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That the action of the blood-vessels evolves phlogifton, is a proposition scarcely capable of demonftration, and with respea
to which, therefore, we must be contented with probable arguments drawn from concurring facts. Those which our
Author principally dwells on are, That phlogiston is the chief ingredient in all alimentary fubstances; that a chemical analysis evinces its presence in the blood; that it is the principle of taste and colouring matter in the bile; that the chyle, after being for a short time subjected to the action of the vessels, becomes of a deep red colour; and that the halitus, which escapes from blood newly drawn, and the vapour fying off from every part of the body, consist chiefly of the principle of inflamma
In proceeding to thew that the evolution of phlogiston is attended with heat, the writer takes a very extensive view of his subject, discussing the mechanical and chemical doctrines of fire, and endeavouring to reconcile them with each other. He attempts to prove that phlogiston is the cause of concretion, and that in every process of resolution there is an escape of this principle. He treats on the identity of the phlogistic fuid and the electric, the matter of light, and the ether of Newton, He shews, that in the several ways of exciting heat, by ignition, fermentation, and chemical mixture, phlogiston is evolved, and its evolution is the probable cause of the heat. This is a long and curious chapter, and evinces an intimate acquaintance with some of the abftrufest parts of natural philosophy.
The chief argument adduced to evince that the heat generated by the evolution of phlogiston from the blood is the fole: cause of animal heat, is derived from the simplicity observable in the laws of Nature, who is never found to employ more agents than are necessary to effect her purposes. That the agitation and compression the blood undergoes in the veftels would promote the developement of its phlogiston, by causing an intestine motion in its constituent parts, is rendered probable by analogous facts. In this chapter the Author declares his belief, that phlogiston is the chief pabulum of animal life, and the grand principle of muscular motion, as well as the only source of vital heat.
In the concluding chapter it is attempted to be shewn, that the most striking phænomena of animal heat evince the truth of the theory proposed. Here, the Author first treats of the connexion of animal heat with the state of motion in the fan-. guiferous fyftem ; and obviates some objections to his doctrine which might arise from observing that quickness of pulse is not always attended with increase of heat. He then discusses that difficult subject, the stability of animal heat; and here, being obliged not to admit any power of creating cold resident in the 3
animal machine, which some late philosophers have attempted to establish, he canvafles, at some length, the extraordinary experiments which have been published, relative to the power of supporting degrees of heat vaflly fuperior to that of the human body. He points put, with the juftest criticilm (as we think), several fallacies in the deductions drawn from these celebrated experiments; which chiefly turn upon not having taken into confideration the different time required by different bodies to rise to their temperature, the different degrees of heat they are capable of imbibing, and the difference in bulk of the masses which were exposed to the same heat. His own solution of the stability of animal heat in various temperatures is, that in the hot, a balance is preserved by the cooling effects of evaporation; and in the cold, by the tonic and stimulant effects of cold air on the animal fibres. Lastly, he briefly.explains on his principles the connection between the degree of animal heat, the ftate of respiration, and the colour of the blood.
: Thus have we given a concise view of the general doctrine and method of proof in this very ingenious work; the great variety of matter in which, however, renders a complete analysis scarcely practicable within the bounds we prescribe to ourselves. This, befide, is the lefs necessary, as we imagine few of our philofophical readers will be satisfied without a perusal of the work itself. Whether or no such a perusal will produce a full conviction of the main doctrine attempted to be eftablished in it, we cannot determine ; but we will venture to pronounce, that it cannot fail of inspiring a very favourable idea of the scientific and literary abilities of the Writer.
HOLLAND. 4 Anmerkingen op de Tegenwoordige Toestand van Zaaken, &c.
i. e. Observations on the present State of Affairs between Enge land and Holland. 1779. This pamphlet, anonymous both with respect to its Author and the place of publication, comes to us from the Hague, where, we are told, it was printed some weeks
ago. It contains a judicious and candid state of the points, at present contested between England and Holland, and carries, in the elegant fimplicity of its style and manner, evident marks of its coming from no ordinary pen. The Author sets the perfidious conduct of the French ministry, and the bold iniquity of their American connexions, in a palpable and strik. ing light, but without either animosity or invective: he thews the Dutch -how ungracious, unfriendly, and unjust it is to adhere rigorously to the fourth article of the treaty of 1674 (without attending to subsequent and more effential engagements), and on the strength of it to furnish France with naval stores: and he demonstrates the prejudice, that must ensue from hence to their own essential interests in the issue of things. His language, 'here, is that of a real friend to two countries, whom religion, liberty, and national character ought to bind together in the most indiffoluble union; whose independence can only be insured by that union, and whom nothing but the greatest imprudence can engage to prefer temporary and fubaltern advantages to a connection that ascertains their most eflen
tial interests. A connoisseur in the Dutch language has ar:sured our Editor, that this pamphlet has all the marks of a
translation from an English original ; adding, that it is supa · posed to have come from the pen of a public minister of distin
guished merit at the Hague. A decent tone of dignity, that runs through the composition, renders this conjecture probable, and the concluding words of the pamphlet confirm it; they are as follows -- or to the following purpose : « The treaties fubfisting between Great Britain and Holland stand not in need of the intervention of France to explain them. Neither of the contracting parties have called in that power as a mediator; and until they do so, his Most Christian Majeity has no right to meddle in their affairs.- The King of Great Britain loves the republic; esteems its chief; wishes peace and prosperity to its subjects, and stability and independence to its present constitution: he has always been, and ever will be, ready to maintain that conftitution to the utmost extent of his
engagements, and he can do this with a power at least equal to theirs who endeavour to undermine it. This virtuous prince can never be suspected of any design to make an improper use of this power : he prefers the language of friendship to every other mode of persuasion ; but, nevertheless, it is both the duty and interest of his allies to consider seriously the unhappy consequences that may follow from facrificing ancient connections to a low and transitory intereft, or to sudden movements of impatience and passion. -As an Englishman, a Hollander is dear to me,
and I shall willingly listen to his just complaints; but if he : adopts, in this time of war and contest, the tone, the interests,
and the measures of France, then he cannot justly blame me, if :
I make no difference between him and my enemy" "Ex ungut
For M A Y, 1779.
PA Art. 14. The Practice of Navigation, on a new Plan: by Means
of a Quadrant of Difference of Latitude and Departure ; and an easy and crue Method of bringing Departure into Difference of Longitude; and, vice versa, without the Use of a Variety of nautical Tables, or any Knowledge in Trigonometry: The Whole cala
bas culated to instruct che most common Capacity in this useful Branch
I of Knowledge. By James Rymer, S. R. N. 4to. 58. Erass, 1778.
HIS performance, with its title-page and preface, confits of üb 28
pages of letter-press, and a copper-plate, said to be in. vented by the Author, Mr. James Rymer. Inventions ought c*tainly to be paid for, and fair and candid reports ought to be made of them to the Public: but as we find ourselves rather at a loss rubat account to give of this new invention, and apprehending that the Author can have no objections to his own; the candid Reader is therefore desired to accept it, verbatim, as follows:
• If this little treatise has any merit, the world will soon discover it. If it has none, it might be ancharitable to treat it with coatempta
A I dedicate its utility to the young and ignorant; and folicit indul
. gence from men of science and genius. "If I pretended to raise in value by depreciating books which contain systems of mathematical navigation, I should hold myself guilty of irreverence and dis
. respect to the memory of many great and worthy names.
* Indeed, I should do wrong to recommend, much more to extel it, any farther than it proved of utility to myself, when the scheme firft occurred to me. At that time I had not the smallest systematical knowledge in navigation; and often wondered at my own ignorance, when I reflected on the length of time that I had been at sea. I had often heard them talk of difference of lacicude and departure, allow. ance for lee-way, variation of the compass, heave of the sea, the action of sides and currents, without in the least comprehending what was meant. All of a sudden, one day, at fea, I was determined
, by some means or other, to learn how to work a day's work, and keep a reckoning. I got a Daily Afiftant, a Mariner's Compass, a Robertson's Elements, &c. and applied myself diligently for about two hours when my head began to ach, and my ideas became confused : I put away the books--yauned-scratched my temples-went to bed-raved-and, the present work is the result of the dreams of thái night. Whoever doubts what I affert, does nie an injury : bar, as I allow of an universal toleration of belief and sentiment in all trivial matters, I can readily forgive him.'
This Author's account of his work is not of the common caft; and our Readers will form what judgment they think propes
of it. For our own parts, as we with neither to have the extent of our faith called in question, nor to be laughed at for our credulity, we hall not say yea or nay co this folemn asseveration, but content
ourselves with observing, that if he had mentioned, amongst the books which deranged his ideas so dreadfully, Traite complet de la Na. vigation, par Bougeur, or a later, edition of the same work, under the title Nouveau Traite de Navigation, par Bougeur, abrégé par M. l'Abbé De la Caille, there would not have been the least reason for any one to dispute either the existence, the regularity, or diftincta ness of his midnight visions. Every one is apt to dream, at night, of what he has seen or read the day before ; and therefore, as the whole of what this publication contains, plate included, is contained in that work, and almost in the same order, such dreams might then have been naturally expected.
Some of our Readers may, perhaps, think it our indispensable duty to give an opinion of a work, especially where so much money is charged for so little matter : if so, we may observe, that it is poco fible that some may receive benefit from it. The means of percepe tion, even of the same idea, are, in different persons, as various as their faces; and this scheme may strike some when all other modes of instruccion have failed: but we must declare, for ourselves, that we think the Traverse-table, as it is usually called, solves every thing much more readily than can be done by the method here re. commended; and, we apprehend, that the generality of persons will think, with more perspicuity also.
M E DI CAL. Art. 15. A Dissertation on the Teeth and Gums, and the several
Disorders to which they are liable, &c. &c. By W. Bennett, Sura geon.
is. Harrison, &c. 1779. Every writer naturally sets out with attempting to impress his reader with an idea of the great importance of his particular subject; but few whom we have met with go beyond the Author before us in this respect, who affirms," that one of the most material duties of a person, intended for an orator, is that of attending to his teeth.” This is a matter that Cicero, and Quintilian seem never to have thought of, and may serve as an additional proof of the superior accuracy of the moderns above the ancients in considering a scientific subject. It is not only by his pamphlet, but by a certain Dentilave Tinăure and Dentifrice that Mr. Bennett proposes to aliit his countrymen in this very essential point; the virtues of which we leave to be determined by those who ihink fit to give them a crial. Art..16. The Institutions of Medicinal Pathology. By H. D.
Gaubius, Profeffor of Chemistry in the University of Leyden. Translated from the Latin by Charles Erskine, Surgeon. 8vo. 46. sewed. Edinburgh printed ; sold by Cadell, London. 1778.
We cannot but with that it might occur to all who engage in the business of translation, that, humble and easy as their tak is usually accounted, it requires a qualification which is not necessary in every species even of original composition ; this is, the accurate knowledge of two languages. Obvious as this remark may appear, we are convinced, from disagrecable experience, that it is not impertinent now and then to remind authors of it. Were it sufficiently attended to, we certainly should not see translators blundering round about a meaning, in a Kyle neither native nor , foreign, and often giving peither the sense of their author, nor any other.