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of a free people, it is necessary, in order to avoid disputes, that the limits of this state should be ascertained with precision and exactness; and this convention, composed of the immediate representatives of the people, chosen by them to assert their rights, to revise the powers given by them to the government, and from whose will all ruling authority of right flows, doth assert and declare, the boundaries of this state shall be as follows, that is to say : the limits, boundaries, jurisdictions, and authority of the state of Georgia, do, and did, and of right ought to, extend from the sea or mouth of the river Savannah, along the northern branch or stream. thereof, to the fork or confluence of the rivers now called Tugalo and Keowee, and from thence along the most northern branch or stream of the said river Tugalo, till it intersect the northern boundary line of South Carolina; if the said branch or stream of Tugalo extends so far north, reserving all the islands in the said river Savannah and Tugalo to Georgia; but, if the head spring or source of any branch or stream of the said river Tugalo does not extend to the northboundary line of South Carolina, then a west line to the Mississippi, to be drawn from the head spring or source of the said branch or stream of Tugalo river, which extends to the highest northern latitude ; thence, down the middle of the said river Mississippi, until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude ; south, by a line drawn due east, from the termination of the line last mentioned, in the latitude of thirty-one degrees north of the equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola, or Chatahoochee; thence, along the middle thereof, to its junction with Flint river; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's river; and thence, along the middle of St. Mary's river, to the Atlantic ocean, and from thence to the mouth or inlet of Savannah river, the place of beginning: including and comprehending all the lands and waters within the said limits, boundaries, and jurisdictional rights ; and also all the islands within twenty leagues of the sea coast. And this convention doth further declare and assert, that all the territory without the present temporary line, and within the limits aforesaid, is now, of right, the property of the free citizens of this state, and held by them in sovereignty, inalienable but by their consent. Provided, nevertheless, That nothing herein contained shall be construed so as to prevent a sale to, or contract with the United States, by the legislature of this state, of and for all or any part of the western territory of this state, lying westward of the river Chatahoochee, on such terms as may be beneficial to both par ties; and may procure an extension of settlement, and extinguishment of Indian claims, in and to the vacant territory of this state to the east and north of the said river Chatahoochee, to which territory, such power of contract or sale, by the legislature, shall not extend: And provided also, The legislature may give its consent to the establishment of one or more governments westward thereof; but monopolies of land by individuals being contrary to the spirit of our free government, no sale of territory of this state, or any part thereof, shall take place to individuals or private companies, unless a county or courfties shall have been first laid off, including such territory, and the Indian rights shall have been extinguished thereto.
$ 24. The foregoing section of this article having declared the com'mon rights of the free citizens of this state, in and to all the territory without the present temporary boundary line, and within the limits of
this state thereby defined, by which the contemplated purchases of cer tain companies of a considerable portion thereof are become constitu tionally void ; and justice and good faith require, that the state should not detain a consideration for a contract which has failed ; the legislature, at their next session, shall make provision by law for returning to any person or persons who has or have bona fide deposited moneys for such purchases in the treasury of this state : Provided, that the same shall not have been drawn therefrom in terms of the act passed the thirteenth day of February, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-six, commonly called the rescinding act, or the appropriation laws of the years one thousand seven hundred and ninety-six and one thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven ; nor shall the moneys paid for such purchases ever be deemed a part of the funds of this state, or be liable to appropriation as such ; but until such moneys be drawn from the treasury, they shall be considered altogether at the risk of the persons who have deposited the same. No money shall be drawn out of the treasury or from the public funds of this state, except by appropriation made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published from time to time. No vote, resolution, law, or order, shall pass the general assembly, granting a donation or gratuity in favour of any person whatever, but by the concurrence of two-thirds of the general assembly.
$ 25. It shall be the duty of the justices of the inferior court, or any three of them, in each county respectively, within sixty days after the adjournment of this convention, to appoint one or more fit persons
in each county, not exceeding one for each battalion district, whose duty it shall be to take a full and accurate census or enumeration of all free white persons and people of colour residing therein, distinguishing, in separate columns, the free white persons from persons of colour, and return the same to the clerks of the superior courts of the several counties, certified under their hands, on or before the first day of December next; the persons so appointed, being first severally sworn before the said justices, or either of them, duly and faithfully to perform the trust reposed in them; and it shall be the duty of the said clerks to transmit all such returns, under seal, directed to the speaker of the house of representatives, at the first session of the legislature thereafter. And it shall be the duty of the general assembly, at their said first session, to apportion the members of the house of representatives among the several counties, agreeably to the plans prescrihed by this constitution, and to provide an adequate compensation lur the taking of the said census. Every person whose usual place of abode shall be in any fainily on the first Monday in July next, shall be returned as of such family; and of every person occasionally absent at the time of taking the enumeration, as belonging to that place in which he usually resides. The general assembly shall, by law, direct the manner of taking such census or enumeration, within every subsequent term of seven years, in conformity to this constitution. And it is declared to be the duty of all officers, civil and military, throughout the state, to be aiding and assisting in the true and faithful execution thereof. In case the justices of the inferior courts should fail to make such appointments, or if there should not be a sufficient number of such justices in any county, then the justices of the peace, or any three of them, shall have and exercise like powers and
authority respecting the said census; and if the census or enumeratiori of any county shall not be so taken and returned, then, and in that case, the general assembly shall apportion the representation of such county according to the best evidence in their power, relative to its population.
ARTICLE 2. § 1. The executive power shall be vested in a governor, who shall hold his office during the term of two years, and until such time as a successor shall be chosen and qualified. He shall have a competent salary, established by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected ; neither shall he receive, within that period, any other emolument from the United States, or either of them, or from any foreign power.
$2. The governor shall be elected by the general assembly, at their second annual session after the rising of this convention, and at every second annual session thereafter, on the second day after the two houses shall be organized and competent to proceed to business.
$ 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor who shall not have been a citizen of the United States twelve years, and an inhabitant of this state six years, and who hath not attained to the age of thirty years, and who does not possess five hundred acres of land, in his own right, within this state, and other property to the amount of four thousand dollars, and whose estate shall not, on a reasonable estimation, be competent to the discharge of his debts, over and above that sum.
84. In case of the death, resignation, or disability of the governor, the president of the senate shall exercise the executive powers of government until such disability be removed, or until the next meeting of the general assembly.
§ 5. The governor shall, before he enters on the duties of his office, take the following oath or affirmation : “I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that I will faithfully execute the office of governor to the state of Georgia; and will, to the best of my abilities, preserve, protect, and defend the said state, and cause justice to be executed in mercy therein, according to the constitution and laws thereof."
$ 6. He shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of this state, and of the militia thereof.
$ 7. He shall have power to grant reprieves for offences against the staie, except in cases of impeachment, and to grant pardons or to remit any part of a sentence, in all cases after conviction, except for treason or murder, in which cases he may respite the execution, and make report thereof to the next general assembly, by whom a pardon may be granted.
$ 8. He shall issue writs of election to fill up all vacancies that hap. pen in the senate or house of representatives ; and shall have power to convene the general assembly on extraordinary occasions; and shall give them, from time to time, information of the state of the republic, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may deem necessary and expedient.
$9. When any office shall become vacant by death, resignation, or otherwise the governor shall have the power to fill such vacancy; and persons so appointed shall continue in office until a successor is appointed,
agreeably to the mode pointed out by this constitution or by the legislature.
§ 10. He shall have the revision of all bills passed by both houses, before the same shall become laws; but two-thirds of both houses may pass a law notwithstanding his dissent; and if any bill should not be returned by the governor within five days after it hath been presented to nim, the same shall be a law, unless the general assembly, by their adjournment, shall prevent its return.
§ 11. Every vote, resolution, or order, to which the concurrence of both houses may be necessary, except on a question of adjournment, shall be presented to the governor; and, before it shall take effect, be approved by him; or, being disapproved, may be repassed by two-thirds of both houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.
$ 12. There shall be a secretary of the state, a treasurer, and a surveyor-general, appointed in the same manner and at the same session of the legislature, and they shall hold their offices for the like period as the governor, and shall have a competent salary, including such emoluments as may be established by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during the period for which they shall have been elected.
$ 13. The great seal of the state shall be deposited in the office of the secretary of state, and shall not be affixed to any instrument of writing, but by order of the governor or general assembly; and the general assembly shall, at their first session after the rising of this convention, cause the great seal to be altered by law. § 14. The governor shall have power to appoint his own secretaries.
ARTICLE 3. $ 1. The judicial powers of this state shall be vested in a superior court, and in such inferior jurisdictions as the legislature shall, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges of the superior court shall be elected for the term of three years, removable by the governor, on the address of two-thirds of both houses for that purpose, or by impeachment and conviction thereon. The superior court shall have exclusive and final jurisdiction in all criminal cases which shall be tried in the county wherein the crime was committed, and in all cases respecting titles to land, which shall be tried in the county where the land lies; and shall have power to correct errors in inferior judicatories by writs of certiorari, as well as errors in the superior courts, and to order new trials on proper and legal grounds ; Provided, that such new trials shall be determined, and such errors corrected, in the superior court of the county in which such action originated. · And the said court shall also have appellative jurisdiction in such other cases as the legislature may by law direct, which shall in no case tend to remove the cause from the county in which the action originated ; and the judges thereof, in all cases of application for new trials, or correction of error, shall enter their opinions on the minutes of the court. The inferior courts shall have cognizance of all other civil cases, which shall be tried in the county wherein the defendant resides, except in cases of joint obligers, residing in different counties, which may be commenced in either county: and a copy of the petition and process, served on the party or parties residing out of the county in which the suit may be commenced, shall be deemed sufficient service, under such rules and regulations as the legislature may direct; but the legislature may, by law, to which twothirds of each branch shall concur, give concurrent jurisdiction to the superior courts. The superior and inferior courts shall sit in each county twice in every year, at such stated times as the legislature shall appoint.
§ 2. The judges shall have salaries adequate to their services, established by law, which shall not be ingreased or diminished during their continuance in office; but shall not receive any other perquisites or emoluments whatever, from parties or others, on account of any duty required of them.
§ 3. There shall be a state's attorney and solicitors appointed by the legislature, and commissioned by the governor, who shall hold their offices for the term of three years, unless removed by sentence on impeachment, or by the governor, on the address of two-thirds of each branch of the general assembly. They shall have salaries adequate to their services, established by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during their continuance in office.
$ 4. Justices of the inferior courts shall be appointed by the general assembly, and be commissioned by the governor, and shall hold their commissions during good behaviour, or as long as they respectively reside in the county for which they shall be appointed, unless removed by sentence on impeachment, or by the governor, on the address of two-thirds of each branch of the general assembly. They may be compensated for their services in such manner as the legislature may by law direct.
§ 5. The justices of the peace shall be nominated by the inferior courts of the several counties, and commissioned by the governor; and there shall be two justices of the peace in each captain's district, either or both of whom shall have power to try all cases of a civil nature within their district, where the debt or litigated demand does not exceed thirty dollars, in such manner as the legislature may by law direct. They shall hold their appointments during good behaviour, or until they shall be removed by conviction, on indictment in the superior court, for malpractice in office, or for any felonious or infamous crime, or by the go. vernor, on the address of two-thirds of each branch of the legislature.
$6. The powers of a court of ordinary, or register of probates, shall be invested in the inferior courts of each county, from whose decision there may be an appeal to the superior court, under such restrictions and regulations as the general assembly may by law direct; but the inferior court shall have power to vest the care of the records, and other proceedings therein, in the clerk, or such other person as they may appoint, and any one or more justices of the said court, with such clerk or other person, may issue citations and grant temporary letters, in time of vacation, to hold until the next meeting of the said court; and such clerk or other person may grant marriage licenses.
$ 7. The judges of the superior courts, or any one of them, shall have power to issue writs of mandamus, prohibition, scire facias, and all other writs which may be necessary for carrying their powers fully into effect.
$ 8. Within five years after the adoption of this constitution, the body of our laws, civil and criminal, shall be revised, digested, and ar.