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have made now our prayers and supplications unto thee; and grant that those things which we have faithfully asked according to thy will, may effe&tually be obtained, to the relief of our neceflity, and to the setting forth of thy glory, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Upon the Sundays and other Holy-days (if there be no Communion) shall be said all that is appointed at the Communion, until the end of the general Prayer, [For the whole state of Christ's Church militant here in earth] together with one or more of these Colleets last before rebearsed, concluding with the Blessing. And there shall be no celebration of the Lord's Supper, except there be a convenient number to communicate with the Priest, according to his discretion.

And if there be not above twenty persons in the Parish, of discretion to receive the Communion; yet there shall be no Communion, except four (or three at the least) communicate with the Priest. And in Cathedral and Collegiate Churches and Colleges, where there are many Priests and Deacons, they shall all receive the Communion with the Priest every Sunday at the least, except they have a reasonable cause to the contrary. And to take away all occasion of dissension and superstition, which any person hath or might have concerning the Bread and Wine, it shall suffice that the Bread be such as is usual to be eaten; but the best and purest Wheat Bread that conveniently may be gotten. And if any of the Bread and Wine remain unconfecrated, the Curate shall have it to his own use: but if any remain of that which was consecrated, it shall not be carried out of the Church, but the Priest, and such other of the Communicants as he shall then call unto him, shall, immediatcly after the Blessing, reverently eat and drink the fame. The Bread and Wine for the Communion shall be provided by the Curate and the Churchwardens, at the charges of the Parish.

Upon the Sundays &c.] Of these nine rubrics all were first introduced into the second book of Edward VIth, save the sixth aod the ninth; which were composed at the last Review 1662.


And note, That every Parishioner shall communicate at the least three times in the year, of which Easter to be one. And yearly at Easter every Parishioner shall reckon with the Parson, Vicar, or Curate, or his or their Deputy or Deputies ; and pay to them or him all Ecclesiastical Duties, accustomably duc, then and at that time to be paid. After the Divine service ended, the money given at the Offertory shall be disposed of to such pious and charitable uses as the Minister and Churchwardens shall think fit; wherein if they disagree, it shall be disposed of as the Ordinary shall appoint.

THEREAS it is ordained in this Office for the

Administration of the Lord's Supper, that the Communicants should receive the same kneeling ; (which order is well meant, for a signification of our humble and

Easter to be one] In the primitive church, while Christians continued in their strength of faith and devotion, they did communicate every day. This custom continued in Africa till St. Cyprian's time, Orat. Dom. “We daily receive the Eucharist, for to be our food of salvation.” And after him till St. Augustine's time, Ep. 23, ad Bonifac.; infomuch as these words in our Lord's Prayer, “ Give us this day our daily bread," they interpreted of the Eucharist, as being daily to be celebrated. But afterward, when charity grew cold, and devotion faint, the custom grew faint withal, and within a Imall time began to be left by little and little; and fome upon one pretence, fome upon another, would communicate but once a week. In the East Church they grew to a worse cuttom betimes, which in after ages came into the Latin Churches too. They fell from every day to Sundays and holidays only, and from thence to once a year, and no oftener. Śt. Ambrose is cited for the proof of this, De Sacram. lib. iv. C. 4. But this wicked custom of receiving the Eucharist but once a year, was but of fome Greeks in the East, says St. Ambrose there; which cannot properly be understood of any but the diocese (as it was anciently called) or patriarchate of Antioch. For though the Eastern empire, whereof Constantinople was the metropolis, contained many provinces; yet the Eaitern Church, or Greeks in the Ealt, were properly those of Antioch; Theod. Hist. lib. v. cap. 9. And possibly some of these might be fo fupine as hath been observed; but of the Greeks in general no such careless custom can be affirmed; for St. Chryfoftom tells us that in his time, “ in every meeting or congregation of the church, the healthful mysteries of the Eucharist are celebrated.” Hom. 26, in Matth. In regard of this negleet, after councils did, as the Church of England, make canons; that is, men could be got to receive it no oftener, yet they should be forced to receive it at least three times in the year; Christma», Easter, and Whitsuntide. “ Nor was he to be reckoned amongst good Catholick Christians, that did not receive at those feasts,” Con, Agat. c. 18.-Sparrow.

Whereas &c.] This protestation (a little differing from its present form) first occurs in Edward VIth's second book; but Queen Elizabeth, who wilhed much to conciliate the Papifts, omitted it in her Prayer-Book, as a

grateful acknowledgment of the benefits of Christ, therein given to all worthy Receivers, and for the avoiding of such profanation and disorder in the holy Communion, as might otherwise ensue:) yet, left the same kneeling should by any persons, either out of ignorance and infirmity, or out of malice and obstinacy, be misconstrued and depraved; It is hereby declared, That thereby no adoration is intended, or ought to be done, either unto the Sacramental Bread or Wine there bodily received, or unto any corporal Presence of Christ's natural Flesh and Blood. For the Sacramental Bread and Wine remain still in their very natural substances, and therefore may not be adored; (for that were idolatry, to be abhorredof all faithful Christians:) and the natural Body and Blood of our Saviour Christ are in heaven, and not here; it being against the truth of Christ's natural body, to be at one time in more places than one."


Publick Baptism of Infants,


[ THE people are to be admonished, that it is most conve

nient, that Baptism should not be administered but upon Sundays, and other Holy-days, when the most number of people come together; as well for that the congregation there

present may testify the receiving of them that be newly bapmatter of offence to those people. It was restored, however, at the laft Review, 1662.

The people are to be admonished] Until the Review in 1662, the following reason for this admonition, introduces this rubrick :-“ It appeareth by ancient writers, that the Sacrament of Baptism in the old time was not commonly ministered but at two times in a year, at Easter and Whitsuntide, at which times it was openly miniftered in the presence of all the congregation. Which custom being now grown out of use, (although it cannot for many good confiderations be well rettored again) it is thought good to follow the same, as near as conveniently may be. Wherefore all the people, &c.” The concluding words of the rubrick were, till the Review, 1662, at all times be baptised at home,for which the present words were substitu.d. The fecond rubric was introduced at the last Review; and the last is the same with one in Edward Vith's firft book, except that instead of the words “at the font,” we have at the church door;" for

tized into the number of Christ's Church; as also because in the Baptism of Infants, every man present may be put in remembrance of his own profeljion made to God in his Baptism. For which cause also it is expedient that Baptism be ministered in the vulgar tongue. Nevertheless, (if necessity so require) Children may be baptized upon any

other day.

[ And note; That there shall be for every Male-Child to be

baptized, two Godfathers and one Godmother; and for every Female, one Godfather and two Godmothers. When there are Children to be baptized, the Parents shall give knowledge thereof over night or in the morning before the beginning of Morning Prayer, to the Curate. And then the Godfathers and Godmothers, and the People, with the Children, must be ready at the Font, either immediately after the last Lefon at Morning Prayer, or else in

mediately after the last Lefon at Evening Prayer, as the before the Reformation, and till Edward VIth's Review, part of the service was performed in the porch, and part in the church, before the font. Anciently the Baptisterium, or Font, was placed in the church door or porch; because baptism being the sacrament of initiation into the church, it was deemed proper, that the person to be baptized fhould go through the ceremony previously to his entering the house of God.

Two Godfathers] In the ancient Christian church one sponsor was confidered as fufficient.--Bingham Ant. Chriff. Church, vol. iv. 318. When the practice of requiring more than one took place is uncertain; but it is clear that the church lras fixed the number and fex of the furetiesagreeably to the above rubric for nearly six hundred years.-Concil. Labbei, tom. xi. p. i. col. $75,0.

Font] What the font is every body knows, but not why it is fo called. The rites of baptifin in the first times were performed in founrains and rivers, boch because their converts were many, and because those ages were un provided of other Baptisteries. We have no other remainder of this rite but the name, for hence it is that we call our baptisteries fonts; which, when religion found peace, were built and confecrated for the more reverence and reipect of the facrament. These were set at first fome diftance from the church; (Cyril, Cat. Myf. 1.) after in the church porch; and that fignificantly, because baptism is the entrance into the church mystical, as the porch to the temple. At the last they got into the church, but not into every, but the City Church, where the Bishop refíded'; hence called the Mother Church, because it gave fpiritual birtn by baptifm; afterwards they were brought into rural churches. Wherefoever they ftcod, they were had in high veneration. Anaftaf. Ep. ad Orthodox. complains Tadly of impiety in his time, such as never was heard of in war, that men should set fire to churches and fonts; and after mentioning the fonts, “Good God! Chrift-killing Jews, and heathenith Atheists, have withbúe al referente entered and detiled the fonts,"


Curate in his discretion shall appoint. And the Priest coming to the Font, (which is then 10 be filled with pure water) and standing there, fhall say,

Hath this Child been already baptized, or no?
If they answer No: then all the Priest proceed as

EARLY beloved, forasmuch as all men are con-

ceived and born in fin; and that our Saviour Chrift faith, None can enter into the Kingdom of God, except he be regenerate and born anew of Water and of the Holy Ghost; I beseech you to call upon God the Father, through our Lord Jesus Christ, that of his bounteous mercy he will grant to this Child that thing which by nature he cannot have ; that he may be baptized with Water and the Holy Ghost, and received into Chrilt's holy Church, and be made a lively member of the same.

Then shall the Priest say,

Let us pray.

mercy didst save Noah and his family in the ark from perishing by water; and also didst fafely lead the children of Israel thy people through the Red Sea, figuring thereby thy holy Baptism ; and by the Baptism of thy well-beloved Son Jesus Christ in the river Jordan, didst fan&tify Water to the mystical washing away of sin; We beseech thee, for thine infinite mercies, that thou wilt mercifully look upon this Child; wash him, and fan&tify him with the Holy Ghost; that he being delivered from thy wrath, may be received into the ark of Christ's Church; and being stedfalt in faith, joyful through hope, and rooted in charity, may so pass the waves of this trou. blesome world, that finally he may come to the land of everlasting life; there to reign with thee world without end, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Lmighty and immortal God, the aid of all that need,

the helper of all that flee to thee for succour, the life of them that believe, and the resurrection of the dead;

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