Modernism, Male Friendship, and the First World War
Sarah Cole examines the rich literary and cultural history of masculine intimacy in the twentieth century. Cole approaches this complex and neglected topic from many perspectives - as a reflection of the exceptional social power wielded by the institutions that housed and structured male bonds; as a matter of closeted and thwarted homoerotics; as part of the story of the First World War. Cole shows that the terrain of masculine fellowship provides an important context for understanding key literary features of the modernist period. She foregrounds such crucial themes as the over-determined relations between imperial wanderers in Conrad's tales, the broken friendships that permeate Forster's fictions, Lawrence's desperate urge to make culture out of blood brotherhood and the intense bereavement of the war poet. Cole argues that these dramas of compelling and often tortured male friendship have helped to define a particular spirit and voice within the literary canon.
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Aaron’s aesthetic aestheticized alienation Birkin British Cambridge Carpenter’s century characterized civilian combat comradeship Conrad conventional create critics cultural D. H. Lawrence desire discussion E. M. Forster England English erotic figure former soldiers Forster gender Greek Heart ofDarkness Hellenism homoerotic homosexual idea ideal imagined imperial individual institutions John Addington Symonds Kemp Kemp’s kind language Lawrence’s literary literature London Longest Journey male body male bonds male community male fellowship male friendship male intimacy male love male relations man’s Marlow masculine Maurice Maurice’s men’s modern modernist narrative novel ofthe organization Owen’s Oxford Passage to India Pater perhaps physical poem poet political post-war public schools racial represents returned rituals romance Sassoon seems sense Septimus sexual Shere Ali social spirit story structure suggests Symonds T. S. Eliot text’s tradition University Press Victorian voice war’s Wheels of Darkness women Women in Love Woolf writers York