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Mr. BATEs. That was an increase of 41.7 percent. That is 97 percent due to increase in personal services?

Mr. MURPHY. I might say our table does not show the fiscal year 1948. It is merely a prepared budget.

Mr. BATES. That is an estimate?

Mr. MURPHY. Which has not been submitted to the Committee on Appropriations.

Mr. Bates. Is it not part of the budget of the District ?
Mr. MURPHY. Yes, but it is not an approved budget.

Mr. Bares. No; but it is in the budget that will presently be under consideration by Congress.

Mr. MURPHY. That is right.

Mr. BATEs. That is the estimate which you give as to the cost of operating the Fire Department in the District for the fiscal year 1918!

Mr. MURPHY. Yes, sir.

Mr. BaTEs. Now, you say that is a 41.7 percent increase in that 10year period of time and 97 percent of that is due to increases in the cost of personnel.

What percent of that, Chief, is due to the wage increases? Let us take a base rate for your privates in the Fire Department of 1937. Have you got that figure there? And what is it in the 1948 budget ?

Mr. MURPHY. In 1937, a privatę, top grade.
Mr. BATES. Top grade.

Mr. MURPHY. $2,400 annually; in 1947, $3,398. The position of sergeant in 1937 called for a salary of $2,600.

In 1947, that salary has increased to $3,872.

The position of lieutenant in 1937 called for a salary of $2,840 and today it is $1,278.

In 1937, the position of captain called for a salary of $3,000, and today it is $5,023.

The position of battalion chief in 1937 called for a salary of $1,500, and today that position pays $6,242.

The position of deputy chief, and there are two of those and in addition to that the superintendent of machinery and the fire marshal. who draw the same salaries as the two deputy chiefs, in 1937 those four positions, which are classified as deputy chiefs, paid a salary of $5,000. Today those salaries are $6,894.

In 1937, the chief of the department drew a salary of $8,000. Today that salary is $10,000.

The percentage of increases I have in each grade, if you care to have them, Mr. Bates.

Mr. Bates. No; I do not think so, Chief. Without going too much in detail, I think you have given us the information, together with what I have before me here, which shows that the increase in the base salaries of your privates, that constitute the major part of your personnel, was about 40 percent.

Mr. MURPHY. That is correct.

Now, Mr. Bates, the highest percentage of increases are in the grades of captain, lieutenant, and sergeant.

Mr. BATES. That is right.

Mr. MUREHY. 67.43 percent, 50.63 percent, and for the captains 48.92 percent. That came about several years ago.

Mr. BATES. That is right.

Mr. MURPHY. That was by an adjustment of the wage scale between police and fire officers.

Mr. Bates. Yes, I recall that period. Your total expenditures in 1937 were $2,474,000, and this year $3,631,000, and you say that increase of $1,200,000, roughly, is due to salary increases; 97 perce

cent of it is due to salary increases.

Mr. MURPHY. That is correct.

Mr. BATES. I note here, also, Chief, in tabulating your personnel, that in 1937, you had officers and members of 888 in addition to your clerks and repair-shop men. And this year in your budget there are 917, so you have only had a moderate increase in personnel in 10 years.

Those are the things that we are interested in more than anything else, to see whether or not the personnel has shown any substantial increase.

The increase in wages speak for themselves, because that has been under the authority of Congress.

Mr. MURPHY. We have increased our force by 25 men in a 10-year period. If we are granted the 4 men that we have requested in the 1948 budget, the increase will be 29 men in an 11-year period.

Mr. Bates. In that 11-year period, Chief, have there been any fire hazards, new fire hazards, established in the District or the outlying a reas where the new construction has taken place? Have there been new facilities?

Mr. MURPHY. We have placed in service two new companies. We have built one new fire house. That was to replace an older house in a new location.

Since 1916, the Fire Department has added but two engine companies and four truck companies.

We have three fewer fire houses today than we had in 1939. That came about by placing in a number of houses two companies where before they maintained one.

Mr. BATEs. The reason that we are inquiring into this phase of the situation in connection with the over-all problem of the study of the finances of the District is to see whether or not there has been any substantial increase in personnel that has brought about this doubling of expenses within the District within the last 10 years.

Apparently you have a creditable situation here, where you have had an increase of only 25 men.

That is rather surprising to me, because I know during that period of time we discussed the two platoons and we discussed retirement laws, where members of the Fire Department are permitted to retire at an earlier age, and where, as the result of those laws, we have built up the expenses of the Fire Department by adding new personnel.

But, apparently, your figures do not show that there has been such a reaction.

Mr. MURPIIY. There has not been, Mr. Bates.

Mr. Bares. You have got that from the changing from a single platoon to a double platoon within the last 10 years.

When did the two platoons start?
Mr. MURPHY. February 8, 1919.

Mr. Bates. There have been no other changes since the two platoon was instituted here?

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Mr. MURPHY. Not in working hours, with the exception of the Vir granting of 1 day off in 7, and annual leave was increased from 15 26 days.

Mr. BATES. When did that happen?
Mr. MURPHY. I will have to guess at that.
Mr. BATEs. Roughly, was it within the last 10 years?

Mr. MURPHY. No; I would say before that. Probably as long 20 years ago.

Mr. BATEs. Has any change been made in the working condition : or in the retirements that would induce men to quit at earlier age during the last 10 years?

Mr. MURPHY. A few years ago, the Congress passed a bill permitting men to voluntarily retire if they had served 25 years and had reache the age of 55.

Mr. BATEs. That is right. Have there been many leave the servis under the provision of that law?

Mr. MURPHY. I do not have a 10-year table on that, Mr. Bate. but I do have a 5-year table.

Mr. BATES. That is all right.

Mr. MURPHY. During the 5 years, 1942 to 1946, inclusive, 55 members have taken advantage of the voluntary retirement law; that we 24 percent of the men who had retired during that 5-year period:* men were retired because of compulsory retirement. They had reached the age of 64, and when they reach that age in the Fire Department they are compelled to retire. That is not under law. I think it is under the Commissioners' order, or rule.

That rule has the approval of fire prevention authorities, such as the National Board of Fire Underwriters and the National Fire Protection Association, and other groups.

The policy has always been to maintain younger men in the Fire Department.

Disability during that 5-year period accounted for retirement of 142 members, which is 63 percent of the total number of men retired. Now, during the 5-year period, these 3 groups total 225 retire

V ments.

Mr. BATES. Proceed with your statement, Chief.

Mr. MURPHY. Do you wish me to discuss the retirement of firemen, and the number retired, Mr. Bates, and the reasons ?

Mr. Bates. Well, I just want to briefly go back to your 97 percent. Mr. MURPHY. Yes, sir.

Mr. Bates. On the basis of your increase of $1,225,000 over the period of 10 years in the administrative cost of your Department, on the basis of your salaries, you say that 97 percent of that is due to the salary increases?

Mr. Bowie. Our percentage is not for that time. It is based 1947 figure, sir.

Mr. BATES. It comes pretty close, anyway. I was going to say that on the basis of the 1937 payments for personnel, that compared to the budget of 1948, on a chart here, about 97 percent of that $1,200,000 is as the result of an increase of salaries? Mr. MURPHY. 97 percent of it. Mr. Bates. It does not quite show that here. Mr. MURPHY. That is what we have here.

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Mr. BATEs. What it shows, Chief, is that a substantial part of that rease is due to personnel, and personnel. increase is not due to addiinal personnel, because you have only added 25, during that period time, so it must be due to the 40 percent increase in wages. Mr. MURPHY. That is correct, Mr. Bates. Mr. BATES. I think that is a very creditable situation. Do any of the members of the committee have any questions to ask le Chief of the Fire Department?

Mr. Smith. I was wondering if the Chief had any comparable figures n the salaries paid fire departments in other cities of comparable sizes.

Mr. MURPHY. The cities of comparable size, in general, pay about he same salaries. There are cities which pay larger salaries than are aid in Washington.

Mr. SMITH. That is what I had in mind.

Mr. MURPHY. I think our salaries, Mr. Smith, are about in line on an verage with the cities of comparable size. Will you permit me to make one short statement, Mr. Bates! Mr. BATES. You go ahead, Chief; that is all right, we are glad to near anything you have to say.

Mr. MURPHY. We furnish fire protection to the Federal Government. We do not compile records. We do have reports submitted by the commanding officers, who respond to these fires, and we file them away. . We have never, in any of our justifications that I know of, before the Congress presented those figures and records in the prosecution of our budget. And we do a great amount of such work.

Mr. Bates. You could summarize simply in a brief statement for the benefit of the committee just what services the fire department renders to the Federal Government in respect to the protection of their properties.

Is there anything you could compile that would give us an idea of that?

Mr. MURPHY. Yes, sir.
Mr. BATEs. Not now, but I mean in a brief that you might submit.
Mr. MURPHY. Later I will submit that to the committee, Mr. Bates.

Mr. BATEs. Chief, is your personnel, in numbers sufficient, in your opinion, to operate the department at the present time?

Mr. MURPHY. We have fewer engine companies, I think, than any city in the United States of the same population, or within a close range. Of course, Washington is a little different from other cities.

The hazards are not as great as in manufacturing cities.

Our wide streets are fire stops, and the work of a fireman is easier here than it is in a great many of our large industrial cities.

That, I think, accounts for us being able to operate as efficiently as we do with less companies than other cities.

Mr. BATES. Is your equipment pretty well up in quality?

Mr. Murphy. Our first-line equipment, I think, is the best of any city in the country.

it is generally recognized that a fire department should have about one-third the number of its first-line equipment as reserve equipment. We do not have that. We are practically without reserve equipment.

We have tried to overcome that in recent months by taking our hose wagons and equipping them as pumpers. We have 19 which Mr. MURPHY. Not in working hours, with the exception of t. granting of 1 day off in 7, and annual leave was increased from 13 26 days.

Mr. BATEs. When did that happen?
Mr. MURPHY. I will have to guess at that.
Mr. Bates. Roughly, was it within the last 10 years?

Mr. Murphy. No; I would say before that. Probably as long 20 years ago.

Mr. Bares. Has any change been made in the working conditio or in the retirements that would induce men to quit at earlier age during the last 10 years?

Mr. Murphy. A few years ago, the Congress passed a bill permitting men to voluntarily retire if they had served 25 years and had reach the age of 55.

Mr. Bates. That is right. Have there been many leave the servis under the provision of that law?

Mr. MURPHY. I do not have a 10-year table on that, Mr. Bate. but I do have a 5-year table.

Mr. Bates. That is all right.

Mr. MURPHY. During the 5 years, 1942 to 1946, inclusive, 55 menibers have taken advantage of the voluntary retirement law; that wa 24 percent of the men who had retired during that 5-year period; men were retired because of compulsory retirement. They hai reached the age of 64, and when they reach that age in the Fire De partment they are compelled to retire. That is not under law. I

1 think it is under the Commissioners' order, or rule.

That rule has the approval of fire prevention authorities, such as the National Board of Fire Underwriters and the National Fire Protection Association, and other groups.

The policy has always been to maintain younger men in the Fire Department.

Disability during that 5-year period accounted for retirement of 142 members, which is 63 percent of the total number of men retired.

Now, during the 5-year period, these 3 groups total 225 retire ments.

Mr. BATEs. Proceed with your statement, Chief.

Mr. MURPHY. Do you wish me to discuss the retirement of firemen. and the number retired, Mr. Bates, and the reasons ?

Mr. Bates. Well, I just want to briefly go back to your 97 percent.
Mr. MURPHY. Yes, sir.
Mr. Bates. On the basis of your increase of $1,225,000 over

the period of 10 years in the administrative cost of your Department, on the basis of your salaries, you say that 97 percent of that is due to the salary increases?

Mr. Bowie. Our percentage is not for that time. It is based on the 1947 figure, sir.

Mr. Bates. It comes pretty close, anyway. I was going to say on the basis of the 1937 payments for personnel, that compared to the budget of 1948, on a chart here, about 97 percent of that $1,200,000 is as the result of an increase of salaries? Mr. MURPHY. 97 percent of it. Mr. Bates. It does not quite show that here. Mr. MURPHY. That is what we have here.

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