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voted upon.

ments together with justification which, in the opinion of the joint legislative council, will accomplish these objectives.

The Superintendent desires to assure the joint legislative council of the full cooperation of the school administration in the prosecution of this very important project.

Miss Moore. The joint legislative council, which is composed of 163 delegates from 46 educational organizations with an estimated membership of 3,200 representing every school level from both divisions of the school system, began work immediately.

A steering committee was chosen to make a detailed study of salary schedules for all educational employees in other cities, comparable in size to Washington, in order to make recommendations to the council.

This committee also studied the inequities which were sent the council by various groups and organizations. Many meetings were held after school and in the evenings and hours were spent in research in order to formulate recommendations to the council. All matters were thoroughly discussed by the entire council before being

The National Education Association made it possible for the latest trends and actual salary legislation throughout the country to be carefully studied. The research department of the NEA rendered most valuable service in furnishing current data on teachers' salaries.

After numerous meetings in which opinions were fully exchanged the joint legislative council adopted 18 guiding principles which were used by the steering committee in making a report to Dr. Corning. A complete report was made December 10, 1946.

As is the case in all large groups, there were differences of opinion. Members or alternates were present at all meetings, and discussions were very thorough and each item received careful attention.

As president of the council I would like to point out a few of the recommendations which involve finances.

First, it was recommended that a single salary schedule be adopted for all teachers regardless of where they may be placed in the schools. There are many reasons for the adoption of this plan.

Full recognition should be given to elementary education as being as socially valuable and educationally important as secondary education. This principle assumes that as much professional skill in diagnosis and service to individual learners is needed at one level of the learner's growth as at another level. Another purpose is that of encouraging teachers to continue their professional growth.

It was recommended that a teacher holding a bachelor of arts degree begin at $2,600 and be able to progress to $4,000. The teacher with master of arts degree should go from $2,800 to $4,600. The master's degree plus 30 semester hours of graduate credit should be given $3,000 to $5,200.

It was further recommended that the salaries of officers should be adjusted in relation to those of teachers and should be consistent with the salaries for similar positions, duties, and responsibilities in cities of comparable size.

There were various other recommendations which were made in an attempt to clear up certain inequities in various groups.

It was felt by the group that the Superintendent and Board of Education was most fair in giving the teachers and officers an opportunity to discuss and advise in their salary legislation.

The school personnel of Washington is most anxious to do a good job. We believe that the report of the joint legislative council represents the best thinking of the teachers and officers of the system.

Although it was regretted that the recommendations of the joint legislative council were not accepted in full, the majority of the teachers and officers have endorsed Dr. Corning's proposal.

Mr. BATES. Is that, all, Miss Moore?
Miss MOORE. Yes; that is the viewpoint of the council.
Mr. BATEs. Thank you very much.

The next witness will be James W. Taylor, president of the Elementary Classroom Teachers Association, divisions 1 to 9.



Mr. Taylor. I am going to cut this as short as possible, Mr. Bates, and slide over a few things. I think you know we are very interested in the children in our schools, and the fact that we are not giving many of them a full share of education and many of them are facing a succession of temporary teachers and we fully recognize that the temporary teachers are making a definite contribution to our schools now, but when you do get a child with nine temporary teachers in a year he does not make much progress, because it takes at least a month to get settled on what a child needs, his interests and the kind of program you are going to build for him.

We also know that there are other factors in the problem besides the salary schedule, but we feel this is a vital one in attracting teachers and in retaining teachers, so for the 683 members of our Elementary Classroom Teachers Association, Divisions 1 to 9, I would like to say with respect to the Board of Education's proposals that most important to us is the fact that you do provide in those proposals a new salary qualification on the elementary level, requiring the master's degree for eligibility.

You know that 15 years ago they introduced the requirement of the bachelor of arts degree but left our salary schedule $200 below the level of the junior high school which required a bachelor of arts degree.

I think on the basis of that you have figured our increase as 78 percent, from $1.425 to $2,500. We like to think of the fact that it should have been $1,600 even then, which would work us down to an increase of 56 percent, and in spite of the fact that we are pretty low to be brought up from in the first place.

The second thing that does is give us an opportunity in the elementary school to go ahead and become better prepared to teach and receive some recognition of the fact that we have done that.

Up to this time, the elementary teacher has obtained a master's degree, and there has been provision on the junior high on the vocational level for her to receive the salary of the high-school teacher.

In our present law that is not provided for and the Board of Education proposals do create that qualification, which we feel is a definite inequity and we are very encouraged to see that it has a chance of being improved.

The Board of Education proposals also provide higher minimum salaries.

At the present time we are of course trying to attract capable young teachers to the elementary schools on the basis of a $1,900 minimum which has been boosted to $2,350 by a temporary increase, and of course we are not attracting them; so obviously this step is in the right direction in increasing that minimum salary.

It begins to approach the minimum salary for professional work in the Government which is $2,645. Naturally, on the other side, anything we do in this bill to retain the experienced teacher is going to offer

more opportunity to the new teacher, and be an attraction to that teacher.

The Board of Education proposals also provide higher maximum salaries. Under the present salary schedule, including the temporary increase, the experienced teacher in the elementary school can reach a salary of $3,350 after 10 years of teaching. That means at the age of approximately 32.

The average college graduate is about 22 years old. So at 32 the teacher has reached a normal maximum under the present salary.

The teacher could then go into this supermaximum 1B classification and reach a salary of $3,750 at the age of about 36. Under the present bill the teacher would remain at this salary for 34 years until the compulsory retirement age is reached.

This is a hard thing for young women to face and particularly for young men to face. We, as a result, have only a handful of young men in our elementary schools. We have 9 in the divisions 1 to 9. That number out of 170 teachers.

Mr. Bates. How do you set it up for reference purposes ?

Mr. TAYLOR. Divisions 0 to 9 are the white and 10 to 13 are the colored.

In the Division, we have approximately 870 teachers in the divisions 0 to 9, and of those 9 are men.

Thé normal expectancy of a salary to support dependents, have a home, and have a little money for future education, and perhaps a little for savings just is not there under the present salary schedule.

We certainly recognize that our children need teachers that lead well-rounded lives, but our salary situation does not recognize this.

His $1,088 proposes the teacher reach a maximum of $4,700 at the end of 22 years, during which time the teacher will acquire a master's degree, and be superior, and also over the period of 22 years, as has been brought out, pass an efficiency rating each year. This is an improvement, but it is a long grind from $4,500 to $4,700, in the course

Mr. BATES. Let me understand a little more clearly. Your elementary school teachers have four classifications. To qualify they must have a bachelor's degree, and then the 1B, bachelor of science and superior ability.

When do they get the benefit of that superior ability, at the end of the 10-year increment period ?

Mr. TAYLOR. Under the new bill it would be 12 years. You would , run from $2,500 to $3,700 as a 1A teacher and at that time you would submit your qualifications and go into the group B. Then you would go in through the four years of the group B and the conclusion of that the bill does provide you would jump C and go from B to D, providing you have the master's degree and qualify.

of 22 years.

Mr. Bates. What do you mean by going through?

Mr. TAYLOR. You get the annual increments. Once you go into group B, you will get the thing. Then you would qualify for group D and go for four more increments to $1,700. That would require the master's degree to qualify for that latter qualification.

Mr. Bates. That would be 20 years before you reach $4,700 in the class 1D? That is if you jump class 1C?

Mr. TAYLOR. Yes, that is correct.
Mr. BATES. Twelve $100 increments, so that gives you 16 years?

Mr. TAYLOR. I figure it works out more simply. You can only go in our school system at the rate of $100 a year. You must reach the maximum in one qualification before you can go to another. Therefore, from $2,500 to $4,700 will take you 22 years. You must serve 1 year at the minimum and then you have your 12 increments. It works out to 22 years.

Dr. CORNING. How do you get your 22?
Mr. TAYLOR. At $2,500, and going to $4,700.
Dr. CORNING. But if you get your master's degree earlier?

Mr. TAYLOR. You would have to get your master's degree within the first 5 years and the average teacher does not get the degree in less than 5 to 7 years. When you move over into another scale, it is not a promotion from 1A to 10.

Mr. Bates. Do I understand from what you say, Mr. Taylor, to interject at this point, that a teacher who has a master's degree will have to wait until he has completed the 12 $100 increments?

Mr. TAYLOR. Your scales overlap to the extent that you can slide. In other words, a teacher with 7 years' experience and a bachelor's degree would earn $3,200. If she gets the master's degree, this master's degree qualification begins at $3,000, so all you do is slide over into that scale, and there is no provision for an increase in salary when you get the master's degree, it is an increase in attainable maximum, but not an increase immediately in salary.

You just slide over into a scale and keep on climbing at $100 a year.

Mr. Bares. Have you any further explanation of that, Mr. Corning?

Dr. CORNING. The master's degree is recognized when it is attained, and at any point in the scale, wherever that teacher may happen to be, he would slide over, as Mr. Taylor expresses it, which is a good expression, into the master's degree scale.

I still cannot see the 22, or the 21 years that you have mentioned. Assuming that the teacher would continue to go on through into A with a bachelor's degree, it would take 12 years to get to the maximum

: It would take 4 years to get to the maximum of the B group.

If at any point in that progress, the teacher got the master's degree, it would forthwith allow him to go to the master's degree scale which would cut down the number of years.

As Mr. Taylor indicated, he would not go into the new grade with loss of salary but if he is pretty high in the age scale, he would have fewer steps to do.

Mr. TAYLOR. That is correct; she would have fewer steps, but she would not be advanced any nearer to maximum by going over there. The maximum would be increased as the attainable maximum, but

of that group:



you would not be any closer to it. The only thing you do by getting The master's degree is slide over onto a scale on which you could go further.

We agree that that is a fine thing. We certainly agree, but I think Mr. Bates should understand that you cannot go at more than $100 a year fr $2,500 to $4,700, and we are not proposing any increase in those increments at the time.

Mr. Bates. You agree, Mr. Corning, that you must go at $100 increments from $2,500, to $1,700, which is 22 years?

Dr. CORNING. No; I do not agree with that.

Mr. Bates. Let us have a little order here, please. I think we should Jiave a clarification of that.

Mr. Taylor. If you did attain a master's degree within the first 5 years of your teaching you would slide over onto a scale at the minimum of $3,000. In other words, if you had been in 2 years and were earning $2,709 and got the master's degree, I assume you would go over to a 1C qualification, and pick up 3 years on the scale, but the average teacher docs not get a master's degree in 2 years.

Dr. CoRxIng. I agree that your statement is right on that. Of course, I do not know who the average teacher is, but great numbers of them get their master's degree, be they average or otherwise.

I should not be questioning this witness.

Mr. Bates. I think it is all right if we can understand what this means.

Mr. HANSEN. It would be possible to get into this maximum class in 16 years, beginning at $3,000 now.

Mr. Bates. Let us set up a hypothetical case of a young man or young woman coming out of high school qualifying for the minimum salary of $2,500 and by industry and efficiency she acquires a master's degree in the very shortest period of time. What is the maximum number of years that she can possibly get the $1,700? There are 12 years of service involved there, of course?

Dr. CORNING. If she got the master's degree at the end of the first year, she would go immediately then to the $:3,000. It would then take 16 years from that point to reach the top. It could take anywhere from 16 years to 22 years to do so.

Mr. TAYLOR. I would like to make this point, in view of that trend of thinking here, and that is in view of the first 5 years of teaching, I do not believe that the average teacher would carry the burden of teaching and the responsibility it entails to get a master's degree in a year.

That is a full year's work for a person who is not doing any job. Therefore, it usually spreads out. Naturally I do not know the average teacher, but I would say that the people who are in this room who have gotten master's degrees have gotten them over a period of years and certainly not within 1 or 2 years.

Mr. BATES. That may be the answer you have to that question, so it may develop, as you say, to 20 years, or 22 years.

Please proceed, Mr. Taylor. That is an interesting point.

Mr. TAYLOR. The other thing we are particularly interested in, is the fact that the proposal provides a $250 increase immediately. I believe that is the only aspect of the bill we could term that has any keeping with the cost-of-living increase. The other increases are permanent changes in the salary bill to better the status of the teacher.


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