34. Giving form to the elements of the world.—37. Heb. i., 3.-47, 48. Assumptus, consumptus : “ Homo assumptus est a Deo, non in homine consumptus est Deus.” Augustine, Ep., 170, 9; Mone, 1, 19.-50. Carnis veritate corresponds in construction to Deitate.—55, 56. “Non potes dicere, si Christus natus fuisset et hominem vere induisset, Deus esse desisset, amittens quod erat, dum assumit quod non erat; periculum enim status sui Deo nullum est.” Tertull., De Carne Christi, 3. “Accessit illi homo, non amissus est Deus.” Augustine, in Ev. John, 1, 8, 3.—85. Usiae, substance (ovoia); unitatem usiae is an imitation of ouoovoia, and classes Hildebert among the orthodox Homoousians, in distinction from the heretic Homoiousians.-92. Here error is not without harm.—99. Nil praetendo, “nothing in my hand I bring.”—103. Cataplasma: “Ex Deo et homine factum est cataplasma, quod sanaret omnes infirmitates nostras, Spiritu Sancto tanquam pistillo hasce species suaviter in utero Mariae commiscente.” Bernard, in Trench, p. 329.105. Extra portum: Luke vii., 12. With this allusion to the story of the Widow of Nain, Dr. Neale's extract begins.—106-112. John xi., 39–44.—113-120. Matt. viii., 26; xiv., 32. Trench thinks that the winds and waves are called piratae by a bold personification; he is very anxious to avoid introducing new material in the Scriptural account of Christ's stilling the storm.121-128. Ficus: Luke xiii., 6–9.-129-138. Allusion to the lunatic child: Matt. xvii., 14; Mark ix., 22.–132. Tibi soli: Matt. xvii., 16. The disciples can not help me.—137, 138. Matt. xvii., 21.–141, 142. Timorem, etc. He asks for the fear which is the beginning of wisdom, and yet remembers that perfect love casts out fear. 1 John iv., 18. Fear is the needle which introduces the thread of love, suggests Augustine, commenting on this passage of John: projecto, absolute; conjecto is indic. present.—157. Motum, progress in advancement. Neale reads metum :

“Wholesome fear in wealth Thou sendest." -161, 162.

“What I need to know, Thou solvest;
What I need not, Thou involvest."


-176. Lignum crucis: a use of the wood of the cross to be added to those mentioned on p. 252, note to Hymn I., line 6. Trench has omitted two lines:

“Cuius claves lingua Petri,

Cuius cives semper laeti.”

-177. Lapis vivus: 1 Peter ii., 4, 6.-178. Matt. xxii., 2.–179. Rev. xxi., 23.-188. Matt. xvi., 18.-190-192. “O civitas sancta, civitas speciosa, de longinquo te saluto, ad te clamo, te requiro." Augustine, De Spir. et Anim., Trench, p. 332.-196, 197, Rey. xxi., 19, 20.

XXII. PETRUS ABAELARDUS. Life.—PETER (PIERRE) ABELARD was born near Nantes, 1079. He distinguished himself early in the schools of Paris by his mastery of languages and logic. About 1101 he set up a school at Melun, but soon after returned to Paris, and won unrivaled popularity as a teacher and disputant. In 1113 he went to Laon to study divinity with Anselm. He became involved in bitter disputes on questions of philosophy and theology, and had to go back to Paris. There he was more popular than ever. His amour with his pupil Héloise ruined him. After a period of persecutions he died, 1142. He was the most brilliant man of his times—bold, rationalistic, imaginative, conceited, and pugnacious. His poetry, as well as his other writings, was greatly admired; but it is the common judgment of late students of his times that “his life was the shipwreck of genius,” and “unserviceable to posterity.” It is mainly from his connection with Héloise, a “far nobler and deeper character than he,” that he is now known. Hallam, Middle Ages, iv., 377; Trench, p. 206.

HYMN I. In Edélestand du Méril, Poésies Popul. Lat., 1847, p. 444; Trench, p. 251. It is one of a series on the Works of the Days, like that in the Ambrosiani, p. 36–39. It contains an impressive and practical thought, and the expression is clear and vigorter, and the arrangement of the stanza, with its lengthened final lines, is forcible and pleasing. But, after all, true musical flow is wanting to the rhythm.

There is excellent taste shown in the selection of the me


Theme. The sky the dome of the poor man's palace.

Line 1. Germina ornarunt: Gen. i., 11, 12.—2. Luminaria (ornarunt): Gen. i., 14.-3. (Coelum) depingitur: Gen. i., 16.—4. Multus usus, many (a) use; so in Anglo-Saxon, manig man, in German, and elsewhere; the article a appears in the latest AngloSaxon, Layamon. March's Anglo-Saxon Grammar, 395, 2.—7. Tuam

agrees with se.—15, 16. Hinc, inde, on one side and on the other side of the poor man's grassy bed:

6. The stars have us to bed :
Night draws the curtain ; which the sun withdraws.

Music and light attend our head.” -29, 30.

“For us the winds do blow,
The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow."

“More servants wait on man
Than he'll take notice of. In every path

He treads down that which doth befriend him,

When sickness makes him pale and wan.
Oh, mighty love! Man is one world, and hath
Another to attend him.”


“Plus est pauperi videre coelum stellatum quam diviti tectum inauratum."-AUGUSTINE, in Trench, p. 252.

HYMN II. In Daniel, 2, 59; Mone, 2, 31; Wackernagel, 1, 116; Königsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesänge, 2, 170. Translations in the oldest German, and so on down to Königsfeld.

Theme. The Annunciation. Luke i., 26.

Line 2-4. “Ad Mariam Virginem non quilibet angelus, sed Gabriel Archangelus mittitur." Gregory, Hom. in Evang., 2, 34, 8. “Non arbitror, hunc angelum de minoribus esse ... quod ex eius nomine palam intelligi datur, quod interpretatum fortitudo Dei dicitur.” Bernard, Hom., 1, 2; Mone, 2, 32. For the interpreta

« PreviousContinue »