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SEO. 5. (a) Every teacher, school officer, or other employee in the service of the Board of Education on probationary tenure on June 30, 1947, whose annual compensation is increased under the provisions of this amendatory Act at the rate of not more than $700 during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, or who may be appointed after June 30, 1947, shall receive his first annual increase on the date of his permanent appointment.

(b) Every teacher, school officer, or other employee in the service of the Board of Education on probationary tenure on June 30, 1947, whose annual compensation is increased under the provisions of this amendatory Act at the rate of more than $700 during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, shall receive his first annual increase on July 1, 1948.

SEC. 6. Section 6, paragraph (ap), of said Act approved July 21, 1945, is hereby amended by inserting after the words “research assistants," the word "counselors,”.

SEC. 7. Section 7 of said Act approved July 21, 1945, is hereby amended by striking out “1946" and inserting in lieu thereof “1948".

SEC. 8. Strike out so much of section 9 as reads: “Every teacher, instructor, librarian, and research assistant in the service on July 1, 1945, except as herein otherwise provided, and every teacher, instructor, librarian, and research assistant thereafter appointed shall be assigned according to eligibility to group A or group C, and shall be promoted to group B or group D according to eligibility on the basis of such evidence of superior teaching or other superior service and of increased professional attainments as the Board of Education may preseribe: Provided, That teachers, instructors, librarians, and research assistants receiving salaries in group B or group D on June 30, 1945, shall be transferred and assigned to group B or group D in their respective salary classes in accordance with section 6 without further examinations or additional qualifications,", and insert in lieu thereof the following : "Every teacher, instructor, librarian, and research assistant in the service on July 1, 1945, except as herein otherwise provided, and every teacher, school officer, or other employee thereafter appointed shall be assigned according to eligibility to group A or group C, and every teacher, school officer, or other employee, except as herein otherwise provided, shall be promoted to group B or group D according to eligibility on the basis of such evidence of superior teaching or other superior service and of increased professional attainments as the Board of Education may prescribe: Provided, That teachers, instructors, librarians, and research assistants receiving salaries in group B or group D on June 30, 1947, shall be continued in group B or group D in their respective salary classes without further examinations or additional qualifications,”.

SEC. 9. Section 9 of said Act is further amended by striking out in the secondi proviso the numerals and word “2, 5, or 6," wherever they appear, and inserting in lieu thereof the numerals and word "1, 2, 4, 5, or 6”.

Sec. 10. Section 9 of said Act is further amended by striking out the last sentence thereof and inserting in lieu thereof "Any person who has received for at least one year the maximum salary of group B in salary classes 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6. shall be eligible for promotion to group D in salary classes 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 in aecordance with such rules and regulations as the Board of Education mar prescribe.".

SEC. 11. That section 15 of said Act approved July 21, 1945, is hereby amended to read as follows: "The Board of Education, on recommendation of the Superintendent of Schools, is hereby authorized to appoint annual substitute teachers, who shall qualify for said positions by meeting such eligibility requirements as the said Board may prescribe, and who shall be assigned to the lowest class to which eligible for the type of work to be performed, and who shall be entitled to salary placement credit as provided in paragraph (ap) of section 6 of this Act, but who shall not be entitled to annual increases of said class: Prorided. That the said Board shall prescribe the amount to be deducted from the salary of any absent teacher for whom an annual substitute may perform service: And provided further, That the above authorization for the appointment of anmual substitute teachers shall not be construed to prevent the Board of Education from the employment of other substitute teachers under regulations to be prescribed by the said Board."

SEC. 12. That section 16 of said Act approved July 21, 1945, is hereby amended to read as follows: "When necessary, the Board of Education, on written recommendation of the Superintendent of Schools, is authorized and empowered to appoint temporary teachers: Prorided, That such appointments shall be made

for a limited period not to extend beyond June 30 of the fiscal year in which the appointments are made, and the Board of Education is authorized to terminate the services of any temporary teachers at any time, on the written recommendation of the Superintendent of Schools: And provided further, That all temporary teachers shall receive the basic salary of the class in which service is to be performed plus salary placement credit provided in paragraph (ap) of section 6 of this Act, but shall not be entitled to annual increases of said class.”

SEC. 13. The rates of salary herein designated shall become effective on July 1, 1947, and the estimates of the expenditures for the operation of the publicschool system of the District of Columbia shall thereafter be prepared in conformity with the classification and compensation of employees herein provided. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, no teacher, school officer, or other employee of the Board of Education whose salary is included in the schedules contained in title I of said Act of July 21, 1945, as hereby amended, shall receive any increase in compensation other than as provided in this Act.

Sec. 14. This Act shall become effective on July 1, 1947. Senator Cain. If we may first hear from the gentlemen or the individuals who will represent the Board of District of Columbia Commissioners, I shall appreciate it very much.

STATEMENT OF VERNON E. WEST, CORPORATION COUNSEL,

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, WASHINGTON, D. C. Mr. West. Mr. Chairman, the Commissioners are not yet ready to report upon this bill. They have just seen it, and they have not had an opportunity to study it, and wanted to await the result of this hearing.

Senator Cain. Dr. Corning would like to have us hear first from Mrs. Doyle, president of the Board of Education. Will she please come forward and properly identify herself to the reporter, and then proceed, Mrs. Doyle? STATEMENT OF MRS. HENRY GRATTAN DOYLE, PRESIDENT, BOARD

OF EDUCATION, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, WASHINGTON, D. C. Mrs. DOYLE. I am Mrs. Henry Grattan Doyle, president of the Board of Education of the District of Columbia.

As you are aware, I am sure, the Congress last year passed a temporary increase for the teachers in the amount of $450. That was for 1 year only; and the Board of Education was asked to make a study of the whole salary schedule, and this we have done. We have done it in a way in which we have worked out all of our salary bills from the retirement bills in what we feel is the democratic manner.

Senator Cain. Mrs. Doyle, do you mind being interrupted occasionally?

Mrs. DOYLE. Not at all. Senator Cain. You say that last year the Congress passed a temporary relief bill of $150. Did that go to all teachers--primary, intermediate, and high school?

Mrs. DOYLE. Yes; and asked that this study be made, as I said. It proceeded to teachers' organizations; worked out along the line of cooperation; discussion with Doctor Corning, and the bill came to the Board of Education.

It was there discussed, and under the chairmanship of Mr. Lee. public hearings were held, and that has resulted in a bill which is

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On behalf of the Board, I want to say this to you gentlemen : We are charged with the responsibility of the education of the teachers of the children of the District of Columbia. In discharging that responsibility to the children, we feel that a change in the salary schedule is absolutely necessary. The teachers will benefit, to be sure; but we are not asking it primarily for our teachers; we are asking it because it is necessary to have that to keep qualified personnel to teach our children.

The opening salary, which it went back to before it was the $450, was only $1,900, and those salaries, of course, in the Federal Government cannot attract people with A. B. degrees at $1,900.

Senator Cain. One other question, please. The $450 was temporary; only for the fiscal year 47?

Mrs. DoYLE. Yes.

Senator Cain. Unless other legislation is passed for '47-48, you lose the $450 temporary increase?

Irs. Doyle. That is right. As I know you will see, that is an impossible salary to attract young men and young women who have had a 4-year college course, because we require the A. B. degree.

In addition, we are asking other salary increases because we have to think of keeping qualified personnel after they come in; we have to try to keep them, both administratively and as teachers.

So, on behalf of the Board, I want to say to you gentlemen that in our opinion, action is absolutely necessary to keep these people with us; to get them in, in the first place, and to maintain a school system that is the type of system that ought to be for the children of Washington.

I am going now to ask Mr. Lee, who is the chairman of our legislative committee and who conducted the hearings on the bill to speak to you briefly and from then on Doctor Corning will talk to you on the details of the bill.

Mr. Bates. Mr. Chairman before the other witness begins I would like to ask some questions.

You are chairman of the School Board ?
Mrs. DOYLE. Yes.

Mr. BATEs. Mrs. Doyle, as such, of course, you are appearing here on behalf of the school system of the District. You are, after all, the official and most direct witness with whom we have to deal, so I will have to ask you a few questions.

Have you given this bill your most thorough thought and consideration from every angle?

Mrs. DoYLE. Yes.

Mr. Bates. Including the ability of the taxpayers to assume the responsibility for this increase!

Mrs. Doyle. Well, Mr. Chairman, as I said in the beginning, our responsibility is for the education of the children, and we have looked at it from that point of view. Our function, as charged in the 1906 act, is to be responsible for the education of the children. We are not charged with the financial responsibility, but as citizens, as all of us are, and in my contacts with the community, I feel that the citizenry of Washington want to pay higher salaries to keep the teachers.

Now, that is our approach to it. As citizens, we are confident that Washington taxpayers are interested in higher salaries for teachers.

Mr. Bates. I think we could all go along with that, but to what degree are they interested? Are they interested to the degree that you have recommended in this bill?

Mrs. DOYLE. From the organizations that have acted and from whom you can get testimony, I would say “Yes.”

Mr. BATES. The Commissioners have not taken any action yet.

STATEMENT OF GUY MASON, MEMBER, BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS,

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, WASHINGTON, D. C. Commissioner Mason. Mr. Chairman, I am prepared to make a statement, and I apologize for coming in late and being tardy.

Mr. BATES. With due respect to Mrs. Doyle, I think we ought to hear from the Commissioners.

Senator Cain. If you will, just sit where you are, Mrs. Doyle.

Commissioner MASON. The attached graph shows that the present teachers' pay scale for Washington, excluding the special $150 bonus which was granted for 1 year only—that answers your question, Senator.

Senator Cain. Yes.

Commissioner Mason. It is below some important American cities, and not much above the average of all the cities shown. With the increase proposed by the Board of Education's bill, the scale would be higher than for any city except New York; but in terms of dollars per year per teacher it would still not represent a very large increase.

It is common knowledge that the pay scale for teachers in cities throughout the United States, including Washington, is so low that teaching staffs cannot be recruited to full strength; that the turnover is excessive; that some teachers are below the standards of ability or experience demanded for a sound educational system; and that there is a widespread dissatisfaction and lowered morale. When such a condition develops, it is essential to the public interest to increase pay scales enough to correct the condition.

We are very much in a competitive field. Industry and many of the professions are making inroads on the teachers' ranks for their help because of their educational qualifications and their ability to perform.

For this reason I believe that pay increases, on some such scale as those proposed by the Board of Education, are needed to maintain the efficiency of our public schools.

I have not studied the bill enough to form an opinion on whether the exact scales specified for different positions are sound and properly balanced, but I do feel that, regardless of any changes in detail, the total cost to the District—which is the matter primarily concerning the Board of Commissioners-will not be far from the total estimated by the Board of Education.

To this extent, and with these qualifications, I endorse the bill, and the other Commissioners join me.

However, I wish to emphasize that the adoption of this bill would not produce an over-all benefit to the District of Columbia as a whole, unless means are found to finance it without reducing other expenditures contemplated by the Commissioners' 1948 budget, as already submitted. If the money to finance this bill is taken from some other department or departments of the District government, either by re

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ducing annual costs or by eliminating capital expenditures, precisely as critical a condition will develop elsewhere as has already developed in the Board of Education.

We cannot escape the simple and fundamental fact that lies behind the city's finances and municipal facilities. Since 1941 our population has had a permanent growth of nearly 200,000. There will be little. if any, immediate reduction, and before many years the increase will be resumed.

Large new areas within the District are being built up; these new residents and newly built areas call for new streets, new schools and playgrounds, additional police and fire protection, a large expansion of water and sewage disposal systems, and so forth. Very little has been spent since 1941 to give such new facilities.

A report prepared last summer by the Engineer Commissioner estimated that the capital costs of such needs, from the general fund alone. total about $100,000,000. This report is being checked by a citizens planning committee appointed by the District Commissioners which will submit a final report shortly. It is probable that the increase in construction costs over the past year will necessitate an increase in General Young's total estimate by at least 10 percent.

If we do not adopt and adhere to a systematic plan for providing these capital improvements at a reasonable rate and financing them, the consequences can easily be foreseen. Progressively, and at an increasing rate, persons who can afford to do so will leave the District and move into adjacent areas where better services will be afforded them. They simply will not remain in a city where they cannot get adequate service as regards schools, utilities, highways, and the like, if they can afford to move elsewhere.

These citizens in the middle and high-income brackets pay a large share of our taxes. The retail outlets which serve them pay another large share; and those retail outlets will progressively follow them. The condition will develop, if it is not developing already, where the city's population will contain a greater and greater proportion of persons with low incomes, who pay small taxes but make high demands on the city's treasury, while the sources of taxation to meet those demands are drying up.

The situation as to schools is typical. The Department of Educa tion admittedly needs more money to pay its teachers. But it also desperately needs more money for new schools. In our 1948 budget we provided less than $8,000,000 for all capital improvements from the general fund, of which only $2,000,000 was for new schools. The amount is pitifully inadequate, but it was all that we could afford, and on the basis of making capital improvements from current revenue. Therefore, if Congress should finance a teachers' pay bill by reduc

a ing the capital improvements or the annual costs of any other departments which we are proposing in the 1948 budget, Congress will simply be curing one sore spot by creating another.

In the last few months I have been coming to the belief that the only solution to our problem may be to finance general fund capital improvements by a loan. Unless Congress can derise some means to pay our annual costs, such as teachers' salaries, and still give us money to make capital improvements out of current revenue at a reasonable rate, I feel that Congress should turn its early attention to the possibilities of such a loan.

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