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so many years, were we not assured that authority of the Old Testament Scriptures, the Holy Spirit had undertaken to bring declaring that one jot or one tittle should all things to their remembrance. Christ not pass away from the law until all was had promised to them the gift of the fulfilled. He manifestly recognized the Holy Spirit for this purpose, and not for Holy Spirit's teaching by the sacred this purpose only, but that he might lead writers as of paramount authority. Our them onward into all truth. By the aid opponents, we believe, admit that, when of that Almighty Helper they would be any declaration is introduced with “Thus sure to recal correctly the sayings of their saith the Lord,” or, “The Lord spake, ascended Lord, and, under the guidance saying,” &c., it is unquestionably a Divine of that All-wise Leader, they were equally oracle. But the manner in which Christ sure of being conducted onwards with quoted the Scriptures proves that he did unerring steps in all the paths of truth. not deem the oracular authority confined In this its first stage our argument there to such declarations merely. Moses, in fore stands thus:- If Christ did not give his farewell address to Israel had taught and fulfil this promise to his apostles, we them that God intended to show them have no sufficient reason to rely on the that man doth not live by bread alone, correctness of their report of his sayings, &c., (Deut. viii. 3), and Christ quotes this and, consequently, no infallible guide in saying in repelling the tempter as a sayChristianity at all; but if he gave and ing having Divine authority, the same as fulfilled the promise concerning the Holy the command, “Thou shalt worship the Spirit, then his own sayings are correctly Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou reported by his apostles ; and they, being serve.” Let anyone that hesitates in regard infallibly guided into all the truth, become to the authority which Christ attributed to us infallible guides into the truth. We to the ancient Scriptures at large read conclude, therefore, that the sayings of and carefully examine John x. 34, 35:Christ as reported by the apostles, and "Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye the words of truth which the Holy Ghost are gods ? If he called them gods unto teacheth, as written by the apostles, are whom the word of God came, and the of equal authority.

Scripture cannot be broken," '&c. The II. WE MAY BE FURTHER ASSISTED IN quotation here is from Psa. lxxxii, which FORMING A RIGHT CONCLUSION ON THIS is a psalm of Asaph, not introduced by MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION, BY CAREFULLY any superior claim to oracular authority,

a psalm in which the writer asserts the WHICH CHRIST HIMSELF ATTRIBUTES TO supreme government of God, and warns THE ANCIENT SCRIPTURES OF MOSES AND the rulers of the world, and closes with

prayer. Yet this psalm the Lord Jesus In the outset we may here, perhaps, be very correctly calls law, according to the met by the objection, that Christ repealed original import of the word. He speaks or modified some of the laws given by of it as the word of God, and emphatically Moses, and this demonstrates his autho- asserts its immutable truth and authority rity superior to that of the Jewish legis- as SCRIPTURE WHICH CANNOT BE BROKEN lator. That Christ personally was infi- OR ANNULLED. Surely no higher claim nitely superior to Moses admits of no could be made in behalf even of those question. That he expunged the false awful words uttered by the Most High interpretations given by Jewish rabbis is out of the dark clouds which enveloped true; but that he repealed or even modi- the summit of Sinai, than that they are fied any of the Divine laws given by the law—the word of God, which can Moses, otherwise than by their fulfilment, never be annulled ! is another question, into which at present If such is the authority which Christ we cannot enter

. But we maintain, that attributes to the inspired writers of the the repealing of a law does not imply Old Testament, and to those holy writings greater authority than its first enactment. which through them the Holy Spirit gave The British Parliament, in repealing any to mankind, can we suppose that Christ; former act, does not claim an authority in when intending to give the last, the clearthe least superior to a former Parliament, est, and fullest manifestation of the Divine by which the law was passed. Christ character to the whole world, would leave plainly acknowledged and maintained the his special agents devoid of that plenary

OBSERVING THE AMOUNT OF AUTHORITY

THE PROPHETS.

AMOUNT

OF

APOSTLES.

inspiration and irrefragible authority Ghost according to his own will." (Heb. which he himself claims for the ancient ii. 4.) Jewish bards and prophets? Were those 5. He furnished them with the Holy men employed to set up the heavenly Spirit to become their Guide into all the kingdom-those men of whom Christ truth, charging them, as we have already affirmed the least to be superior (no doubt heard, not to depart from Jerusalem until meaning, superior in spiritual knowledge) they were endued with power from on to the greatest among all the Jewish pro- high. “Howbeit, when he, the Spirit of phets, ----were those chosen servants of truth, is come, he will guide you into all Christ after all left so deficient of spiritual (the) truth.” This promise, so soon amply guidance that their writings can bear no fulfilled, we must never overlook. (John comparison with the writings of Moses xvi. 13.) and the prophets? There seems an ab- 6. He gave them authority to execute his surdity in the apprehension that the men laws by absolving the penitent and exof the worldly sanctuary and their writ- communicating the hypocritical..“ He ings can so far surpass the men of the breathed on them and said, Receive ye heavenly sanctuary, and the Scriptures the Holy Ghost. Whose soever sins ye written by THEM.

remit, they are remitted unto them: and III. LET US ENQUIRE CONCERNING THE whose soever sins ye retain, they are re

AUTHORITY OR SPIRITUAL tained.” (John xx. 22, 23.) POWER WHICH CHRIST CONFERRED ON THE 7. And finally on this matter, Christ

gave them a short but most comprehensive If we search for the items of their qua- commission, and then ascended, having lification in establishing and extending informed his faithful apostles they should the spiritual kingdom of the Saviour, we be baptized in the Holy Ghost not many find,

days hence. “Go ye, therefore, and teach 1. He sent them forth as the Father had all nations, baptizing them into the name sent him. “ Then said Jesus to them of the Father, and of the Son, and of the again, Peace be unto you: as my Father Holy Ghost: teaching them to observe all hath sent me, even so send I you.” (John things whatsoever I have commanded xx, 21.)

you; and lo, I am with you alway, even 2. He appointed them to be his represento. unto the end of the world.” Go

ye

into tives-his witnesses upon the earth after all the world and preach the gospel to his bodily presence departed. “That re- every creature. He that believeth and pentance and remission of sins should be is baptized shall be saved; but he that preached in his name, &c. Ye are wit- believeth not shall be damned.” (Matt. nesses of these things. _And behold, I xxviii. 19, 20; Mark xvi. 15, 16). Did send the promise of my Father upon you: not Christ by all these qualifications renbut tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem until der them safe and infallible leaders in the ye be endued with power from on high.” way of truth? Did he not thus place (Luke xxiv. 47–49.)

them on spiritual thrones, as judges of the 3. He promised to them his abiding true Israel, and unerring expounders of presence and special aid in times of special his laws ? If ever men on earth were need. “Lo, I am with you alway unto fitted to teach the way of the Lord to the end of the world.” “I will give you perfection, surely those men were the a mouth and wisdom which all your chosen twelve. adversaries shall not be able to gainsay But we suppose it will be conceded nor resist."

(Matt. xxviii. 20; Luke that the apostles were qualified to publish xxi. 15.)

the great facts of the gospel with infallible 4. He endued them with miraculous accuracy. But we would ask, Is preaching gifts of healing and of speaking in foreign the gospel confined to the bare statement of tongues. “God also bearing them witness, those facts ?

J. H. both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy (To be concluded in the next.)

GERMAN RATIONALISM VIEWED IN THE LIGHT OF CHRISTIANITY. Addressed chiefly to Young Men. Delivered in the Tabernacle, Manchester.

BY WILLIAM STOKES.

In examining the subject appointed for not rest until it has subjugated the pulpit this evening, allow me to state that I do to its undisputed control. It is also tamnot intend to perplex or annoy you by a pering to an alarming degree with the useless exhibition of the metaphysical sub- devotions of the sanctuary, and threatens tleties, the startling paradoxes, or the un- to supply us with the means of teaching meaning verbosity which characterize more and admonishing one another” in a new or less the whole school of German Ration- version of “psalms, and hymns, and spialists; but my aim will be to exhibit that ritual songs," from which the cross of school in those more prominent features Christ and the Spirit of grace shall be in which it stands opposed to the vital carefully excluded, to make more ample and unchangeable principles of the gospel room for creation, providence, reason, and of Christ. That gospel we are taught to moral virtue. Under the plea of an imregard both as “the power of God and proved criticism or of a more refined the wisdom of God;" upon that Divine scholarship, it is sapping the foundation system depend the hopes of man for a of all that is distinctive in the gospel of blessed immortality, and to that gospel a crucified Redeemer, and rapidly paving alone are we to look for the instrumenta- the way for the religion of a cold intellect lity that shall raise our fallen world to that abjures the warm affections of the life, to liberty, and to happiness. It is heart. In one word, it is actively at work of the first importance, consequently, to to introduce a theology in which faith preserve that gospel unimpaired; to watch shall have no share, but where dogmatism with untiring vigilance every human sys- shall reign triumphant in a region of fritem that would mar its simplicity and gid negations, exalting mere nature and lessen its usefulness, and so to preserve in providence to the office of a paramount their original purity its doctrines, its pre- revelation-where human scholarship shall cepts, its spirit, and its design, that we may constitute the oracle of the sanctuary, and hand it down to posterity as vigorous and the “new creature in Christ Jesus” shall efficient as when the last communication be regarded as the figment of a disordered which it contains was made by Him who brain. is “Head over all things to the church.” Believing this to be a correct descripHappy they who thus faithfully discharge tion of the chief tendencies of the present their duty to the Saviour and to the world! period, we deem it an incumbent duty

It is this view of our combined duty on all who value “the truth as it is in that has led to the selection of the present Jesus” to do their utmost to put the subject; for if ever the Christian system Christian church on its guard, and by a was in danger from a covert attack-if timely exposure of the danger, at least to ever the foe assumed the mask of sincere prevent its further spread, should nothing friendship-if ever error the most perni- more be effected. It devolves especially cious appeared in the garb of a specious on those who assume to be watchmen plausibility—the present is that period of upon the walls, to sound an alarm as soon danger, of false friendship, and treacher- as they descry the distant foe. The cry ous pretence.

will be raised too late when that foe is The dry intellectualism of Germany once within the gates. has already invaded the most influential We avow, then, the Christian system, departments of our popular literature, and or, in other words, the Divine truths of is gradually working its insidious way to Christianity as our sole starting point

heart of our theology also. It the first great principle to which every has in a large number of instances infused other must submit. In this avowal we its venom into our magazines, our reviews, secure no mean advantage, for we have at and our Biblical expositions; and it will least a starting-point that all may understand--a first principle about whose cha- if you were to ask them in what way and racter there is no kind of ambiguity. In by what means, it would turn out that every question affecting moral existence they admit Christianity to be a Divine and human destiny, it is of unspeakable gift, manifestation, or disclosure, only in consequence to have a first principle in the sense in which every other thing that which we can place unwavering confi- is good and useful is so, and therefore dence; and this is undeniably the case may be said to be from God. So the inwith the gospel of Christ. Here, there- vention of steam engines, of gas-lights, or fore, we possess an immense advantage; any of the convenient and beneficial arts for while the workings and results of mere of life, may very properly be said to be reason, and even the deductions of science from heaven. They are all unquestionably to a considerable extent, are perpetually gifts of God, parts of his plan of providential changing, the gospel remains immutably bounty. It is only, therefore, to convey the same; and appealing as it does to the this general idea, that the persons to profoundest principles of justice and whom I allude employ language which, moral rectitude, it can never mislead its though true as far as it goes, is essentially confiding followers, nor betray the trust defective in meaning, and in the intention that

the very

may be committed to its care. Con- absolutely fraudulent. These are the sequently, we will not subordinate the principles which are delivered from many gospel to human reason, how enlightened of the professors' chairs in the Protestant soever that reason may be, but we will universities of Germany, and which are ever demand that reason shall submit to thence transfused into numerous parochial the faith which the gospel requires of pulpits. mankind. If the old contest between “The general practice of the professors reason and faith is indeed to be renewed, of theology in those universities is to take we will not flinch from the position that the Scriptures merely as venerable and reason must submit to faith, and not faith interesting documents of antiquity, the to mere reason. In a word, we may never curious records of tradition and opinion, concede the superiority to reason, but and the mythic, moral, and political poetry would strenuously maintain the great of the ancient Hebrews. To the elucidaprinciple that faith, intelligent faith in tion of the Scriptures, under this view, God's system of mercy to man, shall be they bring immense stores of learning, the guide and governor of the world. but merely as a grammatical or historical · It may therefore be asked, what is that comment; precisely as they would write Rationalism that endangers so seriously a disquisition on the text of Herodotus, the cause of Christian truth? Or, in other or Homer. For example: they take the terms, what are we to understand by the prophecies of the Old Testament, and, Rationalism of Germany? And to this with a splendid apparatus of Oriental question permit me to reply in a consi- learning, they investigate the terms, and derable quotation from the works of a settle what they deem to be the primary late British divine, who, for extensive and sole signification. Having done this, erudition, enlightened piety, and liberal they blush not to tell us that the writers sentiments, has left behind him but few of the New Testament, and even Jesus equals, and no superiors: I mean the Christ himself, imagined that in these learned and amiable Dr. John Pye Smith. writings, called prophecies, there were In an admirable address upon this subject many descriptions and declarations which the doctor remarks:—"This system, so respected themselves and the religion falsely boasting of its rationality, may be which they were setting up in the world. briefly described as nominally accepting But, say these illuminators, Jesus and his Christianity to be a true religion, while apostles were mistaken, or they dexterall its evidences, facts, doctrines, and re- ously availed themselves of the prevailing quirements, are twisted, tortured, and in opinions, in order to carry out their own every way artfully misinterpreted, so as objects. Page after page, these writers to be brought down to the mere religion proceed in their ingenious speculations, of nature. The parties in question will perpetually assuming that Jesus first, and oven say that Christianity is a religion then Matthew, John, Paul, and their cogiven by God, and they will not scruple adjutors, applied to themselves and their to call it a revelation from heaven. But cause what never was meant to have such an application. Thus would they subvert scheme from the authorities and superior the whole argument from prophecy, and persons of Judea, who supposed their inrepresent the dictates of the Spirit of terests to be in danger from the elevation of Christ as nothing more than the inspira- the multitude, and entertained perhaps tion of genius and poetic enthusiasm. unnecessary apprehensions from the rigid

“When we come lower down, to the jealousy. of the Roman government. By times of the Lord Jesus and the setting their instigation Jesus was apprehended, up of his kingdom, we find the same sys- brought to trial, condemned, and led forth tem of conjecture, illegitimate inference, to execution. He was, indeed, fastened surmise, assumption, and, at the favour- to a cross; but he had secret friends in able opportunity, bold assertion; and all the great council which had condemned converging to the same point, of repre- him, as Nicodemus, Joseph, and perhaps senting Christianity to be a wise and be others. By their good management orders nevolent, but purely human contrivance, were perhaps given to the executioners to for the promotion of virtue and good hurt him as little as possible. He was morals; while, upon the admission of this taken down in a swoon, laid in a sepulsystem, the authors of the contrivance chral cave, and there the utmost care and were atrociously violating the first prin-skill of his friends were employed to checiples of morals, in giving to the world a rish the still existing spark of life. Suctissue of deliberate and persevering false-cess ensued, and he was in due time reshoods. They represent Jesus as a very tored to health. Now, however, he thought excellent man, far superior to the gene- it unsafe to expose himself again to pubrality of his countrymen in the benevo- lic gaze. He, therefore, kept in conceallence of his disposition and the enlarged- ment, and frequented only the society of ness of his mind. He saw the degrading his faithful friends, to whom he more amsuperstition and bigoted ignorance into ply expounded his system of doctrine and which his countrymen were sunk, and he observances, and engaged them in a reconceived the grand idea of a general re- gular plan for extending it as far as posligion, which should be stripped of every- sible among mankind. After a few weeks, thing local and temporary, and be adapted he one day walked up the Mount of to the condition of mankind in all coun- Olives, attended by some of his followers; tries and periods of time. He found great and on the higher parts of that hill, a obstacles to his endeavours for the intro- mist or cloud (no unusual occurrence) enduction of this system of pure and simple abled him to withdraw gradually from his morality. Those hindrances arose partly companions. He thus concealed himself from the ignorance of the multitude, and in the fog, went down on the other side partly from the pride and dominant in- of the hill, and for that time at least, was terests of the higher orders. Therefore, seen by them no more. He then lived in say these modern speculatists, he with a deep retirement; how long cannot be wise and benevolent artifice, adapted his certainly known, but it is probable about measures to conciliate prejudices and bend twenty-seven years. Occasionally, and popular opinions to his own purposes. for special purposes, he made visits to Finding, in the books held sacred by his some of his trusty adherents. One of countrymen, passages which were supposed those occasions was very memorable. In to be prophecies of a great personage who the neighbourhood of Damascus he met was to arise and be their deliverer from Saul, a young man of uncommon talents, bondage and evil, the thought struck him and who had commenced his career of that he might make a happy application public life as an ardent enemy and perseof these descriptions to himself, and thus cutor of those who adopted the new relibring to bear advantageously upon his gion. Jesus had the astonishing address cause the whole tide of popular and most to persuade him to change sides and befavourite expectation. With admirable come a follower and advocate of the new dexterity, but with great prudence and cause, which held forth an inviting field caution, he availed himself of this instru- of exertion to a glowing mind, longing ment, and gradually advanced to the for publicity and fame. avowal that he was actually the Messiah “But I pause. I feel shame and dis80 eagerly expected by his countrymen. gust at proceeding with these recitals of He met with violent opposition to his an infidelity which sets at defiance pro

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