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accommodation affordable African National Congress agricultural agropolitan development apartheid approach Ardington attempts basic needs Bloemfontein Cape Town centres Chapter Ciskei cities concept costs decentralisation democratic density discussed economic effect Emmett emphasis equity evaluation example existing farmers groups growth point homeland areas households Human Sciences Research implementation important income industrial influx control informal housing informal settlements infrastructure involved issue Johannesburg Klerk land reform Leckie living means migrant labour migration mobilisation multi-unit housing opportunities organisations people's participation Pietermaritzburg planners planning political poor population potential Potter poverty Pretoria principle private sector problems projects public housing public participation redistribution residential right to housing role rural areas rural development Sciences Research Council shack dwellers social South Africa spatial inequalities squatting stigmatisation Strelitz subsidy sustainability tenure Tomlinson 1990a upgrading urban areas Urban Foundation urbanisation viability Yadav
Page 263 - The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions.
Page 29 - First, they include certain minimum requirements of a family for private consumption: adequate food', shelter and clothing, as well as certain household equipment and furniture. Second, they include essential services provided by and for the community at large, such as safe drinking water, sanitation, public transport and health, educational and cultural facilities.
Page 25 - ... express one's self, freedom to investigate and seek for information, freedom to defend one's self, justice, fairness, honesty, orderliness in the group are examples of such preconditions for basic need satisfactions. Thwarting in these freedoms will be reacted to with a threat or emergency response. These conditions are not ends in themselves but they are almost so since they are so closely related to the basic needs, which are apparently the only ends in themselves. These conditions are defended...
Page 24 - Such conditions as freedom to speak, freedom to do what one wishes so long as no harm is done to others, freedom to express one's self, freedom to investigate and seek for information, freedom to defend one's self, justice, fairness, honesty, orderliness in the group are examples of such preconditions for basic need satisfactions.
Page 264 - Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right , recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-operation based on free consent.
Page 38 - The idea of citizen participation is a little like eating spinach: no one is against it in principle because it is good for you. Participation of the governed in their government is, in theory, the cornerstone of democracy — a revered idea that is vigorously applauded by virtually everyone. The applause is reduced to polite handclaps, however, when this principle is advocated by the...
Page 50 - ... injecting competition into service delivery," and "meeting the needs of the customer, not of the bureaucracy."3 Osborne and Gaebler argue that governments should give decisionmaking power back to the citizens: "What Americans do hunger for is more control over matters that directly affect their lives: public safety, their children's schools, the developers who want to change their neighborhood."4 Osborne and Gaebler stress the importance of customer choice and specifically call for vouchers in...
Page 83 - Participating in Benefit Sharing Sharing of benefit is the essential element that was left out in conventional growth oriented development strategies by assuming that the benefits of development would percolate to the majority. Since people's participation in benefit sharing means equitable sharing of the benefits of development, it may be looked upon as the heart of the new development strategy.
Page 27 - ... second, fundamental human needs (such as those contained in the system proposed) are the same in all cultures and in all historical periods. What changes, both over time and through cultures, is the way or the means by which the needs are satisfied.
Page 82 - As lack of enthusiasm and initiative is witnessed in decision-making on the part of poor masses, there is also very little participation by the majority and the poor in monitoring and evaluation at present. Monitoring is the continuous gathering of information on project inputs and objectives and on conditions and complementary activities that are critical to the success of the project.