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return I will blot out your name, and put him | St. Thomas's, with divers crucibles, and other reiu for a fool.' The application is easy and ob- fining instruments: yet, uuder favour, that might vious: But the world wonders extremely, that be, and the benefit not countervail the charge, so great a wise man as sir Walter Ilaleigh for the richest mines that the king of Spain hath would return to cast himself upon so inevitable upon the whole continent of America, which a rock, as I fear he will; and much more, that are the mines of Potosi, yield him but six in the such choice men, and so great a power of ships, hundred, all expences defrayed. You write should all come home and do nothing." how K. James sent privately to sir Walter, ber

ing yet in the Tower, to intreat and cominand To the Honourable Muster Car, Ra.

him, the be would impart bis whole design to 6. Sir:Whereas you seem to except against some him under his hand, promising Qpon the word thing in one letter that reflects upon sir Walter of a king to keep it secret; which being done Raleigh's voyage to Guiana, because I term accordingly by sir Walter Raleigh, that very the gold mine he went to discover, an airy and original paper was found in the said Spanish suppositious mine, and so infer, that it touchi governor's closet at St. Thomas's : whereat, as eth bis fonour; truly, sir, I will deal clearly you have just cause to wonder, and admire the with you in that point, that I never harboured activene-s of the Spanish agents about our in my brain the least thought to expose to the court at that time, so I wonder no less at the world any thing ihat might prejudice, much less niscarriage of some of his late majesty's ministraduce in the least degree that could be that ters, who notwithstanding that he had passed rare renowned knight, whose fame shall context bis royal word to the contrary, yet they did in longevity with this Island itself, yea, with help Count Gondoinar to that paper; so that that great Word which he historise ih so gal- the reproach lieth more upon the English than lanıly. I was a youth about the town when he the Spanislı ministers in this particular. Whereundertook that expedition, and I remember as you alledge, that the dangerous sickness of sir most men suspecied that Mine then to be but Walter being arrived near the place, and the an imaginary politic thing; but at his return; death of (that rare spark of courage, your broand missing of the enterprize, these suspicions ther, upon the first landing, with other circumturned in inost to real beliefs that it was no stances, discouraged capi. Kemys from discoverother. And K. James, in that Declaration ing the mine, but would reserve it for another which he commanded to be printed and pub- t'me; I am content to give as much credit to lished afterwards, touching the circumstance of this as any man can; as also that sir Walter, if this action, (upon which my letter it grounded, the rest of the feet, according to his earnest and which I bare sull by me) terms it no less notion, had gone with him to revictual ip VirAnd if we may not give futh to such public re- ginia, (a country where he had reason to be gal instruments, what shall we creatie Be-ides, welcome unto, being of bis owo discovery) he there goes another printed Lined of remon had a purpose to return to Guiana the spring strance annexed to that declaration which in- following to pur:ue liis first design. I am also timates as much : and there is a no thy cap- very willing to believe that it cost sir. W. Ratanu in this town, who was co-adventu; er in leigh much more to put himself in equipage for that expedition, who upon the storming of st. chat long intended Voyage, than wouid have Thomas, heard young lír. Raleigh encouraging paid for lis liberty, if he had gone about to puris me in these words : Come on, my noble chase it for reward of money ist home; though Learts, this is the mine we come for; and they | I am not ignorant that many of the co-advenwho thuk there is any other are fonts. Add lurers mide larve contributions, and the forbereunt, that sir Richard Baker, in his last tunes of some of them suffer for it at this very bistoric 1 collections, intimates so much. I day. But although Gondomar, as my letter Thieretre, it was far from being any opinion mentions, calls sir Walter Pirate, I for my part broached by myself, or bottomed upon weak am far from thinking so; because, as you give an grounds; for I was careful of nothing more, upanswerable reason, the plundering of St. Thothan that those letters being to breath oen mas was an act done beyond the equator, where ar, stwuld relate nothing but what should be the articles of peace betwixt the two kings do derived from gool fountains. And truly, sir, not ext'nd. Yer, under favour, though he touching enriet apology of ir Walter Raleigh's broke the peice, he w3s said to break his you use of, I never saw it, lant very sorry I paient by excresting the bounds of his commisdid nt; for it had let in more light upon me of Sion, as he foresaid declaration relates : For K. · the carriave of that great action, and then you James had inude strong promiscs to Count might have been as u ell, thit I would havedove Gondomar, that his feet should commit no thai nolle kniglit all the right that could be. outrages upon the king of Spain's subjects by

" But, «ir, the several argoments that you urge land, unless they began first; and I believe in

your Letters are of that strength, I contess, that wis the main cause of his death, though I that they are able to rectify any indifferent man think if they had proceeded that way against in this point, and induce him to believe that it him in a legal course of trial, he might have dewas 110 chimera, but a real inine; for you write fended himself well enough. of divers pieces of gold brought thence by sir " Whereas you alledge, that if that action Walter himself

, and capt. Keinys, and of some had succeeded, and afterwards been well proingots that were found in the governor's closet at secuted, it might have brought Gondomar's

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great catholic mas

aster to have been begged for , tence. Touching his return, I must confess I at the church-doors by friars, as be was once was utterly ignorant that those two noble brought in the latter end of queen Elizabeth's earls, Thomas of Arundel, and Williain of days: I believe it had much damnified him, Pembroke, were engaged for bim in this partiand interrupted him in the possession of his cular; nor doth the printed relation make any West-Indies, but not broughi him, under fa- mention of them at all: Therefore I must say, vour, to so low an ebb. I have observed, that that envy herself must pronounce that return it is an ordinary thing in your popish countries, of his, for the acquitting of his fiduciary for princes to borrow from the altar, when they pledges, to be a most noble act; and waving are reduced to any straits; for they say, The that of king Alphonso's Mour, I may more proriches of the church are to serve as anchors in perly compare it to the act of that famous Rotime of a storin. Divers of our kings have man commander, Regulus, as I take it, who to done worse, by pawning their plate and jewels. keep his promise and faith, returned to his Whereas my letter makes mention that sir W. enemies where he had been prisoner, thougła Raleigh mainly laboured for his pardon before he knew he went to an inevitable death.

But he went, but could not compass it; this is also well did that faithless cunning knight, who bea passage in the foresaid prioted relation : But trayed sir W. Raleigh in his intended escape, I could have wished with all my heart he had being come a-shore, fall to that contemptible obtained it; for I believe, that neither the end, as to die a poor distracted beggar in the transgression of his commission, nor any thing isle of Lundey, having for a bag of money falthat he did beyond the Line, could have short- sified his faith, confirmed by the tie of the holy ened the line of his life otherwise ; but in all sacrament, as you write; as also before the probability we might have been happy in him year came about, to be found clipping the to this very day, having such an heroic heart same coin in the king's own house at White as he had, and other rare helps, by his great hall, which he had received as a reward for his knowledge, for the preservation of health. pertidiousness; for which being condemned to I believe without any scruple what you write, be hangedd, he was driven to sell himself to his that sir Win. St. Geon made an overture to shirt, to purchase his pardon of two knights. him of procuring his pardon for 15001. but “ And now, sir, let that glorious and gallant whether he could have etfected it, I doubt a cavalier sir W. Raleigh (who lived long enough little, when he bad come to negotiate it really. for bis own our, though not for his country, But I extremely wonder how that old sentence as it was said of a Roman consul) rest quietly which had lain dormant above sixteen years in his grave, and his virtues live in his posterity, against sir W. Raleigh, could have been made as I tind they do strongly, and very eminently use of to take off bis head afterwards, consider in you. I have heard his enemies contess that ing that the Lord Chancellor Verulam, as you he was one of the weightiest and wisest men write, told him positively (as sir Walter was that this island ever bred. Mr. Nath. Carpenacquainting him with that proffer of sir Wm. ter, a learned and judicious author, was not in St. Geon for a pecuniary pardon) in these the wrong when he gave this discreet character words, Sir, the knee-timber of your voyage is of him : : Who hath not known or read of this money; spare your purse in this particular, for “ prodigy of wit and fortune, sir Walter Raupon my life you have a sufficient pardon for · leigh, a man unfortunate in nothing else but all that is passed already, the king having under in the greatness of his wit and advancemnent, his broad-seal made you admiral of your feet, whose eminent worth was such both in doand given you power of the martial law over mestic policy, foreign expeditions, and disyour officers and soldiers. One would think coveries in arts and literature, both practick ihat by this royal patent, which gave him power and contemplative, that it might seem at once of life and death over the king's liege people, to conquer example and imitation !!” sir W. Raleigh should become rectus in curia, and free from all old convictions. But, sir, to See also “ A Declaration of the demeanour tell you the plain truth, count Gondomar at and carriage of sir Walter Raleigli, kot. as well that time had a great stroke in our court, be in his Voyage as in and sithence his return), and cause there was more than a mere overture of the true Motives and Inducements which of a match with Spain; which makes me apt occasioned his majesty to proceed in doing to believe, that that great wise knight being justice upon him as hath been done. Printed such an anti-Spaniard, was made a sacrifice to by the kings printers in 1618;" republished, 3 advance the matrimonial treaty. But I must Ilarl. Mis. 1745: and “ A Brief Relation of sir needs wonder, as you justly do, that one and Walter Raleigh's Troubles, with the taking away the same man should be condemned for being a the Lands and Castle of Sherbourn in Dorset, friend to the Spaniard, (which was the ground from bim and his heirs,” 4 Harl. Mis. 57; and of his first condemnation) and afterwards lose for farther particulars, the 2d Volume of Cave bis head for being their enemy by the same sen- ley's Life of Sir Walter Raleigh may be consulted.


15. The Trial of Sir GRIFFIN MARKHAM, knt. Sir EDWARD PAR

esq. Anthony Copley, WILLIAM Watson, Priest; WILLIAM
CLARKE, Priest, for High Treason, at Winchester: 1 Jac. I.
Nov. 15, A. D. 1603. (From a MS. in the Bodleian Library,
Rotulæ in Archivo. A. 3033. 44. 8.]


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The Commissioners were, the earl of Suffolk, I should be thought to hinder this designment, Lord-Chamberlain, Charles earl of Devonshire, for which purpose Watson named Veale, Heory lord Howard, Robert lord Cecil, Secre • alias Cole, to aliedye sufficient matter against tary ; Edward lord Wotton, Comptroller; John them. And for the better effecting of this Stanhope, Knight and Chamberlain ; Lord their purpose, Watson had devised under Chief Justice of England, Lord-Chief-Justice writing an oath should be administered for of the Common-Pleas, Justice Gawdy, Justice the preservation of the king's person, for the Walmesley, Justice Warburton, sir William advancement of the catholic religion, and for Wade, knight.

the concealing of all secrets that should be On Tuesday the 15th of November, were revealed unto them. That all the actions arraigned at Winchester, George Brooke, esq. ' should be proceeded withal in the king's sir Griffin Markham, knight, Bartholomew name, and they meant to send for the lordBrookesby, esq. Anthony Copley, gent. Wm. mayor and aldermen of London, that the king Watson, priest; Wm. Clarke, priest, and sir would speak with them: whom they meant Edward Parbam, knt.

to keep in safe custody, till they had deliver

red hostages to them not to withstand their The Effect of the INDICTMENT.

assignments, and to furnish them with all For consulting with the lord Gray and such necessaries as they should require from * others, traitorously to surprize the king and • them. Watson was the villainous hatcher of

young prince at Greenwich, to carry them to • these Treasons; and Brooke, upon the learn• the Tower guarded with some, that after the ing of them, was as eager a prosecutor; and slaughter of many of the guards, should put ' the lord Gray more eager and violent than on the guards coats, and so bring them, send 'he, purposing to make a suit to the king for * ing the Lord-Admiral before to signify the carrying over a regiment for the relief of distress where the king was, and escape be Ostend, which he would have ready for the 'made hy the guards from Greenwich; and defence of his own person in this action, feartherefore desired to be taken in there for ing the greatness of the catholic forces ac

more safety. Which, if they could have ef- ' cording to the promises of George Brooke, 'fected, the treasures and jewels in the Tower Markhans and Watson, and knowing not • should serve the turn for the effecting of their how he might be dealt withal amongst them.' * further purposes; that some of those of the Mr. George Brooke said little or nothing in

privy-council, viz. the Lord-Chancellor, trea- his own defence, only he made a ridiculous arsurer Cecil, Chief-Justice, should be removed gument or two in the beginning : viz. that, and cut off and Mr. Watson should be that only could be the judge, and examiner of chancellor, Brooke lord treasurer, and Mark- any action, which was the rule of the action : 1

ham secretary; Gray lord marshal and mas- but the Common Law was not the rule of the * ter of the horse, if the now master of the action, ergo, it could not be judge or ruler of • horse were otherwise preferred; but for the the action : and therefore appealed to the perlord-chief-justice no man named. If their son of the king. 2. That the Commissioners project for bringing them to the Tower failed, or Common Law had no authority over them ; then to convey the king to Dover, where because it is a maxim in the law, ejus esse con- George Brooke presumed upon his interest demnure, cujus est absolvere : but the Common

with Thomas Vands; but Mr. Attorney jus. Law could not absolve him, being guilty, there. . tified his assurance of the lord Cobham. In fore could not condemn him. one of these places they meant to have kept Mr. Attorney to this would have answered the king for the space of three months, and particularly, but was by the Commissioners at their first entrance, they should require and Judges willed to reduce himself to his own three things. 1. A general pardon of all element. their purposes and intentions against the king Lord Henry Howard undertaking to have

and prince. 2. The king should yield to 8 answered him, Iny L, C. Justice told him, that * toleration of religion ; with an equality of all the king, by reason of his many causes, bad Counsellors and other officers, as well papists many under him to execute the law of justice; * protestants, within his court or otherwise. but he kept in his own hands the key of mercy, 3. That he should remove and cut off the either to bind or loose the proceedings, as in fore-mentioned counsellors, and others who his own princely wisdomn be should think fit.

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Therefore said Mr. Attorney, you, Mr. , Scotland and England in combustion; and Brooke, professing yourself to be learned, cannot upon Cobham's return out of Spain, to mee be ignorant that both your ancestors have been, Raleigh at the isle of Jersey, and so to put o and you must be liable and subject yourself to foot both vitles, both within and without ul the trial of'the law of this nation, wherein you land. were born, and under which you live, & igno Mr. George Brooke, after his first argument: runtia juris non ercusut. These treasons were spake little or nothing for himself, more tha terined by the lord Cobbam • The Bye,' as Mr. bis own Confession led bim otherwbiles & George Brooke confessed to Watson and the excuse or qualify his own offence; only b lord Gray; but, said he, Walter Raleigh* and gave cast of a Letter, which, be said, he re I are chanced at the Main. Whereupon Mr. ceived from his inajesty, whercin he had libert Attorney gave a touch of the Treasons of the and authority to deal in the sounding out Lord Cobhamn and Raleigh, who had procured these practices; but neither at any time be from Aremberg five or 600,000 crowns, to be fore nor at his Arraignment, could shew the disposed by the lord Cobham, who should said leiter. And the king being by sume of the there with raise forces for the extirpation of Lords Commissioners questioned withal on the the King and bis Cubbes, and putiiny both point, requireih bis Letter to be produced

and denieih he wrote any such letter. Sir John Hawles (Solicitor-General temp. Sir Griffin Markham answered exceeding Will. 3.) in his reply to sir Bart. Shower's well, and truly to all things ; denying nothing “ Magistracy and Government of England vin- for his fault of Treason; but that he deserves dicated, &c." pag. 32, says, the king came to death upon the persuasion of Watson, by whon London in May, and in Joly following was the he was inisled, and a sured that the king before pretended plot discovered ; and in November his coronation was not an actual, but a politica following, the pretended delinquents were tried king: only be desired to avoid the imputation at Winchester, together with Watson and of effusion of blood in that enterprize, and is Clarke. Their Accusations were in general, it were possible) the brand of a Traitor for his 1. To set the Crown on the lady Arabella's house and posterity, protesting how careless le head, and to seize the king. 2. To have a was of his own life, wbich lie desired to be coleration of Religion. 3. To procure Aid and exposed to any bazard or sacrifice (though it assistance froin foreign princes. 4. To turo was never so desperate ;) which if the king out of court such as they di-liked, and place would not (in mercy) yielú hiin, yet he desire themselves in offices.—Of these the first Arti- their lordships to be intercessors, that he might cle is Treason; what crimes the rest are, is die under the axe, and not by the halter. doubtful. What of them was proved against Watson spake very absurdly and deceivingly, the lords Cobham and Gray, Watson and without grace, or utterance, or good deliverClarke, or how their Trials were managed, doth ance; which (added to his foresaid villainy) not appear : but sir Walter Raleigh's Trial inade him more odious and contemptible to all does appear, and is much like the lord Russel's, the hearers. and therefore of some circumstances of it, I Clarke, the other Priest (an excellent nimthink, it is fit to take notice. Instead of Con-ble-tongued fellow), of good speech, more sults, &c. in the lord Russel's Trial, tlie cant honest in the carriage of the business, of an exwords of the surprizing the Bye, and the Main, cellent wit and memory, boldly, and in wellwere made use of in sir Walter's, interpretable beseeming terms, uttering his mind, not unwilas the Council thougfit fit; at least it was asto- ling to die, but desireth to avoid the imputanishing to the Jury, which was all that was de tion of a traitor. signed by the Council, and fatal to the pri Copley, a man of a whining speech, but a soners. "I have no mind to run through all the shrewd invention and resolution. ramble of sir Walter Raleigh's Trial, as it is Brookesby drawn in merely by Watson to printed before his History of the World, bertake the Oath before-mentioned, for some of the cause the parallel is too exact, and stichs too particularities, as the bringing the king to the close to the memory of persons gone: only I Tower for the adrancement of Relivion ; but will say, That if sir Walter Raleigh was guilty spake with nobody to incite them to the busiof the thing he was accused of by the Witoesses, nes nor came himself according to his time apthough the accusation did not annount to a legal pointed by Watson, the 23rd or 24th of June, proof, it was High-Treason ; but if the lord but at that instant attended upon the queen. Russel was guilty of the thing he was accused Sir Edward Parhum was also hy that villain of, he was not guilty of High-Treason."—And Watson dealt withal after he had tendered him the same autor, says, p. 35, “ I think it is the oath to this purpose : that he understood plain at this day, that of sir Walter Raleigh's the lord Gray meant with forces to set upon is thought a sham Plot; what the lord Russel's the king, and to surprize him, that against that is thought, let the author say, I am loath to enu time, whether he would not draw his sword merate all, but if any person will give himself against the lord Gray with the king's servants the trouble of reading and comparing the and friends ? And if the king's servants were Trial of the lord Russel with that of sir Walter discomfited, whether with the rest of the Ca. Raleigh, they will find them exactly parallel in tholics he would not encounter the lord Gray, 4 number of other particulars."

and if he could bring him to the Tower for bis


relief and the advancement of the Catholic as their peers, or sitten as high Commissioners religion ?

vpon the gentlemen) were called before his Parham told him, that he would so, if he was niajestie in his Priue chamber, at Wilton, persuaded that his intendment of the lord where he commanded them to deliuer (without Gray were true, which at that time Watson respect to any person) the true narration onely; could not assure him of; for he did but hear of the order in the Triall of these persons that of so much; but said he, when I have befter had beene condemned by the lawe, and of the assurance thereof, which will be within these nature and degree of their offences, as had apthree days, you shall further hear of me. He peared in euery one of them, by their seueral staying the time, Watson came not, and so ausweres.-All which being cleerely and justly Parham's proceedings went no further : but reported by them (each speaking in the hearing being urged in the poiot for bringing the king of the rest) his majestie for his part, used to the Tower, for the advancement of the Ca- himself so gravely and reseruedly in all his tholic religion, he said, be made no doubt, but speeches, as well to themselues at that time, as that be with others, adventuring their lives for also to all other persons after, in private or the rescuing the king from the lord Gray, and publique, as neither any of his priue-counsell

, broging him for his safety to the Tower; this nobilitie, or any that attended neerest to his then would not but merit some grace from the sacred person, durst presuine to mediate for fing, for the advancement of the Catholic any, or so much as to enquire what should religion.

be the conclusion of this proceeding. Sir Francis Darcy being Foreman of the In the meane time, while the Court was full Jury, and excellently commended for this day's of variety of discourse, some speaking out of carriage and behaviour, made two or three probabilitie, others arguing out of desire, what doubts concerning sir Edward Parham's Case, was like io be the fortune of all, or of any of these and received resolution from the Bench in some Offendours, his majestie hauing concluded points, and the rest left to his conscience and onely in his own secret heart (which is the true understanding, went with the rest of the Jury, oracle of grace and knowledge) in what manner and found all Guilty, saving Parham, and so to proceed ; and that without asking counsel he was discharged; and upon the rest Sentence of any earthly person it pleased bin to resolue of death was pronounced Ly the Lord-Chief- betweene God and limselfe, that their exccuJustice.

tion should be stayed, euen at the instant

when the axe should be layde to the trees The Copie of a Letttr written from master

For the secret and orderly carriage 1. M. neere Salisbury, to Master H. A. at whereof, bis majestie was careful to preuent all London, concerning the Proceeding at Win

cause or colour of suspicion, of that judicious, chester ; where the late lord Cobham, toru royall

, and vnexpected course which followed. Gray, and sir Grittin Markham, all attainted

And therefore, after the two Priests were exeof hie Treason, were ready to be executed, cuted, on Tuesday the 29th of Nov. and master on Friday the 9th of Dec. 1603. At which George Brooke on Monday following, his matime his majesties Warrant, all written with jestie on the same day, being the 1st of Dec. his own hand, (whereof the true Copie is 'signed three Warrants, for the execution of the here annexed) was delivered to sir Ben-hite lord Cobbam, lord Gray, and sir Griffin jamin Tichbourne, High Sheriffe of HampMarkhain, knt. with particular direction to the shire, commanding him to suspend their Sheriffe, to performe it on Friday after, before execution till further order. Imprinted at

ten a clocke in the morning. All these direcLondon, 1603.

tions being now become notorious, both by Sir; I haue receiued a letter from you; by the Writs of Execution (which passed vnder which I perceiue howe much you desire to be the great seale) and by the making readie che particularly enfourmed of the cause and man Scaffolds at Winchester, his majestie uery Der of the stay of the late lord Cobham's, lord secretly (as now appeareth by the sequele) Graye's, and sir Grittin Marb bam's Execution, drewe bimselfe into his cabinet, on Wednesday appointed at Winchester; wherein, although before the day of execution, and there priuately there are many better able to discourse at large franied a Warrant, written all with his own of such an action then myselfe, yet I conceiue hand, to the Sheriffe, by vertue whereof he when you have perused this plaine and true countermaunded all the former directions, alrelation, of that which all men there behelde ledging the Reasons therein mentioned. Of that day, and many more since haue beard, which seeing no man's pen can so well expresse, from persons of the best qualitie and know as his owne, I send you the Copie verbatim, ledge, you will thanke me more, for suffering as I took it out of the originall, which many the trueth to shew itself vnclothed, then if I had read in my cousin sir Benjamin Tichbourne's laboured to haue deliuered you a tale well hand. painted with curious words and tine phrases. And now to come to the ordering of this buYou must therefore vnderstand, that as soone sinesse; among many other circuiustances, it as the Arraignments were passed at Win is uery remarkable, with what discretion and chester, his majesties Priue-counsel (to the foresight that person was elected, which must Damber of 14 or 15, of which companie all of be vsed in carriage of the Warrant. First, liis them had either beene tryers of the noblemen majestie resolved it should be a Scottishuman ;


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