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he told the Molla, that in Europe a father, who gives his daughter in marriage, instead of receiving money of his sonin-law, as is the custom of the East, gives, if he is a man of property, a fum along with her; to enable the new-married couple to live decently. The Molla, pleased with this custom, asked his mother-in-law, who was sitting by him, whether the had heard what the stranger said ? telling her, at the fame time, that she had not used him so well, for he had been obliged to pay handsomely for her daughter. The mother-in-law asked in her turn, How she should maintain herself and her daughter if The had given him her land, and her date and palm-tree gare dens ? Mr. Niebuhr then told the Molla, that it was death in Europe to have more than one wife, and that the property of husband and wife were common, and devolved, after their de. cease, 'to their children; upon which the old woman briskly asked her fon-in-law, Whether he had heard what the stranger faid ? and praised the equity of the European laws : adding, if you had no other wife than my daughter, and I was sure you would not divorce her, I should willingly give you all I have. The young wife, who was within door preparing a pilau, (a kind of rice pudding) for supper, and who had been all the while filent, came now forth, and said : Oh! my good husband, how could you desire that my mother shouid give you her house and gardens ? If she had, you soon would have given them to your other wives, for you love them more than me, and I see you but seldom. In short, both mother and daughter continued upbraiding him for a good while ; and Mr. Niebuhr ask. ing him afterwards, Whether he had not been happier when he had but one wife? he declined answering; as other Mohammedans had done, to whom he had proposed the same question.

At Meshed Ali, to which place our Author went after he had left Rumahie, the Shiites have a famous mofk, which, together with the remains of Kufa, he describes. He made an excursion to the tomb of the prophet Ezekiel, and to MeshedHoeffein, where there is likewise a famous molk, and the tomb of Hoeffein, a faint and hero in great reputation among the Shiites. On this occasion Mr. Niebuhr gives a kind of differtation on the distinction between the Shiites and Sonnites, and relates an attempt of Nadir Shah to alter the religion of the Shiites, which is predominant in Persia. These two Mohammedan fects bear to each other more malice and rancour than they, respectively, bear toward Jewis, Christians, Banians or Heathens ;--the natural consequence of religious disputes.

The account of Bagdad, its situation, trade, government, and modern history; with the description of the ruins of the hanging gardens of Babylon, the temple of Belus, and other antiquities, do honour to the Author as an inquisitive and observing traveller;


and being well skilled in drawing and mathematics, he has given us proper plans and views of these remarkable places. Among the plates, which appear to be executed with much exactness, we have noted, beside many others, the plans of Bagdad and Moful, which are of great service in ascertaining the number of inhabitants ; à point very difficult to determine in these countries, partly, because the Turks never count them, and partly, because they always greatly exaggerate the numbers. In speaking of Mr. Niebuhr's plates, we shall not forget to mention that the maps of his travels, made from astronomical obfervations, have particular merit.

Near Mosul Mr. Niebuhr saw the remains of Nineveh, now a wretched village, called Nunia, where the tomb of the prophet Jonas is thewn. That of the prophet Nahum is supposed to be at Elkash, not far from Arbil or' Arbela, where Alexander fought the battle againft Darius. The Jews perform pilgrimages to Elkoth, and the chief Neftorian patriarch, whose name is always Elijah, refides there. About nine hours from Arbil, the caravan, ia which Mr. Niebuhr travelled, passed the great Záb*, or Zarb, as the Turks pronounce it. The crolling of this river is sometimes dangerous, when, at certain seasons, it rises and is very rapid. This was the cafe now. The people who procure the traject, across the river, are called Jesidier or Duasin, and are believed to worship the Devil. Mr. Niebuhr gives a very good account of the religious tenets of this people, which seem, as far as he could learn on the spot, to be much tainted with superftition ; but it does not appear to us that they worship the Devil. From their utter aversion to mention the name of his infernal highness, or to hear it mentioned by others, one might be inclined to think that they are in fear of him ; but this fear they have in common with many that think themselves good Chriftians, and who, for that reason, cannot properly be called worshippers of the Devil. They are a set of good-natured latitudinarians, who carry their complaisance so far as to call themfelves Mohammedans, Jews, Christians, &c. as circumstances and the people they converse or deal with, require. They have adopted circumcifion, and drink wine. After paffing the great Záb, Mr. Niebuhr came into a country where the common language was the Syriac, but different from the old Syriac or SyroChaldaic, in which ancient books are written,

From Moful Mr. Niebuhr travelled with a caravan through the defart, by way of Mardin to Aleppo. When we read the preparations to be made, and the account of the baggage, which is required for a journey through the desarts, we thought it threw light upon several passages of scripture, and particularly

• In diftinction of the little Záb, which is the ancient Lycus.


Ezek. xii. 3, 4

The caravan palled Diarbekr, which is the ancient Amida (as this place still is called in Turkish records) and Orfa, called by the Greeks Edeffa, famous in ecclefiaftical history. Of both places Mr. Niebuhr gives an account. He faw, not far from Orfa, several wells, to which the girls from the neighbouring villages came, to water their flocks and cattle. Their faces were uncovered, and they were, as Mr. Niebuhr expresses himself, well-shaped beauties, burnt by the fun. As soon as our Author and others had faluted them, and alighted from their horses, they came and offered them water, and likewife watered their horses. Mr. Niebuhr. was particularly ftruck with this civility, because Rebecca, who, in his opinion, was certainly born and educated in this country, thewed herself equally civil towards strangers, Gen. xxiv. 18. Our Author is so much pleased with this idea, that he thinks he has drank out of the same well from which she fetched the, water; for Haran is still a place, about two days journey from Orfa, which is frequented by the Jews, and probably the very place which Abraham quitted for Canaan. Gen. xii. 9.

This volume concludes with an Appendix of particular merit. It contains obfervations on Syria, and particularly on the inhabitants of Mount Lebanon--the Turkish government in Syria

- remarks on the languages that are spoken in this province the origin, character, manners, religion, and history of the Druses, brought down to the present times, with a geographical description of their country-an account of the Naisareans, Ishmaelites, and of the Maronites and Maronite Princes (from Mount Lebanon) as they style themselves on their travels in Europe, who, however, are nothing but beggars and impostorsa description of the province of Kefroan, the city of Beirut, and other districts, together with an account of the latelt changes on Mount Lebanon. We shall only add, thar Mr. Niebuhr, when he arrived at Aleppo, found an order of the King of Denmark to go to Cyprus, from whence he went by the way of Jerusalem, Seide, Damascus, Tripolis, back to Aleppo, and from thence through Natolia to Conftantinople; all which will, together with an index, form the contents of the last volume.

II. Geographische Untersuchung: ob das Mer, &c. i. e. Geogra., phical Researches concerning the following Question: Whether the Sea which the fsraelites passed when they went out of Egypt, was the Arabic Gulph ? By M. G. N. RICHTER, illustrated by

. a Map. 8vo. Leipfic. 1779. This is a very curious publi. cation; the hypothesis it exhibits is new, and it is supported by luminous proofs, which discover extensive erudition, employed with found judgment and critical fagacity. After having given 6


from Moses a relation of the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt, and mentioned the different opinions entertained by the learned on that head, he alleges various reasons repugnant to the notion of those who confound the Red Sea mentioned in Scripture with the Arabic Gulph, and undertakes to prove, that we must understand by the Red Sea, the Mediterranean, and the Lake Sirbonis, which has a communication with it, and marks the boundary between Egypt and Palestine. - III. Compendium Theologia Dogmatice, &c. i. e. A Compendious System of Didactic Theology. By M. MURSINNA, Profeffor of Divinity in the College of the Reformed at Halle. 8vo. Halle. 1778. By the reformed, in this title, are meant, those Protestants who are not of the Lutheran communion; and the word is applied to this mark of distinction in the Dutch and German languages. The Calvinist churches in Germany and Holland are, by a technical term, called reformed. There is, indeed, nothing very Calvinistical in point of doctrine, in the work now before us. The learned Author seems to have formed the design of reducing Theological Science to the primitive fimplicity in which it stands in the gospel; and this design is surely laudable, when it is formed with impartiality and candour, and not by that narrow, party-fpirit, which is but too visible in many individuals of all fects and communions. M. MURSINNA has given us, here, a very judicious fummary of Theology; a fummary, disengaged from un-essential doctrines and explications of doctrines, which were not designed to be explained here below, and exempt from those finister representations of the Christian faith, which, to'many superficial minds, have rendered plausible the objections of Infidels and Sceptics. The Lutherans of-Halle have, however, accused the Author of omiffions; and he may probably meet with accusations of the same kind from divines in his own communion.

IV. Euripidis Orestes ex recensione 7. Barnesii, varietate Lettionis et Animadvers. illustravit F. Facius. Præfatus eft G. G. Heyne, &c. 8vo. Coburg. 1778. Professor Facius, of Coburg, is an eminent adept in Grecian literature, and his new Latin version of the tragedy of Euripides, mentioned in the title, contains an elegant explication of the sense and beauty of the original, which is much more interesting than a strictly literal tranflation.

V. Les Adieux du Duc de Bourgogne, et de l'Abbé de Fenelon, fon Precepteur, &c. i. e. The last Conversations of the Duke of Burgundy, and the Abbé Fenelon, his Preceptor : or a Dialogue concerning the different kinds of Government. 12mo. Doway. 1778. Amidit the multitude of posthumous works daily attributed to illustrious men, that which is now before us is neither the


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best nor the worst. We do not think it genuine; but it is certainly composed with sense and spirit, and contains an ingenious defence of the monarchical form of government.

VI. Traité de la Sphere à l'Ufage de ceux qui veulent joindre cette etude à celle de la Geographie, &c. i. e. Å Treatise concerning the Sphere, for the use of those, who are desirous of joining this branch of knowledge with the study of Geography, to which are added, an Abridgment of Chronology and an Abridgment of Geography. By M. ÑENTELLE, Professor of History and Geography in the Royal Military School, Member of the Academy of Sciences of Rouen, &c. &c. Paris. 1778. The method observed in this work is luminous, and the explications are remarkable for their perspicuity. It is, in a small compass, the best elementary book we know on these subjects.

VII. Pharmacopée de Lyon, Ou Exposition Methodique des Me. dicamens simples et compofies, &c. i. e. The Dispensatory of Lyons, containing a Methodical Exposition of simple and compound Medicines, with an account of their essential qualities, virtues, preparation and use, and the Diseases in which they are administered. By M. Vitet, Profeffor of Chemiftry and Anatomy, and Member of the Royal Society of Physicians at Paris. 4to. Lyons and Paris. 1778. This work is in the highest esteem. It has been honoured with the suffrages of the most eminent physicians of the present age, and, among others, with that of the famous Hal. ler, who called it,egregium opus, per experimenta natum.

VIII. Esai sur la Vie de Seneque le Philosophe, &c. i. e. An Essay on the Life and Writings of Seneca the Philosopher, and on the Reigns of Claudius and Nero ; with Notes. 8vo. Paris. 1779. The writings of M. DIDEROT (who is known to be the Author of this essay, though his name be not prefixed to it) have long since disgusted the modest votaries of true philosophy, by the tone of arrogance and self-sufficiency, the obscure and sophistical spirit of scepticism, and the froth and fumes of a declamatory eloquence, that form their eflential and distinctive character. Accordingly, the Essay, now before us, discovers palpably the pen from which it comes. The defence of Seneca, the Author says, appeared to him of such consequence, that it has engaged him to break a resolution he had formed of communicating no more of his compositions to the Public. We Thall not decide how far Seneca and the Public are indebted to him for this breach of promise, nor dare we affirm that he himfelf will gain any thing by the business, except perhaps a postion of self-applause, which he has already carried to a pitch that scarcely admits of augmentation. We must advertise out Readers that this Elay is not published separately : it is subjoined to a translation of the works of Seneca (by one Mr Do la Grange) which was printed at Paris last year, and makes REV. Apr. 1779.



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