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the natives; the preservation of Moses; the journeyings of the fugitives, their fettlement in Canaan, and fubiquent abhorrence of idolatry, are preserved by very ancient authors. Egyptian, Phænician, Greek, and Roman writers, relate tra. ditions respecting the original formation of the world from rude shapeless matter; the fabbatical inititution; a state of original innocence, and of wiifully incurred depravity; the inflitution of facrifice, a rite which human invention never could have combined with the pardon of an, but which is general in almost all nations; the exilence of an evil spirit; an expected Saviour; the great age of the patriarchs ; ten generations before the deluge ; eight persons preferved in the ark, and the general dispersion of mankind. Whoever can believe that such a correspondent detail of facts could be accidentally inserted by authors living in ages and countries widely dislevered, without being derived from one general tradition, need not urge want of credulity as a reason for rejecting Mosaical testimony.
" The fulfilment of prophecies is another proof of the divine inspiration of the Old Testament; and I would entreat you to give particular attention to the writings of the learned on this interesting subject, where you will find proofs of the literal accomplithment of prophecies which were certainly delivered many hundred years before. Princes are pointed out by name, as Josiah and Cyrus, who, some generations before their birth, were appointed to overthrow idolatry, and to restore the Jewish Church. Cities are devoted to deitruction, which at the period of the prophets' inspiration were flourishing in the highest style of Asiatic grandeur. Could mere human prescience have tauglit laiah, that Babylon should shine with a splendor unknown in the annals of former times, and then became a noisome pool, a dangerous morais, the haunt of wild beasts and venomous reptiles ? In his days it was the capital of a small stare, and first known to the Jews by ambal sadors which its monarch fent to congratulate Hezekiah on his recovery from fickness.
" Could Ezekiel have foreseen, without supernatural aid, that the flourillsing city of Tyre, which in his time contained in her harbours the riches of the then known world, should be overwheimed by a mighty conqueror, whom, from his celebrity and extended triumphs, he calls by the name of the terrible fubduer of his native land ? Could he, unin fired, have related the very circumstances of the siege by which Alexander afterwards subdued that tamous city, or the succeeding calamities which should reduce the proud mistre's of the sea, whose merchants lac ainong princes, to a barren beach, on which, at this time, a few neceflitous fishermen continue to build their miserable huts, and to spread their nets to the sun ? ." Daniel was a capiive among the Chaldeans; and during the early part of Nebuchadnezzar's victorious reign, 10 feeds of diflolution appeared in his extenfive empire. Yet that was the period in which the prophet disclosed to the King the succession of three other monarchies. The Perfians, the immediate followers of the Assyrians, were a people then scarcely known ; but the holy leer extended his views to the ides of the Gentiles, as Greece was then termed; and forefaw not only the conflicts between Alexander and Darius, but the wars of his successors, the rise of Roman greatness, and events which evidently extend to the end of time. Could this man, though proverbially endowed with wildom, discover these remote Contingencies by mere political sagacity ?"
We beg to call the reader's attention to another quotation (pp. 22-6.9 in which an important argument is well handled, and its energies preiled home.
" If Moses was a mere human legillator, how comes it that his inftitutions are fill obeyed ? He flourilhed many ages before Lycurgus, Solon, or Numa, who were esteemed the witeit of mankind in the ages in which they respectively lived; and they travelled to remote regions, to form a body of laws that should combine every possible advantage which collective wildom could be tow. These laws were Colemnly imposed, and received with reverence; and the nations for whom they.
were designed grew powerful and renowned under the influence of those inftitúa tions.
" Yet of these nations, history, my dear child, is now the only repository. No people, no body of men, not even a few exiles, are influenced by what a god. dels whispered to Numa in the Egerian grot,' or by what Lycurgus from his own perpetual exile bound his countrymen to obey.
os The present inhabitants of Greece boast a descent from that ingenious race who were so renowned in arts and arms. After the conquest of their country by the Romans, they became a province subject to that martial people, and governed by the same rulers; they were afterwards separated from it, and honoured with the seat of independent empire. In the fifteenth century they were subdued by the
Turks, to whom they have fince continued subject. We read of no migrations ar. bitrarily imposed by their conquerors; they remain in the land of their fathers; and neither the Roman nor the Turk changed the laws of the nations whom they enfaved, except by seizing the sovereign authority. The manners of these people are strongly marked by the peculiarities which distinguish their ancestors; and even their fiexile forms and elegant features announce them to be the same individual race from which ancient artists sketched these models of grace and beauty which you have heard so highly extolled. Yet, though living upon the same spot, and pre. serving the fame manners, they retain no recollection of the laws and polity of their ancestors : while the Jews have continued a distinct unmixed people ; and, though they have been driven into every nation under heaven, and cruelly treated in all, they continue to be governed by their own law; they preserve their own customs and they multiply (at leait they do not diminish) under the unprecedented calamis ties and perfecutions that have purfued them, not for a short period, but for above seventeen hundred years. The Allyrians and the Romans have either perished from the face of the earth, or they have been blended in the general mass of human kind The Persians and the Greeks have changed their religion and their laws; but an obfcure people, who inhabited a imall tract of country, have preserved their facred inftitutions, and the writings in which they are contained, uncorrupted and upaltered, for above three thousand years. Let scepticism account for this astonishing circumstance by any other means than by the peculiar Providence and will of God, or by the strong impreffion which the miracles aitending the firit promulgation of the law, and the wonderful events of their fubfequent history, have made upon the minds of the people."
We must gratify ourselves with giving another passage in this Number of our Magazine ; in the concluding sentence of which, we know not which to admire moft--the modeity in which it is conceived, or the piety which distinguishes it.
• And may we not ask, would they in early times have submitted to such bur, den some ceremonies, unless they had been convinced, that their lawgiver was authorized by a divine command to impose them? The exitence of those ceremonies authenticates the antiquity of the books in which they are enjoined; while the na. ture of them proves their divine origin. I need not inGift upon the excellency of the moral law, which is acknowledged as far to exceed the purest dietates of hea. then wildom, as the holiness of the Gospel tranfcends that which is required by the preparatory dispensation. In that view the Mulaical law should be principally confidered. It was given in a dark ignorant period ; and its primary intentions were to prelerve a chojen people from the reductions of idolatry, and to make them, through their knowledge of the true God, depofitaries of his promises for the future regeneration of the world. This idea explains the meaning of those facrifices for fin which were continually enjoined, and which were calculated to impress on the minds of those who offered them a consciousness of offence, and of the neceflity of fome atonement. The reason of many of the prohibitory statutes cannot be clearly ascertained at this distance of time; but, as we gain a clearer light into the anti
quities of eastern nations, we may very probably discern the propriety of what we now deem ftrange. Mr. Bryant* has accounted for one extraordinary injunction, 6 Thou thalt not seethe a calf in its mother's milk.' He ascertains that veal, boiled in milk, was a favourite dish served up to the worshippers of the Syrian idols; and that, by restricting the Jews froni the use of it, the Almighty gave them a protection against the allurements of idolatry, which he who knew the tendency of human appetites could alone suggest. A change of garments between the sexes is also forbidden, and for a fiinilar reason : a promiscuous change of apparel preceded the shameful rites which were performed in the temples of those impure deities whose love-cales infected Sion's daughters.'
“ I have heard both these injunctions pointed out as arguments that the Deity could not have propounded a law to mankind which contained such senseless trivial restraints ; and iince I have seen the reason of them explained by the learned gentleman whom I have just mentioned, I have bowed with lowly reverence to that Wisdom which could descend to regulate those minutiæ of manners that have such a powerful influence upon conduit; and, by forbidding custoins which might lead to evil, could thus ftrike at the germ of wickedness.”
(To be continued.)
Diatessaron, feu Integra Historia Domini noftri Jefu Chrifti, Latinè, ex qua
tuor evangeliis inter se collatis, ipfifque evangelifiarum verbis apte et ordinate difpofitis confecta. E versione præcipue Castellionis caftigata et emendata : cui præfiguntur Tabula Pakefiina Geographica, necnon ordo rerum. In
ufum fiholarum. Opera & ftudio T. THIRLwALL, A. Al. IT is a fa&t but too well known, by those who are conversant with the
books now published for the use of children, that the enemies of our happy form of government and the revilers of our holy faith make these publications, but too frequently, the vehicle to convey their poisonous doctrines into the youthful mind, at a time when it is incapable of detecting specious fallacy from unsophisticated truth. By arrogating for children a premature use of their reason on points which exceed their limited comprehensions, they first ensnare tireir affections, (for the human mind we see naturally to affect independence) and then by their artfal insinuations encourage a spirit of petulance, contradiction and doubting: For, reason being constituted the fole arbitress of truth, or falfhood, whatever she cannot comprehend the peremptorily decides to be false. And as these pretended friends to the rising generation take care to introduce subjects on which the reason of children is incompetent fully to decide, the difficulty of discovering, is with them a fufficient ground for the rejection of truth: and many a youth has been thus made to disregard and overlook certain sound principles both of faith and moral conduct, which, until his judgment be matured, and capable of discriminating truth from error; he ought implicitly to have adopted on the authority of his parents and ancestors. But it is to be observed, that these advocates for free discussion, and the unbiassed use of reason, while they ridicule an adherence to the faith of our anceftors as bigotry, and arrogate for the youthful mind a claim to judge for itself, unshackled by the prejudices of parents and tutors; themselves encroach upon this freedom for which they so stickle, enforce their own arguments, and obtrude their pernicious principles in every possible way, while they refuse the unhappy object of their infidious wiles the privilege of procuring an antidote to the poison.
* In his Treatise on the Authenticity of Scripture. Vol. Ill. Churcbm. Mag. Nov. 1802,
In such circumstances as these, too much praise cannot be given to those who endeavour to refer the mind, at a time when it is best capapable of receiving them, to sound principles, even to those holy scriptures, “which are able to make men wise unto salvation.” It was a commendation bestowed upon Timothy, that from a child he had known the scriptures: and it is much to be wished, that the Bible were made, more than it is, the subject of instruction in schools. We are not ad. vocates with Bishop Burnet and Dr. Watts for the exclusion of the clas. fics in schools, and for the acquirement of the learned languages by means of books on religious subjects alone; but we think it highly ne. cessary that that book which is to be our guide through life, and the foundation of our hopes in death, should form a constant portion of the 'ftudies allotted to a school-boy, and for one or two days in the week be, as it were, the text-book of his instructions.
To this very desirable object, the making the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures more general throughout schools, Mr. Thirlwall, in the present publication has very largely contributed. He has made a valuable present to the instructors of youth, by affording them a lecture-book, which at the same time that it will ground those committed to their care in the language, will relieve the tedium which generally accompanies the first acquisition of an unknown tongue, by the connexion and high interest of the story: and, what is more important, will instil into them those principles which alone will make them happy here and here. after..
As Professor White's Diatessaron was given to the world before we began our career as Reviewers, it will not be expected of us that we shonld now enter into a critical examination of that work. It would, indeed, be a superfluous task, since the general voice of the learned world has already decided on its merits, by a reiterated call for a new edition.We do not however, fcruple to say, that in some instances, Mr. Thirlwall has improved upon the professor's work by the insertion of several passages which render the narrative more complete.
Great attention has been paid to the purity of the text, and Mr. T. has « resorted to Beza, Tremellius, thc Vulgate, and others, for legi. “ timate and appropriate renderings;" where the version of Caftellio appeared less correct; we will mention only one instance. In the 22d of St. Luke, v. 15; Castellio has “ Hujus vobiscum pollucendi Paschæ “ cupiditate ductus sum, &c.” Now, 5 pollucere" is the appropriate word for the participation of a feast on an idol sacrifice. And for this word, which Castellio has retained throughout the chapter, Mr. T. has substituted “ manducare” with its proper inflexions: and this alteration is the more judicious, as St. Luke in the very text cited has Qayer. The characteristic of Castellio's style is a strict adherence to claflical idiom : and this he has indulged in, even to affectation. And as he wrote his version after Beza, he seems to have shewn too great an anxiety for a variety of phraseology. The consequence has been that his fastidious rejection of ecclesiastical words, has not unfrequently affected doctrinal passages of great moment. In all such cases Mr. T. seems to have ex. ercited the prerogative of an editor, withf becoming fpirit and just difcrimination. And he would probably have made more alterations in · Castellio's version, even in less material places, but for the circumstance
that this publication is intended “in usum scholarum,” and consequently a copia verborum, must be a desirable object,
To this edition Mr. T. has prefixed a very good map, very fuperior to that in the Greek Diatessaron : it is more full, and executed in a neater manner. Indeed Mr. T. seems greatly to have consulted both neatness and cheapness in this work: it is very clearly and correctly printed, and the insertion of the “ Locus & Tempus” at the head of a chapter, in. stead of appropriating a margin for them, has considerably reduced the price, and made the book more easy to be introduced into schools,
It happens to come within our knowledge that the very learned pro. feffor has expressed his approbation of Mr. Thirlwall's plan, which was early communicated to him. Indeed we think it must meet with ge. neral approbation, and doubt not but it will be readily adopted by those schools, where due regard is paid to the acquirement of religious and moral principles, as well as of the learned languages. For, to use Mr. Thirlwall's words, “ If it be a primary duty we owe to the rising gene. ration, to fow the feeds of piety and virtue in their infancy, to imbue their tender minds with sacred knowledge, and initiate them in the things concerning the kingdom of God;" the high Priest of our Salvation, and Exemplar of perfect righteousness, 'cannot be held up to their view at too early a period, for the object of their faith and imi. tation.” And, “he surely renders an important service to the cause of religion, who exhibits the portrait of the Divine Original, in the most agreeable light, and by a just and pleasing representation, adds to it new charms, and captiyates the young reader with the " beauty of holiness.”
A Sermon for the first Day of June, 1802, being the Day appointed, for a general Thanksgiving for Peace, by R. Potter, A. M. Vicar of Lowestoffe
and Kelingland, and Prebendary of Norwich. Longman and Rees. IN this fermon, which was written, though not delivered, by the ve+ nerable Translator of the Greek Tragedians, who has now completed his 81 st year, there is more originality than is generally to be met with in lermons on similar occasions. In the theoretical part of it there is something perhaps, to which, on a minute investigation, we might find occasion to object. Without staying to debate, however, whether the principle of self-love may not, in some sense, be at the bottom even of our virtues, we do not hesitate to say, that, the sentiments here brought forward, which are of the most manly and dignified kind, are illustrated by a liveliness of imagery, and expressed in an energy of language, by no means unworthy of a veteran proficient in classic lore. The philanthropy, which it is the laudable object of the sermon to recommend, is such as can be derived only from a ftill higher source. We give the following pallage as a specimen.
" The benevolent affection is pleasing to the human mind, even in its exertion; and gives it an an additional pleasure, arising from the agreeable effrets, which it produces. For the happiness of others is as delightful to the heart, as the verdure and blossoms of the spring are to the eye, or the concord of sweet lounds to the ear. The sense of this pleasure, adds a yet higher perfection to the mind, gives a new Spirit to our benevolence, and awakens into action every generous feeling of the oul Hence follows that sweet peace, which ever resides in the bosoms of the good, Q 9 2