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the burial of the dead; of the invocation of the Holy Ghoji, in the confecrae tion of the Eucharist; of the prayer of oblation that followed it; of the rubrick that ordered water to be mixed with the facramental wine; of the use of oil in vapii/m; and of the imetion of the fick. Certain hymns also were introduced after the lessons; fome occasional prayers at the end of the Jitany were added, and different rubrics were inserted. The ten commandments were appointed to be read after the collect in the beginning of the communion service, and the short petition which follows each commandment was inserted. The habits of the officiating minister prescribed by the former book were, by the present one, ordered to be laid afide, and a rubric was added at the end of the communion service to explain the reafon of kneeling at the facrament.
But the labours of the reformers did not terminate here; for in the ensuing rear the indefatigable Cranmer drew up a second catechism, under this title; " a fhort Catechism, or plain Instruction containing the sum of Christian learning. This was submitted to the examination of " certain bishops and other learned men,” and being approved of by them, it was printed both in English and Latin, and published by the Royal authority the 20th of May, A. D. 1553. An exprefs injunction was at the same time prefixed to it, addrefied to all schoolmasters and teachers of youth, directing them truly and diligently to teach it in their schools, “ immediately after the other brief catechism which had been already fet forth.”
Shortly after the publication of this last labour of the reformers in Edward's reiga, the propitious career of the reformation was again checked by the death of the young king; and another cloud darkened the puritied church, when the bigot Mary succeeded to the throne. The friends of true religion had now not only to regret the repeal of Edward's acts in favour of the reformation, but allo to deplore the heavier misfor. tune of the loss of Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley, the active servants of God in the great cause, who fell victims to the bigotry of this bloody queen.* One of the first acts of Mary's reign was to prohibit all preaching without special licence. The restoration of Bonner, Gardiner, and other Popish biíhops to the lees of which they had been deprived, succeeded this ttep; and fix weeks afterwards a bill puffed, repealing all king Edward's laws about religion, and enacting that after the ensuing 20th of December (1553) there thould be no other form of divine service than what had been uited in the last year of Henry VIII. In consequence of these proceedings, Popery revived in all its rankness; the mass was set up in all places; all the exploded fuperititions were again religiously afferted; the most trumpery ceremonies were again adoptıd; roods and images were erected in every church; and a long and venerable lift of martyrs were led to the stake, who rejoiced in bearing this testimony to their faith.t It pleased
* The bufiness of the reforma:ion till went forward, even in opposition to all the in. fiuence and all the rage of Mary. The terrors of her perfecution drove many of the reformers to Geneva; where they published, in 1557, an English New Testament printed by Conrad Badius. With respect to this edition, a particular circumstance delerves remark; that it was the firt in the English language which contained the distinction of verses by numerical figures, after the minner of Robert Stephens's Greek Teftament, published 1531. The difference between the two is this; that Stephens's edition has the figures placel in the margin, whereas the Geneva editors prefixed their figures to the beginning of thote subdivitions which we now call verses.
+ The rumber of the martyrs in this reign, for the fake of the Protestant religion, amounted to two hundred and eighty-eight; viz. five bishops, (among whom were Cranmer and Latimer) twenty-one clergymen, eight gentlemen, eighty-four tradesmen, one hundred husbandmen, labourers, and servants; fifty-five women, and four children; eleven other persons of different descriptions, besides many that died of famine in fundry pritons.-Strype's Memor, vol. iii. 291. As the people had been accustomed to the ser. fies of the church in the vernacular congue, Mary did not think it politic to probibit the
God, however, that this hateful reign, which “ought to be tranfinitted down to posterity in characters of blood,” should not be extended beyond the term of five years. Mary died miferably on the 17th of November 1558, and was succeeded by Queen Elizabeth. With her accellion the hopes of the Protestants again revived, and happily they were not deceived in their expectations of the reformation being fully and finally fettled under her auspices; for though her proceedings in this respect were very cautious and deliberate, yet they terminated at length in the folid ettablishment of Protestantism through her dominions. By the advice and affittance of her confidential counsellors, Cecil, Bacon, and Smith, Mary's act of repeal was reversed; and measures were taken, and commissioners appointed, for another review of Edward's Book of Common Prayer. The commitljoners were, Dr. Parker, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury; Dr. Guett, dean of Canterbury; Dr. Cox and Dr. May, (commiflioners for a similar purpofe in Edward's time;) Dr. Grindal, bishop of London; Dr. Sandy's, afterwards bishop of Worcester; Dr. Whitehead; Dr. Bill; and Dr. Pilkington, afterwards bilhop of Durham. These learned and pious men commenced their task in December 1558, and compleated it in the ensuing April, when parliament ratified the review,* with one amendment only, that of enjoining the communicants to kneel, instead of standing, when they received the elements of bread and wine. With this amendment the new book was commanded to be received into public use on the fettival of St. John the Baptist, 1559. Amongst fome other alterations of a trifting or verbal nature, the following were suggested by the commissioners, and adopted in the Book of Common Prayer now under confideration. The place in which the morning and evening service should be read (which hitherto had been the chancel) was left to the appointment of the ordinary, Proper first lessons were now appointed for Sundays; for hitherto those for the day of the month had been regularly used on the Lord's day.t The
very harsh and objectionable deprecation in the litany was omitted: “From the tyranny of the Bishop of Rome, and all his detestable enorinis ties, good Lord deliver us." The intercellions for the queen were incorporated into the same service; and towards the conclusion of it, “a prayer for the Queen's Majesty” was introduced; together with that for “ the Clergy and people;" and the beautiful collect which commences with these words; “ O God, whose nature and property is, ever to have mercy and forgive.” The habits of the officiating minifters enjuined by the first
indulgence of an English translation of the Romih ritual, and therefore published a Primer in Englith and Latin, for the public ule. One of them is noiv before me; its title is, “ The Primer in English and Latin, fer out along afier the use of Sarum ; with many godly and devout prayers, as it appeareth in the table. Imprinted at London, by John Kinga iton and Henry Sutton, 1557. Cum privilegio ad imprimendum folum."
The title of the A& is, “An Act for the Uniformity of Common Prayer, and Service in the Church, and Administration of the Sacraments;' it is pretixed to the larger editions of the Prayer Book.
+ Shortly after this arrangement, Archbishop Parker undertook to settle the calendar, and the order of the lessons to be read throughout the year; having procured letters under the great seal, as one of the commissioners to authorize this step. Beiore this time it was keft to the discretion of the minister to change the chapters that were to be read in their regular courfe, for others which were thought by him to be more edifying; and even after this review the bishops recommended the practice. For in the prerace to the second book of homilies, published in the year 1564, we find a serious admonition to all ministers ecclefiaftical, to be dirigent and faithful in their high functions; in which, amongit other instructions, the following remarkable one occurs: “If one or other chipter of the Ou Testament falls in order to be read on Sundays or on holidays, it shall be weil done to spend your time to consider well of fome other chapter in the New Teitament of more edification, for which it may be changed." This liberty, however, was not long permitted; although the admonition being never legally reverted, Abbot was of opinion, that is conuinued in force in his time. -Life of Parker, p, 84. Strype's Annais, p. 17,
Book of King Edward, and prohibited by the second, were ordered again to be adopted. The rubric which was added at the conclusion of the communion service in the second book of King Edward VIth, denying Christ's corporal and real presence in the holy facrament, was now left out; and in order still further to conciliate the Roman Catholicks, and unite the nation in one faith and mode of worship, the royal injunctions expressly commanded, that the facramental bread which the rubrick only enjoined to be of the finest wheaten flour, should be made of a round form, similar in Ihape to the wafer used in the Romilh mass.*
Thus settled, with wile accommodations to all parties, † the liturgy was universally adopted throughout the country, and continued to be generally ufcd till the accesion of James I.; when the Puritans, I who had long le
* The editions of the Holy Scriptures in English, published during the reign of Elizabeth, were as follow. The Psalms, with marginal notes, and a dedication to the Queen, by the exiles at Geneva, A. D. 1559: The Geneva Bible, an edition in quarto, printed at Geneva, by Rowland Hırie, and publihed A.D. 1590; and tranilated by Bishop Coverdale, Anthony Gelby, William Whittingham, Christopher Woodman, Thomas Simfon, Thomas Cole, John Knox, John Bodleigh, and John Bullam. Beza and Calvin also were occationally conluted. Of this edition there were above thirty impreilions in folio, quarto, or octavo, from the year 1560 to1616. The Bishops' Bible, published 1568, under the auspices of Archa bilhop Parker, and receiving its name from the majority of its translators being prelares. The editions of it were entirely in folio and quarto, with the exception of one octavo edition. An edition of the New Testament, trantlated into Eng!!th by the Romanilts at Rheims, and publithed in quarto in 1982. In the convocation of the province of Canterbury, which met April 3, 1571, a canion was made, enjoining the church wardens to tee that the Holy Bible be in every church, in the largeri voluine, (if it might conveniently be, such as was lately imprinted in London.”—Lewis.
+ The Roman Catholics were fo fatisfied with this arrangement of our ritual, that many of them joined in communion with the established church; and continued their conformity to it upwards of ten years. The Pope allo would have sanctioned it, and allowed the facrament in both kinds, if the queen would have acknowledged his supremacy.Foxes and Firebrands, part iii. p. 18.
# When the exiles (who had absentel themselves an account of their religion, during Mary's reign) returned to England on Elizabeth's acceflion, each party were for advancing the reformation according to their own itandard. “The queen, with those who had weathered the storm at home, were only for restoring King Edward's Liturgy, but the majority of the exiles were for the worship and difcipline of the foreign churches, and refused to comply with the old establishment, declaiming loudly against the Popitia habits and ceremonies. The new hithops, moit of whom had been their companions abroad, endeavoured to foften them for the present, declaring they would ute all their intereits at court to make them ealy in a little time. The queen aiso connived at their non-contormiiy, till her government was settied, but then declared roundly, that she had fixed her 1tandard, and would have all her lubjects conform to it; upon which the bithops ftiffened in their behaviour, explained away their promises, and became too fevere against their diffenting brethren. In the year 1564, their loruthips began to Mew their authority, by urging the clergy of their several dioceles to jubleribe the liturgy, ceremonies, and discia pline of the church; when those that refused were firit called Puritans, a name of reproach derived from the Cathari, or Puritani, of the third century after Christ, but proper enough to express their desires of a more pure form of worthip and discipline in the church. When the doctrines of Arminius took place in the latter end of the reign of James I. those that adhered to Calvin's explication of the five difputed points, were called doctrinal Puritans and at length (tiys Mr. Fuller) the name was improved to ftigmatize all those who endeavoured in their devotions to accompany the minitter with a pure heart, and who were Temarkably holy in their conversations paritan, therefore, ruas a man of severe morals, a Calvinist in doétrine, and a non-conformist to the ceremonies and difcipline of the church, though they did not totally separate from it." --Neale's Hit. Purit. vol.i. preface, p. vij. Learning, wit, and ridicule, in the age we are at prefent concerned with, and in the fuc. ceeding reigns of James J. and Charles II, were all united against the cause and character of the Puritans; and hence originated a general prejudice in their disfavour (continued even to these times, which they by no means feem to have deserved. Mr. Neale has given a liberal, candid, and authentic view of their principles and manners, which the holy cause of truth will justily me for inserting in this place. “It is not pretended, (tays he) that the Puritans were without their failings; no, they were of like paflions and infirmities with their advertaries; and while they endeavoured to avoid one extreme, they might tall into another; their zeal for their platform of discipline would, I fear, have betrayed them into the imposition of it upon others, is it had been eitablished by law. Their notions of the
caly disliked the service, government, and discipline of the church, as reraining (in their opinion) too many of the characteristics, and too much of the form of popery, openly exprelied their opinion, and petitioned the king for a reform of the alleged abuses of the Establishment. To gratify this powerful body with an apparent attention to their wishes, (thjugh nothing was further from the thoughts of James than any innovation on the settled constiution of the church) the English monarch appointed a folemn conference to be held between a certain number of prelates and divines of the Establishment on the one side, and the leaders of the diflenters on the other; in which the objections of the latter were to be ftated, discussed, and finally adopted or rejected.* The conference was beld at the palace of Hampton-Court, where James attended in perfon, and entered deeply into the argument in behalf of the Eitablishment.f The
civil and religious rights of mankind were narrow and confused, and derived too much troon the theocracy of the Jea's, which was cow at an end. Their behaviour was levere and rig:), far removed from the fashionable tice uoms and vices of the age; and polibiy they might be too cenforious, in not making thote distinctions between youth and are, grandeur and meer decency, as the nature and circumítances of things would admira Dat with all their faults, they were the most pious and devout people in the land; mon és grayer, both in secret and publick, as well as in their families ; sheir manner of devotion was fervent and folemn, depending on the citittance of the Divine Spirit, nci only to teach them kou to pray, but what to pray for as they ought. They had a profound se ference for the holy name of God, and were great cremics not only to prophane iwearing, but to foolish talking and jefting, which are not convenient; they were ftrict oblervers of the christian fabbath, or Lord's d.1x, fpendwg the whole or it in acts of publick and private derotivu and charity. It was the distinguishing mark of a purican in thele times, to fee him going to church twice a day with his Bible under his arm; and u hie others were at guys and interludes, at revets, or walking in the firlads, or at the dircrfions of bowling, Jouling, &c. on the evening of the fabbaili, these with their families were employed in reading the scriptures, singing ptains, catechifing their children), repenting termons, and prayer. Nor was this only the work of the Lord's it ry, but they had their hours of family de otion on the week days, eiteeming it their duty to take care of the fouls as well as the deries of their servants. They were circumfpect as to ali the excelles of eating, drinking, aļpurel, and lawful diversions, being trugal in houekeeping, industrious in their particular calings, honest and exact in their designs, and folicitcus to give to every one his ow!. There were the people who were branded with the name of PXECIS! ANS, ILRITANS, SCHISMATICKS, ENEMIES TO GOD AND THEIR COUNTRY, and throughout the course of stus reiga underwent crue' mockings, bonds, and imprifonment."--Hlit. Pur. vol. 1. p. 512. .* Dr, Warner, with great probability, imagines, that what in fome measure induced James to appoint the Hampion-Coure conference, or which he made himleit moderor, was, that he might give his new fubjects a specimen ot his talents for diljaration; foro: telé te was always tond, and greaty conceited.---Ecel. Fik, vol. i.n.478. Dr. Barlow, one of the Epilcopalians, pubiiihed an account of this conterence, which continued three days, viz. Jan. 141h, 16h, 18th; and a though he studiouilyenucavours throughout the treatile to exalt the fagacity and intellect 01 James in the opinion oi his readers, yet it cannot be decled, that we ride up from the perutal of it with a thorough contempt of the royal pedant, to his atfectation of learning, his insufferable v unity, his excellive peevithets, and his gruperlity to low humour and vulgar conceit. The following extract is a trecimen of the wit he displayed on this occafion. In aniwer to tome exceptias urged by Dr. Reynulda, His Majetty oblerved, that “ a Scottish prelbytery as we agreeth with a monarchy, as Go and the devil. Then Jack, and Tum, and Wil, ani Dick ihall meet, and at their Features cenlure me and my council, and all our proceedings. Then Will thail Itand up and lay, It muit be thus; then Dick ihallrepy, and liv, Niv, marry but we will have it
And therefore, here I muit once reiterate my former ipeech, Le Roi s'arriera. Stay, I pray you, for one leven years, belore you deinand that of me; and li then you tind me purly and fat, and my wind-pipes itutted, I will perhaps hearken roynu; for let that government be once up, I am sure I shall be kept in breath; then than we all of us have Work enough, both our hands full. But, Dr. Reynolds, tili you tind i grow lazy, let that alone."-Phenix, vol. i. p. 168.
On the fecond day of this conference, Dr. Reynolds, the feaker of the Puritans, moved his Majeity thar a new translation of the Bible might be rulen. Theki uniwered
he had never get leen a Bible well translated in'o Enghh, though he tong. dered the Geneva translation as the worst. He therciore wined that the most lemneri men in both the universities would undertake the work. In the year 1604, James followed Lais declaration big commiflioning fifty-four men of learniliz, beionging to the univerficies
Dr. R .
meeting broke up, as may naturally be imagined, without a single conceflion being apparently made to the Puritans; though from the charges brought forward by them in the course of the argument, it was deemed prudent to have another translation of the Bible prepared, and to adopt the following alterations in the liturgy: in the rubrick prefixed to the ab. folution, the words “ or remission of lins" were added, as explanatory; a collect was introduced into the morning and evening prayer for the royal family; forms of thanksgiving for various particular blessings were very judiciously inserted immediately after the litany; the words “ lawful minister” were incorporated in the rubrick in the beginning of the office for private baptifm, in order to prevent a practice, till then common, of midwives, plıyticians, and laymen baptizing infants; the title of the office of confirmation was enlarge i, and made more explicit than before; and in the catcchiíin all the queftions and answers were added, which now succeed the paraphraftic explanation of the Lord's prayer.
When, in the succeeding reign, the throne was overturned, and the form of civil government entirely changed, the church also experienced a similar fate; the hierarchy was broken down, and the liturgy* laid aside.
and other places, to confer together, in order to make a new translation of the Bible. Such of them as survived the commencement of the work were divided into fix ciafles. Ten were to meet in Wett mintter, and to translate from che Pentateuch to the end of the decond book of Kings. Eight, assembled at Cambridge, were to finish the rest of the hil. torical books, and the Hugiographia. At Ox'ord, leven were foundertake the four greater Prophets, with the Lamentarions o Jeremiah, and the twelve minor Prophets. The Epitties of St. Paul, and the remaining canonical epilities, were allotted to another comparyo: seven at Weitmintter. Another company of eight at Oxford were to translate the ihe tour Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles and the Apocalypse Lastly, another company of leven at Cambridge had afiigned to them, the Apocrypha, including the Prayer of Manatleh. Almost three years were employed in this translation, which was begun in the Spring of 1607. The Bib.e was published in 1613, with a dedication to James, and a learned pre ace. It was cailed King James's Bible ; fanctioned by act of parliament; and has ever lince been the authorized version public and general use.
* On the 121h of October 1643, (afier the breach between the King and Parliament had become incurable), an order was lent to the al; emily of Livines from the Lords and Commons atrembled in Parliament, for them to arrange " a form of Church discipline and government, agreeable to God's holy word, instead of the then present church government hy archbishops, bithops, &c. and to deliver their advice touching the fame with all convenient fpeed, to both Houtes of Parliament." In consequence of this order, on the 17th of October, a committee was nominated for the appoinıment of public offices in the church; tor the old liturgy was already laid aside, and no fubititute for it had as yet been ordained. They accordingly conterred together, agreed upon certain general heads for the direction of the minister in the dilcharge or his dutes, and submitted them to Parliament, which established them by an ordinance dated the 3d of January 1644-5, under the title of “ A Directory for Public Worship " The following variations were upon this occafion introduced into the service of the church.
“Instead of one prescribed form o: prayer, the Directory only points out certain topicks on which the miniiter might enlarge. The whole Apocrypha is rejected; private and lay baption, with the use of godlathers and godmothers, and the sign of the cross, are dilconunued. In the facrament of the Lord's fupper no mention is made of private communion, or adminiftering it to the fick. The altar with rails is changed into a commu. nion table, to be placed in the body of the church, about which the people might stand or fit, knceling not being thought so proper a posture. The presbyterians were for giving the power of the keys into the handsot the ministers and elders, as the independents were to the whole brotherhood; but Lightfoot, Selden, Coleman, and others, were for an open communion, to whom the parliament were most inclinable, for all they would yield was, that the minister immediately before the communion should warn, in the name of Chrift, all quch as are ignorant, scandalous, prophune, or that live in any fan or offence again their knowledge or conscience, that they prefume not to come to that holy table ; showing them that he that eateih and drinkeih unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself. The prohibicion of marriage in Lent, and the use of the ring, is said aside. In the vitiiation of the fick, no mention is made o private confession, or authoritative absolution. No Service is appointed for the burial of the dead. All particular vestments for priests or miitters, and all Saints' Jays, are discarded. It has been reckoned a considerable omislion, that the Directory does not enjoin reading the Apostles' Creed and the Ten Commandments ;