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Sec. 422. Vested rights to use water for mining, 424. Conditions for use of water on public &c.; right of way for canals.

lands for reclamation. 423. Patents, pre-emptions, and home- 425. Navigable rivers within public lands steads, subject to vested and ac

to be public highways. crued water rights. SEC. 422. Whenever, by priority of possession, rights to Vested rights to the use of water for mining, agricultural, manufacturing, or min of water for

mining, other purposes, have vested and accrued, and the same are of way for canals. recognized and acknowledged by the local customs, laws, and the decisions of courts, the possessors and owners of such vested rights shall be maintained and protected in the same; and the right of way for the construction of ditches and canals for the

purposes herein specified is acknowledged and confirmed; but whenever any person, in the construction of any ditch or canal, injures or damages the possession of any settler on the public domain, the party committing such injury or damage shall be liable to the party injured for such injury or damage.

14_Stat. 253; R. S. 2339. Atchison v. Peterson, 20 Wall. 507 ;

Basey 2. Gallagher, 20 id. 670; Jennison v. Kirk, 8 Otto, 453;
Broder 1. Water and Mining Co., S. C., Oct. T. 1879, in manu-
script. Union Mill and Mining Co. v. Ferris, 2 Saw. C. C. 176.
Lobdell v. Simpson, 2 Nev. 274; Lobdell v. Hall, 3 id. 507; Min-
ing Co. v. Carpenter, 4 id. 534; Robinson v. Imperial Silver &c.,
5 id. 44; Covington v. Becker, 5 id. 281 ; Hobart v. Ford, 6 id. 77 ;
Proctor v. Jennings, 6 id. 83; Vansickle v. Haines, 7 id. 249; Dal-
ton v. Bowker, 8 id. 201; Barnes v. Sabron, 10 id. 217; Shoemaker
v. Hatch, 13 id. 261 ; Rivers l.. Burbank, 13 id. 398; Caruthers v.
Pemberton, 1 Montana, 111; Wilson v. O'Neil, 1 id. 284; Mining Co.
v. Halter, 1 id. 296; Noteware v. Sterns, 1 id. 311; Parks v. Bark-
ley, 1 id. 514; Woolman v. Garringer, 1 id. 535; Atchison v. Peter-
son, 1 id. 561 ; Barkley ł. Fileke, 2 id. 59; Fabian v. Collins, 2 id.
510; Schilling v. Rominger, 4 Colo. 100; Eddy v. Simpson, 3 Cal.
249, Irwin v. Phillips, 5 id. 140; Hill v. Newman, 5 id. 445 ; Kelly
v. Water Co., 6 id. 105; Hoffman v. Stone, 7 id. 47; Sims v. Smith,
7 id. 149; Maeris v. Bricknell, 7 id. 262; Tenney . Miners' Ditch
Co., 7 id. 335; Coker v. Simpson, 7 id. 341; Park v. Kilham, 8 id.
78; Crandall v. Woods, 8 id. 136; Thompson 1. Lee, 8 id. 275;
Leigh Co. v. Independent Ditch Co., 8 id. 323; Bear River &c.
Co. v. N. Y. Mining Co., 8 id. 327; Hill v. King, 8 id. 337 ; White
v. Todd, 8 id. 443; O’Keiffer v. Cunningham, 9 id. 589; Weaver v.
Conger, 10 id. 233; Wolf v. St. Louis Ind. Water Co., 10 id. 413;
Hoffman v. Tuol, 10 id. 417 ; Weimer v. Lowrey, 11 id. 104; Butte
Canal Co. r. Vaughn, 11 id. 143; Kimball v. Gearhart, 12 id. 27 ;
McGarrity v. Byington, 12 id. 426; Ortman v. Dixon, 13 id. 33;
McDonald v. Bear River, &c., 13 id. 220; Burnett v. Whitesides,
15 id. 35; Clark v. Duvall, 15 id. 85; Edmond v. Chew, 15 id. 137;
McDonald v. Bear River &c., 15 id. 145; Kidd v. Laird, 15 id.
161; Weaver v. Eureka Lake Co., 15 id. 271; Butte T. M. Co. v.
Morgan, 19 id. 609; McKinney v. Smith, 21'id. 374; Coleman v.
Clements, 23 id. 245; Rupley v. Welch, 23 id. 452; Everett v. Hy-
draulic Co., 23 id. 225; Phenix Water Co. r. Fletcher, 23 id. 481;
Netoma Water and Mining Co. l. McCoy, 23 id. 490; Bear River
&c. v. Boles, 24 id. 359; Wixon v. Bear River Co., 24 id. 367 ;
Crary v. Campbell, 24 id. 6:34; Wiseman 1. McNulty, 25 id. 230;


180 of water on

Union Water Co. 1. Crary, 25 id. 504; St. John v. Kidd, 26 id. 264; Bradley v. Harkness, 26 id. 69; American 2. Bradford, 27 id. 360; Hill v. Smith, 27 id. 476; Ferrea v. Knipe, 28 id. 340; McDonald v. Askew, 29 id. 200; Henderson v. McNaughton, 31 id. 26; Davis v. Gale, 32 id. 26; Gibson v. Puchta, 33 id. 310; Richardson v. Kier, 34 id. 63; Nevada Water Co. v. Powell, 34 id. 109; Clark v. Willett, 35 id. 535; Campbell v. B. R. and W. M. Co., 35 id. 679; Richardson v. Kier, 37 id. 267; Gregor v. Nelson, 41 id. 279; Hanson v. McCune, 42 id. 303; Correa v. Frietas, 42 id. 339; Smith v. O'Hara, 43 id. 371 ; Stone u. Bumpus, 46 id. 218; Ogburn v. Connor, 46 id. 347; Quirk v. Tralk, 47 id. 453; Broder v. N. W. and M. Co., 50 id, 621; Reynolds v. Hosmer, 51 id. 205; Titcomb v. Kirk, 51 id. 288; Cave v. Crafts, 53 id. 135. Decisions Com. G.L. 0., Nov. 23, 1869 (Copp’s Mg. Dec. 24); April 16, 1871 (id. 42);

March 21, 1872 (id. 82). Patents, pre; SEC. 423. All patents granted, or pre-emption or homeemptions, and homesteads sub.

steads allowed, shall be subject to any vested and accrued ject to yested and water-rights, or rights to ditches and reservoirs used in conaccrued water.nection with such water-rights, as may have been acquired rights.

under or recognized by the preceding section.

16 Stat. 218; R. S. 2340. Union Mill. and Mg. Co. v. Ferris, 2 Saw.
C. C. 176; Union Mill and Mining Co., v. Dangberg, 2 id. 451.
Vansickle v. Harris, 7 Nev. 249; Barnes v. Sabron, 10 id. 217;
Thorp v. Freed, 1 Montana, 652, Ogburn_v. Connor, 46 Cal. 347;
Broder v. N. W. and M. Co., 50 id. 621. Decisions Com. G. L. O.,

April 16, 1871 (Copp's Mg. Dec. 42); March 21, 1872 (id. 82).
Conditions for

SEC. 424. The right to the use of water for the reclamapublic lands for tion of desert lands, in accordance with the provisions of Teclamation.

an act approved March third, eighteen hundred and seventyseven, sball depend upon bona fide prior appropriation: and such right shall not exceed the amount of water actually appropriated, and necessarily used for the purpose of irrigation and reclamation : and all surplus water over and above such actual appropriation and use, together with the water of lakes, rivers and other sources of water supply upon the public lands and not navigable, shall remain and be held free for the appropriation and use of the public for irrigation, mining and manufacturing purposes subject to existing rights.

19 Stat. 377. Navigable riv. SEC. 425. All navigable rivers, within the territory occulands to be publio pied by the public lands, shall remain and be deemed pubhighways. lic highways; and, in all cases where the opposite banks of

any streams not navigable belong to different persons, the stream and the bed thereof shall become common to both.

1 Stat. 468; 2 id. 235; R. S. 2476. New Orleans v. U. S., 10 Pet.

662; Pollard v. Hagen, 3 How. 212; Pollard v. Kibble, 9 id. 471 ; Hullett v. Beebe, 13 id. 25; Withers v. Buckley, 20 id. 84; Railway Co. v. Schurmeir, 7 Wall. 272; Yates v. Milwaukee, 10 id. 497°; The Daniel Ball, 10 id. 557; The Montello, 11 id. 411, 20 id. 430; Barney v. Keokuk, 4 Otto, 324. Woodman v. Kilburn, 1 Abbott, C. C. 158; Avery v. Fox, 1 id. 246; Northern Union Packet Co. v. Atles, 2 Dillon, C. C. 479; Forsyth v. Small, 7 Bissell, C. C. 201; Grange v. Snart, 1 Woolw. C. C. 88. Vansickle v. Harris, 7 Nev. 249; Leake v. Tolls, 8 id. 286; Gavit v. Chambers, 3 Ohio, 496; Blanchard v. Porter, 11 id. 1:38; Walker v. Board of Public Works, 16 id. 540; Gilman v. Riassell, 18 Mich. 144; Watson v. Peters, 26 id. 508; Treat v. Bates, 27 id. 390; Bay City Gas Light Co. v. Industrial Works, 28 id. 181; Att’y-Gen. v. Evart Booming Co., 34 id. 46-; Jones v. Pettiboné, 2 Wis. 308; Walker v. Stephenson, 4 id. 486; Mariner 1. Schulie, 13 id. 692; Timm v. Bear, 29 id. 254 ; Wright v. Day, 33 id. 250; Oleson v. Merrill, 42 id. 203; Delaplane v. Railway Co., 42 id. 214; Borman v. Sun

nuches, 42 id. 233; Diedrich v. Railway Co., 42 id. 248; Stevens
Point Boom Co. v. Reilly, 44 id. 295; same case, 46 id. 237; Ha-
zeltipe v. Core, 46 id. 391; Rippe v. Railway Co., 23 Minn. 18;
Bresbine v. Railway Co., 23 id. 114; McManus v. Carmichael, 3
Iowa, 1; Haight v. Keokuk, 4 id. 405; Tomlin v. Railway Co., 32
id. 106; Masser v. Hershey, 42 id. 356; Houghton v. Railway Co.,
47 id. 370; Bainbridge v. Sherlock, 29 Ind. 364; Martin v. Evans-
ville, 32 id. 85; Sherlock v. Bainbridge, 41 id. 35; Ridgeway v.
Ludlow, 58 id. 248; Taylor v. Fickas, 64 id. 168; Middleton v.
Pritchard, 4 Ills. 510; People v. St. Louis, 10 id. 361; Trustees v.
Haven, 10 id. 548; Stolp 0. Hoyt, 44 id. 219;

Chicago v. Laflin,
49 id. 172; Chicago v. McGinn, 50 id. 266; Hubbard v. Bell, 54
id. 110; Lovington v. County of St. Claire, 64 id. 56; Braxton v.
Bressler, 64 id. 488; Houck v. Yates, E2 id. 179; Lamers v. Nissen,
4 Neb. 245; Weise 'v. Smith, 3 Oreg. 445; Brown v. Kentfield, 50
Cal. 129; O'Fallen v. Doggett, 4 Mo. 209; Benson v. Morrow, 61
id. 345; Duvoige v. Salter, 6 La. Ann. 450 ; Boykin v. Shaffer, 13
id. 129. Decision Com. G. L. 0. Feb. 20, 1874 (Copp's L. L. 763).
Manual of Surveying Instructions (1 Lester's L. L. 714).




For all laws granting donation rights to citizens of the Laws granting

donation rights. several States, see “Local and Temporary Laws,” under the caption of each State.

11 LO



427. Definition of desert lands.
428. Localities to which the law applies.

426. Desert lands may be purchased.

Declaration. Right to use water,
Water on public lands to be free.
Contents of declaration. Perfec-
tion of title.

Limitation upon





Desert lands SEC. 426. It shall be lawful for any citizen of the United may be purchased.

States, or any person of requisite age who may be entitled to become a citizen, and who has filed his declaration to become such” and upon payment of twenty-five cents per acre-to file a declaration under oath with the register and the receiver of the land district in which any desert land is situated, that he intends to reclaim a tract of desert land not exceeding one section, by conducting water upon the

same, within the period of three years thereafter, Provided Right to use however That the right to the use of water by the per

son so conducting the same, on or to any tract of desert

land of six hundred and forty acres shall depend upon bonaWater on pub- fide prior appropriation: and such right shall not exceed lic lands to be the amount of water actually appropriated, and necessarily

used for the purpose of irrigation and reclamation: and all surplus water over and above such actual appropriation and use, together with the water of all, lakes, rivers and other sources of water supply upon the public lands and not navigable, shall remain and be held free for the appropriation

and use of the public for irrigation, mining and manufacContents of dec. turing purposes subject to existing rights. Said declaration

shall describe particularly said section of land if surveyed,

and, if ungurveyed, shall describe the same as nearly as Perfection of possible without a survey. At any time within the period

of three years after filing said declaration, upon making satisfactory proof to the register and receiver of the reclamation of said tract of land in the manner aforesaid, and upon the payment to the receiver of the additional sum of one dollar per acre for a tract of land not exceeding six hundred

and forty acres to any one person, a patent for the same Limitation upon

shall be issued to him. Provided, That no person shall be quantity. permitted to enter more than one tract of land and not to

exceed six hundred and forty acres which shall be in compact form.

18 Stat. 497; 19 id. 377. Decisions Sec. Int., Feb. 11, 1880 (7 Copp's

L. 0. 8); April 15, 1880 (7 id. 26). Decisions Com. G. L. O., April 8, 1875 (2 Copp's L. O. 44); (6 id. 192); March 30, 1880 (7 id. 26). Cir. G. L. O., March 12, 1877 (4 Copp's L. 0. 22); June 25, 1878 (5 id. 78); Oct. 1, 1878; July 16, 1879 (6 Copp's L. 0.76). General Cir., Sept. 1, 1879, p. 27. (For authorities relating to water-rights see sec. 422).



desert lands.

SEC. 427. All lands exclusive of timber lands and mineral

Definition of lands which will not, without irrigation, produce some agri. cultural crop, shall be deemed desert lands, within the meaning of this act, which fact shall be ascertained by proof of two or more credible witnesses under oath, whose affidavits shall be filed in the land office in which said tract of land may be situated.

18 Stat. 497 ; 19 id. 377. SEC. 428. This chapter shall only apply to and take effect Localities to in the States of California, Oregon and Novada, and the whes.

plies Territories of Washington, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming Arizona, New Mexico and Dakota, and the determination of what may be considered desert land shall be subject to the decision and regulation of the Commissioner of the General Land Office.

18 Stat. 497; 19 id. 377.

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