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Sec. 263. BOND, WHEN NOT REQUIRED. Whenever a testator shall, by last will and testament, request that his executor be not required to give bond for the performance of his duty, in such case the bond required of the executor shall be in such penalty as the court may consider sufficient to secure the payment of the debts due by the testator: Provided, hondever, That the penalty of such bond shall not exceed double the value of the personal estate; and when less than this sum it may be increased, or an additional bond may be required, whenever it shall be made to appear to the court that the bond as given is insufficient to secure the payment of the debts of the testator: And provided further, That whenever any [creditor, distributee, or legatee entitled to take under the will] party interested shall make it appear to the court that any executor who has given such: bond only as is herein provided for is wasting the assets of the estate, or that the assets are in danger of being lost, wasted, or misappropriated, then the said executor may be removed or required to give additional bond with security in a penalty sufficient to secure the interests of all the creditors, distributees, and legatees entitled to take said estate, and on his failure to give bond as required his letters may be revoked; and upon such revocation the same results shall ensue as hereinafter provided in section two hundred and ninety-six.

Sec. 264. EXECUTOR RESIDUARY LEGATEE. -If the executor is the residuary legatee of the personal estate of the testator, or provided the residuary legatee of full age shall notify his consent to the court, he may, instead of the bond prescribed as aforesaid, give bond with security approved by the court, and in a penalty prescribed by the court, conditioned to pay all the debts and just claims against the testator, and all damages which shall be recovered against him as executor, and all legacies bequeathed by the will, in which case he shall not be required to file any inventory or render any account. And if such bond be given by the executor, he shall be answerable for the full amount of all debts, claims, and damages that may be recovered against bim as executor as if he were sued in his own right, and any legatee may recover the full amount of his legacy in a suit on the executor's bond or in equity, and the giving of the bond shall be considered an assent to the legacy: Provided, That the surety or sureties in said bond shall not be liable for a greater amount than the penalty thereof.

Sec. 265. JOINT EXECUTOR.—When two or more persons are appointed executors, the court may take a separate bond with security from each of them or a joint bond with security from all of them together.

Sec. 266. LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION CUM TESTAMENTO ANNEXO. If there be only one executor named in the will, and he shall have been present at the probate of the will, and shall not within twenty days thereafter file a bond and qualify as executor by taking the oath aforesaid, letters of administration with the will annexed may be granted as if no executor had been named.

Sec. 267. ABSENT EXECUTOR.-If said executor shall not have been present at the probate of the will, but shall be within the District, a summons may be issued to him, either at the instance of any person interested or ex officio by the register of wills, requiring him to appear and file his bond as required by law within twentv days after service of said summons; and if he be not found in said District, notice shall be given to him by publication to appear within thirty days after the first publication of said notice, and on his failure to appear and give his bond and qualify by taking the prescribed oath, as aforesaid, administration may be granted as if no executor had been named in the will.

Sec. 268. SUMMONS TO EACH OF SEVERAL EXECUTORS. If there be more than one executor named in a will, there may be the same proceeding with respect to each of them as if he were the sole executor, and any circumstances under which letters of administration may be granted on failure of a sole-named executor shall authorize the granting of letters testamentary to one or more of the executors on failure of one or more of the others; and any circumstances under which letters of administration may be granted on failure of a sole-named executor shall authorize the granting of such letters of administration on failure of all the executors named to appear and qualify as aforesaid.

Sec. 269. RENUNCIATION.-If any executor named in a will shall file or transmit to the probate court an attested renunciation of his executorship, there shall be the same proceeding with respect to granting letters testamentary or of administration as if the party so renouncing had not been named in the will.

Sec. 270. EXECUTOR DISQUALIFIED.-- If any person named as executor be disqualified from serving, letters testamentary or of administration may be granted as if he had not been named as executor.

Sec. 271. No POWER TO ACT WITHOUT LETTERS. — In case letters testamentary shall be granted to one or more of the executors named in a will on failure of the rest, no executor not named in said letters shall in any manner interfere with the administration; and if letters of administration with the will annexed shall be granted, no executor named in the will shall in any manner interfere with the administration; and no executor named in a will shall, before letters testamentary are granted to him, have any power to dispose of any part of the estate of the deceased or to interfere therewith, further than is necessary to collect and preserve the same

Sec. 272. FORM.—The following shall be the form of letters testamentary to be issued under the seal of the probate term of the supreme court of the District of Columbia:

District of Columbia, to wit:

The United States of America.
To all persons to whom these presents shall come, greeting:
Know ye that the last will and testament of

of ........., deceased, hath, in due form of law, been exhibited, proved, and recorded in the office of the register of wills of the District of Columbia, a copy of which is to these presents annexed, and administration of all the goods, chattels, and credits of the deceased is hereby granted and committed unto

the executor by said will appointed.

Witness (A B) the chief justice of the supreme court of the District of Columbia, this day of Test:

CD, Register of Wills.

Sec. 273. LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION.-On the death of any person leaving real or personal estate in the District, letters of administration on his estate may be granted, on the application of any person interested, on proof, satisfactory to the probate court, that the decedent died intestate.

Sec. 274. BOND.-Every administrator, except corporations authorized to act as administrators, shall, before entering on his duties, file in the probate court his bond to the United States, with security approved by the court, in such penalty as the court shall direct, with condition to administer according to law all the money, goods, chattels, rights, and credits of the deceased; and when the court shall bave ordered the sale of the decedent's real estate, he shall give a like bond conditioned to administer the proceeds of the real estate that may be sold for the payment of the decedent's debts which shall come into his possession, or to the possession of any other person for him, and in all other respects perform the trust reposed in him, and shall also take and subscribe an oath similar to that prescribed for executors.

Sec. 275. SPECIAL BOND.-If the person appointed as administrator shall be entitled to the residue of the estate after the payment of the debts, he may, instead of the bond herein provided for, execute a bond, with security approved by the court, in such penalty as the court may consider sufficient, conditioned for the paynient of all the debts and claims against the deceased, and all damages which shall be recovered against him as administrator; and where the administrator shall file the consent in writing of those entitled to the residue and they shall all be of full age, the court may, if it see fit, direct that only such special bond be given, and in such cases the administrator shall not be required to return any inventory or account, but shall be personally answerable for all debts, claims, and damages that may be recovered against him, in like manner as the executor who gives a similar bond: Provided, That the surety or sureties in said bond shall not be liable for a greater amount than the penalty thereof.

[Sec. 275. SPECIAL BOND.-If the person appointed as administrator shall be entitled to the residue of the estate after the payment of the debts, he may, instead of the bond herein provided for, execute a bond, with security approved by the court, in such penalty as the court may consider sufficient, conditioned for the payment of all the debts and claims against the deceased, and all damages which shall be recovered against him as administrator, in which case he shall not be required to return any inventory or account; and in such case the administrator shall be personally answerable for all debts, claims, and damages that may be recovered against him, in like manner as the executor who gives a similar bond: Provided, That the surety or sureties in said bond shall not be liable foragreater amount than the penalty thereof.]

Sec. 276. PERSONS ENTITLED.-If the intestate leave a widow and a child or children, administration, subject to the discretion of the court, shall be granted either to the widow or child, or one or more of the children, qualified to act as administrator, and further subject to the discretion of the court as follows:

Sec. 277. If there be a widow and no child the widow shall be preferred, and next to the widow or children a grandchild shall be preferred.

Sec. 278. If there be neither widow, nor child, nor grandchild to act, the father shall be preferred; and if there be no father the mother shall be preferred.

Sec. 279. If there be neither widow, nor child, nor grandchild, nor father, nor mother to act, brothers and sisters shall be preferred.

Sec. 280. If there be neither widow, nor child, nor grandchild, nor father, nor mother, nor brother, nor sister, the next of kin shall be preferred.

Sec. 281. Males shall be preferred to females in equal degree,

Sec. 282. Relations of the whole blood shall be preferred to those of the half blood in equal degree, and relations of the half blood shall be preferred to relations of the whole blood in a remoter degree.

Sec. 283. Relations descending shall be preferred to relations ascending, in the collateral line; that is to say, for example, a nephew shall be preferred to an uncle.

Sec. 284. None shall be preferred in the ascending line beyond a father or mother, or in the descending line below a grandchild.

Sec. 285. A feme sole shall be preferred to a married woman in equal degree.

Sec. 286. Relations on the part of the father shall be preferred to those on the part of the mother, in equal degree.

Sec. 287. If any person described in the foregoing sections should be incompetent to serve, then administration shall be granted as if such person were not living.

Sec. 288. If there be no relations, or those entitled decline or refuse to appear and apply for administration, on proper summons or notice, administration may be granted to the largest creditor applying for the same; and if creditors neglect to apply, it may be granted at the discretion of the court.

Sec. 289. NOTICE OF APPLICATION.-Upon any application for letters of administration, such notice thereof shall be given, by publication or otherwise, as the rules of the court may require [; but it shall not be necessary to notify any collateral relatives more remote than brothers and sisters of the intestate]

Sec. 290. WILL PROVED AFTER LETTERS GRANTED.-If administration be granted, and a will disposing of the estate of the deceased shall afterwards be proved according to law, and letters testamentary shall have issued thereon, the same shall be considered a revocation of the letters of administration. But the administrator shall not be held to answer for any acts done by him according to law, in good faith, and in ignorance of such will and before any actual or implied revocation of his letters; and the executor obtaining letters shall be authorized to prosecute any actions at law or in equity commenced by the administrator and obtain judgment in his own name, and likewise to defend any suit commenced against the administrator; and said executor shall have the benefit of all judgments obtained by the administrator and be bound by all judgments obtained against him to the extent of assets received by said executor, unless said judgments were obtained by fraud. And it shall be the duty of said administrator to account for and deliver to the executor without delay all goods, chattels, and personal estate and proceeds of any realty sold in his possession, belonging to the deceased, in default of which his bond may be put in suit by the executor or administrator cum testamento annexo.

And if distribution of the estate, or any part thereof, shall have been lawfully made by the administrator, the distributee or distributees, and their personal representatives, and not the administrator so distributing the estate, shall be answerable for the property so distributed, or its value, to the person or persons thereto entitled. And if any will be hereafter adjudged invalid in any action begun

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after distribution of the estate, or any part thereof, lawfully made by the executor or executrix, in good faith and without knowledge on bis or her part of the invalidity of such will, and without notice that such action was intended, the distributee or distributees of the property, and their personal representatives, and not such executor or executrix, shall be answerable for the property, or its value, to the person or persons thereto entitled.

[Sec. 290. WILL PROVED AFTER LETTERS GRANTED.-If administration be granted, and a will disposing of the estate of the deceased shall afterwards be proved, according to law, and letters testamentary shall have issued thereon, the same shall be considered a revocation of the letters of administration. But all acts done by the administrator according to law, before any actual or implied revocation of his letters, shall be valid and effectual, and the executor obtaining letters shall be authorized to prosecute any actions at law or in equity commenced by the administrator and obtain judgment in his own name, and likewise to defend any suit commenced against the administrator; and said executor shall have the benefit of all judgments obtained by the administrator and be bound by all judgments obtained against him to the extent of assets received by said executor, unless said judgments were obtained by fraud. And it shall be the duty of said administrator to account for and deliver to the executor without delay all goods, chattels, and personal estate and proceeds of any realty sold in his possession, belonging to the deceased, in default of which his bond may be put in suit by the executor or administrator cum testamento annexo.]

Sec. 291. DECLINING ADMINISTRATION.-If any person entitled to administration shall, in writing, decline the same, the court shall proceed as if such person were not entitled.

Sec. 292. RESIGNATION:- If any person, after having accepted the office of executor or administrator, shall desire to retire from and resign the same, he may tile his petition to that effect, accompanied by a full and particular account, under oath, of his receipts and disbursements, if any, and the court shall thereupon direct such notice as it may think proper to be given of said application, and, if no cause be shown to the contrary, may release and discharge bim from his office and pass such order as to costs and commissions and impose such terms in other respects as the nature of the case may require: Provided, That such executor or administrator shall not, by said discharge, be released from any liability for past acts, defaults, or omissions of duty..

Sec. 293. FORM. The form of letters of administration shall be as follows:

District of Columbia, to wit:

The United States of America.
To all persons to whom these [present] presents shall come, greeting:

Know ye that administration of the goods, chattels, and credits of........, late of........, deceased,
is hereby granted and committed unto........, of....
Witness (A B) the chief justice of the supreme court of the District of Columbia.

CD, Register of Wills. Test:

Sec. 294. PERSONS OVER EIGHTEEN YEARS OF AGE.-In case letters testamentary or of administration shall be granted to any person above eighteen but under twenty-one years of age, the bond executed by him for the faithful performance of his duties shall be as binding as if he were of full age.

Sec. 295. APPLICATION FOR LETTERS. — Whenever any person shall apply to the probate court for letters testamentary or of administration, he shall set forth, under oath, as fully as possible, all the personal and real estate left by the decedent and the amount of his debts as far as can be ascertained; and the penalty of the bond required of him, except in the cases provided for in section two hundred and

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