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chance to go over there you would be surprised to see the concentration of buildings in that area, and there are going to be long distances for the people to go even when we get our Anacostia branch built for which we already have the plans. So that beside that—I do not know how much you want to go into this, and I do not want to take your time unnecessarily, but there are certain elements in placement of branches; it is not only the population, but it is also the separation by transportation channels and natural barriers which come into the picture. In other words, people will not cross such barriers. You take Wisconsin Avenue and Connecticut Avenue. People living west of Wisconsin will not come to Connecticut Avenue; and people living on the east side of Connecticut will not go to Wisconsin, so that those factors come in as well.

But as far as we can work it out, we have tried to think in terms of branches large enough to give a really good educational service, predicated on the idea that it is possible for people to go a little longer distance now.

Senator Cain. How far into the future have you projected your building program, if you had your own dreams come true!

? Miss HERBERT. We have a postwar program which was adopted by the Board of Library Trustees, that covered the whole situation in the District, and looked toward 32 branches ultimately.

Senator Cain. Your Board of Trustees consists, I presume, of lay persons from within the community?

Miss HERBERT. Yes.
Senator Cain. By what means are they selected?

Miss HERBERT. They are appointed by the Commissioners. There are nine members under the law.

Senator Cain. Both men and women?
Miss HERBERT. Both men and women.
Senator Cain. Serving terms of what length?

Miss HERBERT. Six years on a rotating plan. In the meantime, General Young's 6-year program has been developed into which our program is being fitted, and that will take care of immediate needs.

The major problem that we have to face now is to get possession of the entire new main building on Pennsylvania Avenue, so that we may open up a public service there.

Senator Cain. I do not think I quite follow; you desire to get possession?

Mis HERBERT. Yes. The building was under construction when the war began, and it was completed on the understanding that it could be occupied by the Federal Government during the war period.

Three floors are still being rented by the Office of Inter-American Affairs of the State Department.

Senator Caix. The rest of the department is being used for your purposes?

Miss HERBERT. Yes, but not for public service as yet. Only for administration, and our processing departments-acquisitions, cataloging and binding.

Senator Cain. But you would like to acquire in its entirety its service facility?

Miss HERBERT. Yes; and then get the second unit built. It is being built in four units, and the second unit is included in General Young's plan. We can open up some of our public services as soon as we get possession of the whole first unit and have the money for its operation.

Senator Cain. Would you reflect a little, please, on your increase in personnel, beginning roughly with your base figure of 1937.

Miss HERBERT. Yes, sir. From 1937 to 1917, an increase of 63 positions. It is a little difficult to give you exact figures because we have a good deal of part-time employment, but based on full-time employment

Senator Caix. Sixty more employees than you had some 10 years ago.

Miss HERBERT. Than we had some 10 years ago. Part of this increase is represented by reason of the fact that we are operating two new large branches and one new small branch.

Senator Cain. That you did not have in 1937.

Miss HERBERT. That we did not have at that time. We have added new services and longer hours at certain agencies, and a higher grade reference and advisory service is demanded as people realize more and more what the library means to them in their personal lives and in their group activities.

Senator Cain. Your library workers, your librarians, do not give out books, they give out service.

Miss HERBERT. Yes.

Senator Cain. You are asking for $241,000 more in 1948 than 1947 for personal services. Does that reflect the addition of new positions?

Miss HERBERT. Yes. It reflects the following: (a) 34 positions for restoration of positions cut from 1945 and 1946 acts because of inability to fill vacancies as of a given date and Josses caused by operation of the 10-hour work week; (1) 16 custodial and engineering positions for maintenance of new main building; (c) 30 part-time temporary positions to acquire, prepare, and catalog the book stock for public service in new main library building.

Senator Cain. You are operating on a 40-hour week?

Miss HERBERT. We are operating on a 10-hour week. We have three members of the custodial staff

Senator Cux. Well, that increased your personnel by going from 44 hours to 40.

Miss HERBERT. Yes. Then if we take over the whole of this building at 499 Pennsylvania Avenue, we are going to need guards and engineers and so forth, so that the increase includes that; and it also includes 30 positions for 6 months' time, to take care of the additional book stock, which we shall have to order and get ready for the new main library when it is opened; that will be temporary serivce.

Senator Cain. I wonder if you could tell me what the national per capita figure for library budgets happens to be? Is it $1 or $1.25 ?

Miss HERBERT. I can tell you what the standards are of the American Library Association. They set up for limited or minimum service, $1 per capita.

Senator Cain. You are giving extensive service as opposed to limited service, or that is your desire, anyway!

Miss HERBERT. Yes.

For reasonably good service, $1.50 per capita, and for superior service, $2 per capita.

These were 1943 figures, before the general national increase in salaries, so I would say that the library, to operate properly an educational service, should have not $1.08 at present, but $2 per capita.

Senator Cain. But you would not for any reason want to suggest how we might get you superior dollars to go along with your admittedly superior service. If it were not for these pay bills which inject an insurmountable obstacle from time to time, and various other financial factors, I think we would not have very much trouble.

Miss HERBERT. Well, I recognize that. And I recognize, of course, the difficulty the District is under, but it seems to me that what Senator O'Mahoney was saying a short time ago, is that this is the national capital, and this public library in Washington, although it will not be the largest library, since New York, of course, will be larger, and Chicago, still it will be one of the most significant libraries in the country. It will set the standard for library service for national visitors, and we have a great many national visitors now, such as librarians, superintendents of schools, and municipal management people.

Also, we have a great many foreign visitors, people from the Latin Americas, who are visiting here in connection with library services in their own countries.

I think two things should be borne in mind. One is that the library is not a luxury. It is an absolutely, positively required agency, if we are going to have the kind of community life that we need here.

Senator Cain. Most of us who listen to you are pretty well convinced of that fact.

Miss HERBERT. I appreciate that you are.

Senator Cain. The question is one of finances rather than one of need, because finances are things we must somehow find in order to advance your progress.

Miss HERBERT. Yes. That is obvious, but in the national capital, after all, of the largest country in the world, and the least affected by the

war, there should be some way by which we could carry out the mandate of Congress in line with the best library practice.

I think perhaps that covers your questions.

The capital outlay total in the 10 years is $1,563,000 and that covers sites, plans, buildings, and the first unit of the new main library.

Senator Cain. Well, Miss Herbert, I am very appreciative of your testimony. You would not expect me to, because I could not tell you what your financing for the future is going to be, but we are going to study those figures of yours as best we can, being realistic about the matter, and with reference to Senator O'Mahoney's proposal formula, if we assume, which we have no particular right to do, that that formula would påss as it is, the dollars coming from that formula would still leave your fine system and that of the other units within your Government, considerably short of their 1948 demands without finding additional tax revenue somewhere.

So, it is merely a difficult problem in dollars and cents.

Miss HEREBRT. Yes. I think we all realize that. We are very happy over your extremely interesting hearings, Senator.

Senator Cain. We hope that they will be more than interesting. We think they will be productive.

Miss HERBERT. Yes, very valuable.

Senator Cain. And yet it is still far too early to tell where we are going to produce something from what appears to be almost nothing.

Miss HERBERT. I understand that. Shall I leave this document?

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Senator CAIN. Let me see that, if I may, please. I would like to have that in the record very much, if you please. (The document is as follows:)

THE PUBLIC LIBRARY, 1937-47

THE PUBLIC LIBRARY, AN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

The act of Congress which created the Public Library created it as "a supplement of the public educational system” of the District.

In carrying out that mandate the library offers information service through its reference facilities; informal adult education through reading guidance to individuals and groups, and through study and discussion groups; technical and vocational materials to business and industrial workers, and professional men and women; to the homemaker, service in problems of child care, nutrition, health and budgeting, and recreation; to the citizen, materials on questions of the hour, in local, national, and world affairs. It renders to children and young people service directed to fostering good reading habits, in order to develop an adult population that knows and appreciates the value and use of books and other materials in making for better living and citizenship.

The library operates through a central library and 13 neighborhood branches. Through the extension service, collections of books are sent to schools, colleges, hospitals, camps, orphanages, penal institutions, and other agencies.

INCREASES IN APPROPRIATIONS, 1937-47

The accompanying table shows appropriations for each year 1937-47 with increases as follows:

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REASONS FOR INCREASES, 1937-47 Capital outlay

The organic act states : "Said library shall consist of a central library and such number of branch libraries so located and so supported as to furnish books and other printed matter and information service convenient to the homes and offices of all residents of the District."

In this period two large branches were built and one small one established in a rented store building, and longer hours of service were given in two other branches.

Appropriations were made for sites for additional branch libraries in Cleveland Park, Brightwood, Wodbridge, Anacostia, Brookland, Benning, and Tenley at a total cost of $155,000.

Money for plans and specifications was appropriated for buildings in Pleasant Plains, Anacostia, Cleveland Park, Benning, Woodridge, and Brightwood at a total cost of $50,000.

The first unit of the new main library was constructed at a total cost of $1,178,000 including plans and specifications.

OPERATING EXPENSES Personal services

(a) There has been a growing recognition of the library as an educational institution, especially for post classroom education requiring a higher grade of reference and advisory work.

(6) Increased number of employees due to new agencies and services. (c) Reclassification of library service by Civil Service Commission survey. (d) Pay bills of 1945 and 1946.

Other increases

Average cost of books : $1.09 in 1937, $1.60 in 1947.
Average cost of binding (8-inch book): $0.55 in 1937, $1.25 to $1.75 in 1947.

Maintenance costs (fuel, supplies, etc.) have all risen in price.
Requirements for future

Tentative capital improvements, next 6 years, $4,390,488.
Tentative increases in annual operating expenses, $1,790,000.
Per capita cost, 1937: $1.13 (population 486,869).
Per capita cost, 1947: $1.08 (population 938,458).

Standard of American Library Association, 1943

Per capita (a) For limited or minimum service

$1. 00 (6) For reasonably good service_

1. 50 (C) For superior service--

2.00 Comparison with comparable cities, see attached table based on 1940 census.

THE PUBLIC LIBRARY, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

The library was established by act of Congress, June 3, 1896, as "a supplement of the public educational system” of the District of Columbia.

Analysis of increased costs, 1937–47 Personal services: 1937: 217 employees

$352, 020 1947: 280 employees ($656,778 regular, $99,512 deficiency).

756, 290

Increase in number of employees.

63

For new agencies--

32 For longer hours at central and two branches

12 For new services.--To meet increased demands for reference and advisory service--

14 A large part of the increased cost is because of two new pay bills and reallocations brought about by a survey of positions by Civil Service Commission. Books and periodicals: 1937

$60, 000 1947_

94, 585 To meet increased cost of books for library system which added three new agencies in this 10-year period. In 1937 the average cost of a book was $1.09; in 1947 it is $1.60. Binding: 1937

$20,000 1947.

40, 000 Binding costs have increased from 55 cents for rebinding an 8-inch book in 1937 to $1.25 to $1.75 in 1947. Maintenance : 1937_

$36, 500 1947_.

60, 577 The cost of all maintenance items has increased. Three new agencies have been added and some of the older buildings are in need of major repairs.

Capital improvements.--Total for 10-year period $1.563,000, as follows: Sites for seven branch libraries----

$155, 000 Plans and specifications for six buildings.

50, 000 New branch building

180, 000 New main library, first unit.

1, 178, 000 Per capita cost: 1937

$1. 13 1947.

1. 08

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