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proposed bill, let me ask whether or not it would be your intention, however the moneys were to be raised, to support at least a continuation of the $450 that were made available by emergency legislation.

Commissioner MASON. Yes.
Senator Cain. We, therefore, are talking about the difference.
Commissioner Mason. That is right, the $250.

Senator Cain. And any differences that might arise, between the $150 and the sum total requested.

Commissioner Mason. Yes.
Senator Cain. I see.

Dr. CORNING. Well, at that time the Government employees were receiving 14 percent as an increase. We applied that 14 percent to our total pay roll, the people affected by this bill

, and instead of putting it on a percentage basis, disbursed it on a flat basis of $600 in our request on the theory that we believed it was sound, and still believe it is sound, that the percentage increase would have caused a disproportionate amount of increase in amounts of money to the higher salaries, so the $600 was requested.

Senator Cain. How did the $600 compare with the 14 percent in dollars?

Dr. CORNING. It would have cost more in money.

Then, through the deliberations of Congress the proposed increase was reduced to $450, the flat increase for this year only, as has been explained to you, and with the mandate that went along with it, that we report directly to Congress. I do hope that there is no misunderstanding of that whatever, because we were mandated by Congress to report directly to you.

At the same time, for the information of the Commissioners we sent everything to them at exactly the same time it was sent down to the hill. As Mrs. Doyle indicated, we did have a hearing at the Commissioners' office in which the whole thing was discussed also.

So, we are here today in response to that mandate.

I would like to review very briefly with you some of the steps that we took to follow a democratic method in arriving at this salary proposal. The general study was referred to the joint legislative council, which is an organization representative of something over 40 organizations within the school district. The chairman of that joint legislative council is here today.

Senator Cain. That is a lay committee?

Doctor CORNING. No; that is a professional committee within our own group. They spent months of study on the salary schedule and had many, many meetings, most of them were night meetings; and I think they deserve a very great deal of credit for the diligence in the way they went at the study. No school time was used whatever; what they did they did on their own time.

They then submitted a report to the superintendent of schools, giving their findings. That report was very carefully screened by the officers. The superintendent then called meetings of all of the teachers, and before he made any recommendation to the Board of Education, discussed with the teachers what the inclusions in that recommendation would be.

Now, I might say parenthetically, that as a result of that initial responsibility, which we did not ask for, we had dozens of organiza

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tions and groups and the faculties of schools writing in giving their endorsement to the plan. But in addition to that, the officers themselves held hearings in the office of the superintendent of schools for any groups or any individuals interested in the proposals who could come to the officers and explain their points of view.

Then the superintendent made a recommendation to the Board of Education. The Board of Education considered through its committees, as has been explained to you, the recommendations that went to the Board, and included the majority of the requests that had been made, though some were not included.

The Board of Education held hearings on the proposal before they accepted it. Finally, the Board adopted the schedule which is incorporated in the bill that is before you.

The report to the committees of Congress was delivered on January 31, 1947, and then later, as has been explained, the legislation itself was drawn.

Now, I will have to go back for just a few moments, if I may, to the need we think brings this about. There is no need of commenting to you gentlemen about the crisis in education; it is very serious. It is one of the most serious problems facing the American public today the country over. It has been termed as the case of the vanishing teacher. and that is very aptly put because that is what it amounts to.

Mr. Bates. It is just typical of what we experienced in 20, 21, and '22.

Doctor CORNING. Except, sir, that I went through that, too, and I have never seen anything to compare with this.

Mr. Bates. I was all over that myself.

Senator Cain. I was not through the first one, but knowing certain other States, I have got a great sympathy and some reasonable understanding of what your are talking about. But you are saying it with the same vehemence and fervor that any school superintendent in America could say it.

Go right ahead and with good cause.
Mr. BATEs. I think there is some jurisdiction.
Doctor Corning. That puts me in pretty good company.
Senator Cain. It does, indeed.
Mr. Bates. That is right.

Doctor CORNING. Just to give you a few figures on that Nationwide situation, it is estimated this year that there are 865,000 teachers employed, whereas, in the thirties there were 900,000. Of the 865.000, 109,000 of them are on substandard bases at the present time. There are 75,000 vacancies in the schools of America at the present.

Senator Cain. What do you refer to when you say substandard?

Doctor Corning. Emergency certificates that have been granted allowing people to teach without adequate training and qualifications.

There are 350,000 school teachers who have left the profession since 1939. That is a thing to give us pause the country over.

The most serious phase is from the teacher-training angle. The population of teacher's training institutions has been greatly reduced. and there has been very little done during the war in teacher-training. although in general college training, a great deal is being done now. In teacher training, it is rather interesting to note that in the North Central States, based on the report of the North Central Association, which is the Midwest accrediting agency for high schools and colleges,

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in 1946 there were graduated as teachers in elementary schools, 3,757 in all of those States. In 1941, that is just 5 years earlier, 10,182 were graduated.

High-school graduates are just not interested in going into teachertraining, and I think that is by far the most serious phase of it.

Mr. BATES. What year was that again?

Doctor CORNING. 1946 was the low figure, and 1941 was the high figure; that is just when the war was starting, you see.

Senator CAIN. Well, we face, therefore, unknown factors in teaching, do we not? Doctor CORNING. Definitely, with the source cut off.

Senator Cain. If we assume that our national income is based to some degree, anyway, on fictitious wages and salaries and incomes of one kind or another, as those fall off, if they do, there may be a gradual swing, but it cannot be swung, so far as you know, for some years to come.

Dr. CORNING. Well, it will not reflect or be reflected in a supply of teachers until the training is completed, which is a 4-year period.

Senator CAIN. No; there would be a time such as that.

Dr. CORNING. There is another thing that I think I would like to call your attention to and which we cannot defer, and that is the birth rate. In other words, if we are talking about attracting teachers, we have got to think of having many more teachers than at the present time.

From 1941 to 1946 there were 13,000,000 babies born. According to the estimates of the experts on birth statistics, the expected number was 9,000,000.

Mr. BATES. What do they base that on?
We are getting into a very deep subject.
Dr. CORNING. But a very pertinent one.

There is nothing that shows an indication of our very great responsibility more than the increasing birth rate.

Mr. BATES. That is the way it is.

Dr. CORNING. Well, this national crisis has been talked about over the country by school men for a good many years, and I think you are aware that all kinds and types of lay organizations are calling attention to it.

I want to bring it right down specifically here to Washington. I reported to you when I was here before that we have at the present time 450 teachers, approximately, on a temporary basis; that is, Washington has 450 temporary teachers. We have some vacancies that are not filled, because we cannot find people to fill them. Senator Cain. They are temporary because you need anybody. Dr. CORNING. That is correct, exactly.

Mr. BATEs. Dr. Corning, would you pardon the interruption at this time? You say 450 temporary.

Dr. CORNING. That is right.

Mr. BATEs. What would you say the minimum qualifications of those teachers are?

Dr. CORNING. Well, sir, I have not analyzed that.
Mr. BATEs. Are they college graduates ?
Dr. CORNING. Many are not college graduates.
Mr. Bares. Are they teacher-training graduates ?
Senator CAIN. Normal school?

Dr. CORNING. I will have to give you definite information on that later. I do not have that.

Mr. BATES. Are any of those teachers that you employ with any. thing less than a normal school teacher's training?

Dr. CORNING. Yes, sir; I am sure there are some; but the numbers I cannot give you now. I will be glad to supply it for you.

Mr. BATEs. In other words, what you have in Washington are just high-school graduates teaching the pupils of this city.

Dr. CORNING. We may have some.

Mr. BATES. I would like to have the numbers of those; that is highly important.

Dr. CORNING. But they do not meet Washington standards or they would have been appointed as permanent teachers. There are some of them, by reason of age, who are too far advanced in years, and are not qualified in that respect. The majority of them are not qualified for permanent appointments. I would like to submit for the record, and for your information, the chart which shows the turnover of the teachers in the city of Washington because it is very pertinent to the subject which we are now discussing.

Senator Cain. Very well.
(The document referred to is as follows:)

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Source: Office of the Statistician, Public Schools of the District of Columbia, Apr. 15, 1947,

Dr. CORNING. I have attempted to analyze here the period covering 9 years which, I think, is pretty representative.

The withdrawals from our service have been for various reasons. In the first place, those who have taken leaves of absence have left for educational purposes, or because of illness, or are maternity leaves, or for military service, and so forth. We find there a total of those leaves of absence of 1,177.

Mr. BATES. As to what date?

Df. CORNING. Over the 9-year period. Those are not so serious because in most instances they return, although it is true that we have lost a considerable number of those who decided finally at the expiration of their leaves they were not coming back. On that I have no specific figures at the moment.

But the next group is very serious. They include the resignations. We find that 537

permanent employees have resigned outright, and that 584 temporary employees have resigned. Senator Cain. Let me ask

you

thisDr. CORNING. Yes, sir.

Senator Cain. Of those resignations of temporary employees, how many of those do you assume were requested? I can see a lot of reasons why you would request the resignation of a temporary employee.

Dr. CORNING. Well, indeed, sir, during these war years there have been very few requests because there have been no temporary employees to take their places.

Senator Cain. Most of them have been determined by the individuals themselves.

Dr. CORNING. Yes, sir. And that is a total of 1,121, or 32 percent of our present staff that have resigned from our service altogether, which, I think, is extraordinarily high, and which gives you a picture of the turn-over in the school system during the last 9 years.

I would like to call your attention to the fact that the resignation of any expert teachers is a loss that is almost irreparable. Excellent teachers are very special people, and they are not easily found, even when we had large numbers from which to recruit; it is just not too easy to find those who are expert.

Senator Cain. And in your 9-year period you have only suspended two teachers for cause?

Dr. CORNING. Yes, sir.
Senator Cain. Out of the total.
Dr. CORNING. Yes, sir.

Now, as to the recruitment of teachers in Washington, I would like to call your attention to the fact, if I may, that enrollment in teachers' colleges is shockingly small, as has been called attention to in the press on numerous occasions. Not only that, but I think the numbers taking our qualifying examinations to enter the professions here are rather surprisingly low.

As you know, all appointees have to submit to a very rigorous examination by our Board of Examiners. It is rather interesting, I think, that in examinations which were given just a week ago in divisions 1 to 9 in academic subjects for high schools and junior high schools, We had only 43 people who applied for the examination. That is to fill all of the positions in academic subjects in the city of Washington. We

only had 43 candidates. Of course, all of them will not pass.

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