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ef Mr. BATES. What it shows, Chief, is that a substantial part of that Trease is due to personnel, and personnel. increase is not due to addi

nal personnel, because you have only added 25, during that period time, so it must be due to the 40 percent increase in wages. Mr. MURPHY. That is correct, Mr. Bates. Mr. Bates. I think that is a very creditable situation. Do any of the members of the committee have any questions to ask le Chief of the Fire Department? Mr. Smith. I was wondering if the Chief had any comparable figures In the salaries paid fire departments in other cities of comparable sizes.

Mr. MURPHY. The cities of comparable size, in general, pay about he same salaries. There are cities which pay larger salaries than are aid in Washington. Mr. SMITH. That is what I had in mind. Mr. MURPHY. I think our salaries, Mr. Smith, are about in line on an verage with the cities of comparable size. Will you permit me to make one short statement, Mr. Bates? Mr. BATES. You go ahead, Chief; that is all right, we are glad to near anything you have to say.

Mr. MURPHY. We furnish fire protection to the Federal Government. We do not compile records. We do have reports submitted by the commanding officers, who respond to these fires, and we file them away. We have never, in any of our justifications that I know of, before the Congress presented those figures and records in the prosecution of our budget. And we do a great amount of such work.

Mr. BATES. You could summarize simply in a brief statement for the benefit of the committee just what services the fire department renders to the Federal Government in respect to the protection of their properties.

Is there anything you could compile that would give us an idea of that?

Mr. MURPHY. Yes, sir.
Mr. Bates. Not now, but I mean in a brief that you might submit.
Mr. MURPHY. Later Í will submit that to the committee, Mr. Bates.

Mr. BATEs. Chief, is your personnel, in numbers sufficient, in your opinion, to operate the department at the present time?

Mr. MURPHY. We have fewer engine companies, I think, than any city in the United States of the same population, or within a close range. Of course, Washington is a little different from other cities.

The hazards are not as great as in manufacturing cities.

Our wide streets are fire stops, and the work of a fireman is easier here than it is in a great many of our large industrial cities.

That, I think, accounts for us being able to operate as efficiently as we do with less companies than other cities.

Mr. BATES. Is your equipment pretty well up in quality? Mr. Murphy. Our first-line equipment, I think, is the best of any city in the country.

It is generally recognized that a fire department should have about one-third the number of its first-line equipment as reserve equipment. We do not have that. We are practically without reserve equipment.

We have tried to overcome that in recent months by taking our hose wagons and equipping them as pumpers. We have 19 which

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Mr. MURPHY. Not in working hours, with the exception of the granting of 1 day off in 7, and annual leave was increased from 15 to ž6 days.

Mr. BATES. When did that happen?
Mr. MURPHY. I will have to guess at that.
Mr. Bates. Roughly, was it within the last 10 years?

Mr. MURPHY. No; I would say before that. Probably as long as 20 years ago.

Mr. Bates. Has any change been made in the working conditions or in the retirements that would induce men to quit at earlier ages during the last 10 years?

Mr. MURPHY. A few years ago, the Congress passed a bill permitting men to voluntarily retire if they had served 25 years and had reached the age of 55.

Mr. BATES. That is right. Have there been many leave the service under the provision of that law?

Mr. MURPHY. I do not have a 10-year table on that, Mr. Bates, but I do have a 5-year table.

Mr. BATES. That is all right.

Mr. MURPHY. During the 5 years, 1942 to 1946, inclusive, 55 members have taken advantage of the voluntary retirement law; that was 24 percent of the men who had retired during that 5-year period; 28 men were retired because of compulsory retirement. They had reached the age of 64, and when they reach that age in the Fire Department they are compelled to retire. That is not under law. I think it is under the Commissioners' order, or rule.

That rule has the approval of fire prevention authorities, such as the National Board of Fire Underwriters and the National Fire Protection Association, and other groups.

The policy has always been to maintain younger men in the Fire Department.

Disability during that 5-year period accounted for retirement of 142 members, which is 63 percent of the total number of men retired.

Now, during the 5-year period, these 3 groups total 225 retirements.

Mr. BATEs. Proceed with your statement, Chief.

Mr. MURPHY. Do you wish me to discuss the retirement of firemen, and the number retired, Mr. Bates, and the reasons?

Mr. BATES. Well, I just want to briefly go back to your 97 percent. Mr. MURPHY. Yes, sir.

Mr. BATEs. On the basis of your increase of $1,225,000 over the period of 10 years in the administrative cost of your Department, on the basis of your salaries, you say that 97 percent of that is due to the salary increases ?

Mr. Bowie. Our percentage is not for that time. It is based on the 1947 figure, sir.

Mr. Bates. It comes pretty close, anyway. I was going to say that on the basis of the 1937 payments for personnel, that compared to the budget of 1948, on a chart here, about 97 percent of that $1,200,000 is as the result of an increase of salaries? Mr. MURPHY. 97 percent of it. Mr. Bates. It does not quite show that here. Mr. MURPHY. That is what we have here.

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Mr. Bates. What it shows, Chief, is that a substantial part of that increase is due to personnel, and personnel. increase is not due to additional personnel, because you have only added 25, during that period of time, so it must be due to the 40 percent increase in wages.

Mr. MURPHY. That is correct, Mr. Bates.
Mr. BATEs. I think that is a very creditable situation.

Do any of the members of the committee have any questions to ask the Chief of the Fire Department?

Mr. Smith. I was wondering if the Chief had any comparable figures on the salaries paid fire departments in other cities of comparable sizes.

Mr. MURPHY. The cities of comparable size, in general, pay about the same salaries. There are cities which pay larger salaries than are paid in Washington.

Mr. SMITH. That is what I had in mind.

Mr. MURPHY. I think our salaries, Mr. Smith, are about in line on an average with the cities of comparable size.

Will you permit me to make one short statement, Mr. Bates?

Mr. Bates. You go ahead, Chief; that is all right, we are glad to hear anything you have to say.

Mr. MURPHY. We furnish fire protection to the Federal Government. We do not compile records. We do have reports submitted by the commanding officers, who respond to these fires, and we file them away. We have never, in any of our justifications that I know of, before the Congress presented those figures and records in the prosecution of our budget. And we do a great amount of such work.

Mr. BATEs. You could summarize simply in a brief statement for the benefit of the committee just what services the fire department renders to the Federal Government in respect to the protection of their properties.

Is there anything you could compile that would give us an idea of that?

Mr. MURPHY. Yes, sir.
Mr. BATEs. Not now, but I mean in a brief that you might submit.
Mr. MURPHY. Later 1 will submit that to the committee, Mr. Bates.

Mr. Bates. Chief, is your personnel, in numbers sufficient, in your opinion, to operate the department at the present time?

Mr. MURPHY. We have fewer engine companies, I think, than any city in the United States of the same population, or within a close range. Of course, Washington is a little different from other cities.

The hazards are not as great as in manufacturing cities.

Our wide streets are fire stops, and the work of a fireman is easier here than it is in a great many of our large industrial cities.

That, I think, accounts for us being able to operate as efficiently as we do with less companies than other cities.

Mr. Bates. Is your equipment pretty well up in quality?

Mr. MURPHY. Our first-line equipment, I think, is the best of any city in the country.

It is generally recognized that a fire department should have about one-third the number of its first-line equipment as reserve equipment. We do not have that. We are practically without reserve equipment.

We have tried to overcome that in recent months by taking our hose wagons and equipping them as pumpers. We have 19 which we have done that with, so that in case we have three or four large fires in Washington at the same time, we will be able to take the 19 hose wagons and set them up as separate engine companies.

Mr. BATEs. That is fine. Chief, I think you have given the committee about all we need. It is a very creditable situation, at least from my

viewpoint, existing in the Fire Department in the District. Instead of asking every department head, Mr. Commissioner, for a brief statement as to the type of services they render to the Federal Government, I wish you would contact your department heads and ask them to submit that in brief form so that we would have that for the benefit of the committee's information.

Thank you a lot, Chief.
Mr. MURPHY. Thank you very much, Mr. Bates.

Mr. Bates. Now we can hear from the Police Department, perhaps, following along the discussion of the fire chief, and do you have in mind about what we want, Chief?

(Statement later received for the record by the Fire Department covering a 10-year period.)

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1943: 43 privates to carry on the additional work caused by the increased population, details to the White House, navy yard, and inspections, Public Laws 22 and 49 providing a bonus for overtime work, 1 per diem mechanic to permit adequate maintenance of appartus, longevity increases for privates, and Wage Scale Board adjustments for per diem employees.

1944: 2 privates to be used in placing new Truck Company No. 16 in service, longevity increases for privates, Public Laws 22 and 49 providing for a bonus for overtime work, and Public Law 297 adjusting officers salaries with those of the Police Department.

1945: Longevity increases for privates, and Public Laws 253 and 49 providing a bonus for overtime work,

1946: Longevity increases for privates, and Public Laws 106 and 151 providing a bonus for overtime work.

STATEMENT OF WALTER H. THOMAS, ACTING MAJOR AND SUPER

INTENDENT, POLICE DEPARTMENT, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, ACCOMPANIED BY JAMES H. COX, SERGEANT, POLICE DEPART. MENT, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Mr. THOMAS. Yes, sir.
Mr. BATES. Just brief it as far as you can.

Now, I notice here, Chief, just to lay the basis for this discussion, that in 1937 your total expenditures were $3,715,580 and this year in the budget for 1948, $6,215,000. That is a pretty substantial increase in the police budget in the District in that period of time.

You go on from here, Chief.

Mr. THOMAS. Mr. Bates, if you wish, I could submit a statement here to begin with.

Mr. Bates. Yes, sir.

Mr. THOMAS. In the fiscal year 1938 this Department had a total' force of 1,391 policemen and 05 civilian employees. At this time we have 1,739 policemen and 127 civilians, and are requesting that the force be increased to 1,850 policemen and 132 civilians in 1948. This will effect an increase of approximately 30 percent in the Department's rolls in the 10-year period. This, we feel to be essential, as it is generally conceded that the population of the District has doubled during this period, and crime is on the increase.

Any justification of the expenses of operating the Police Department naturally hinges on personnel, as all other operating expenses comprise only 6 percent of the total.

Therefore, it leaves personnel salaries at 94 percent as we figure it.
Mr. BATES. 94 percent. That increase over a period of 10 years?

Mr. Cox. Actually, the increase was 95 percent, but the ratio to other expenses is 94 percent of the total.

Mr. Thomas. There was no appreciable increase in the number of employees or in the Department's appropriations until 1912 when the war forced us to enlarge the force to meet the demand for more in. tensified control. During that fiscal year Congress authorized, in the annual appropriation and two supplemental appropriations, the addition of 274 men. In the regular appropriation for 1943, 125 men were added, though recruiting difficulties prevented our attaining our authorized strength of 1,836 policemen.

In 1943, Congress passed Public Laws 22 (police and fire salaries) and 49 (classified services) granting an increase of $300 per person to all employees of the Department. This scale lasted until June 30, 1945, when Public Laws 106 and 151 became effective. These scales were in effect until June 30, 1946, when Public Laws 390 and 491, 14 percent increase went into effect.

It would be difficult to give a detailed explanation of each increase in operating expenses; however, most increases are attributed to either increases in the size of the force or to increase in prices of equipment and material. The following items, which show the greatest climb, are explained separately:

Crime travel: $1,340 to $2,940—up $1,600. This cost is largely due to increases in crime and increases in the detective-force travel. It is a variable figure, dependent upon the needs as they arise.

Communication service: $13,776 to $30,100—up $16,324.

This rise is directly attributable to increased activities of the force. In 1945 the Metropolitan Police Department joined the Interstate Police Teletype System, which now covers the greater part of the eastern seaboard. Rental on this equipment is approximately $2,500 per year, but its benefits have thoroughly justified its installation. The greatest rise is in telephone service, which is impossible to control as the department must be in a position to accept all calls regardless of their nature.

Printing and binding : $6,000 to $14,000—up $8,000.

Approximately $4,000 of this increase can be attributed to increased activity of the Department and increased cost of labor and material. The other $4,000 is required for the printing of the annual list of automobile registrations, which is an essential item. Prior to the war the present contractor supplied these lists in exchange for the privilege of having access to official records. However, his income from outside

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