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realm, than the writs of Prohibition, Habeas been brougli at the common law, whereby Corpus, et de homine replegiando : which writs that question might have come to decision, ihe have been ever beld and found to be a chief plaintiits bave been stopped, sometiines by Inmeans of relief unto the poor, di tressed and jurctions ost of your majesty's court of Clanoppressed subjects of this kingdom, and can be cery from their proceedings, sovietine's before, no inconvenience at all: seeing they are no sometimes atier judgments, and ais.) by impriway conclusive against any man, and do draw sonment: The precedents of which proceedno benefit to the procurers, but rather a fruit. ings do concern all your majesty's loyal and less charse, if they be obtained upon any unjust | duiilul subjects of this kingdom, as well in reground or pretence.- In the free granting of, spect of the stopping of the free course of jusand proceeding upan, some of which writs, lice; as also by reason that if that kini of jurisespecially that of Prohii ition, there hath of diction were at first extended over these four late been observed to be some obstruction, by counties, and be now still continued without reason that upon the complaints and the im- warrant of law; the consequence of this exame poriunity of some, who desire the suppori of in- | ple may in future times give countenance to terior courts against the principal courts of the che erecting of like jurisdictions in other places common law, (wherein your majesty hath been of tiis rialm. greatly troubled) you have taken into your And forasinuch as your majesty was pleased royal consideration the sereral extents of he to comuund all the judges to consider of this jurisdiction of the said sy veral courts.-Since question, and that they thereupon lipstowed which time the said writs have been more spar- very many dys is hearing the cause argued by ingly granted, and with stricter cautions than learned counsel on both sides, and in viewing anciently bath been accustomed.

and consulering great nunbers of reco:ds, proIt is therefore most hurtbly desired that it duced retire tnem concerning that cause ; may please your innjcsiy, whose glory is never wberely tiey ban', no duubi, truly informed inore conspicuous than when the poorest of themselves or the right. the commonalty are blessed with the influence It is therefore the most humble petition of of the ancient beams of justice, to require your the commons in this present parliament assenjuriges in the courts of Westminster to grant bled, that your most excellent majesty will also the said writs, in cases wherein such wiits de be pleased to com vand, that the judges my lye, and by law ate grautable; and in such delirer their opinion upon that an ex ici and de sort as that such persons whose bodies being lii erate hearing, ' bich was had before them, either committed to prison, or their causes like concerving the right of the af re, id jurisdicto recover great prejudice by proceedings tion over those four counties, by force of that against them in times of vacation, may not be statute; and that the opinion while they shall debarred nor deferred from having the speedly deliver therein, may be in such sort published, relief and benefit of those Wriis, more than in as that all your majesty's subjects whom it former times.

may concern, may have reans to lake know

ledge thereof; and that your majesty will Four Shires near Wules.

vouchsafe to declare it, by your most princely Forasmuch as the exercise of authority over pleasure, that any of your majesty's subjects, the counties of Gloucester, Hereford, Wigorn, who may bare occa jon thereof, may try his or and Salop, by the president and council of their right in that point, by the dur and ordiWales, ly way of Instructions upon a pretext nary course of the common law, either by suing of a statute made in the 31th year of the reign out of Prohibitions, or any other vour majesty's of king Henry 8, is conceived not to be war- writs, without restravit; and that if the said ranted by thai; or any other law of this realın jurisdiction over these tour counti's shall apof England.–And for that in the second ses- pear to your majesty ry the opinn of the sion of this present parliament, there did a bill judges, or otherwise, not to be warrante:! by pass the house of commons, whereby it was de- law, that then your majesty w ll be pleased, clared that the irue intent and meaning of ihat out of your most princely and gracious favour before mentioned statuie was not thereby to tvwards all your loyal dutiful subjec's, to order subject these counties to that kind of govern. the censing of the said jurisdiction over those ment by Instructions; and yet notwithstanding counties, to the great comfort of the ini abitants the inhabitants of those counties are since ut. of those cointies, and of the rest of your subterly discouraged, and in eifect debarred froinjects of all the kingdom. the tryal of the right of that kind of jurisdiction over those counties, by the ordinary coure

New Drapery. of the common laws of this land, by reason of Complaint was made it all bumble manner, Probibitions which were beretofore frequently the second session of this present parliament, granted, upon suggestion that those counities of many diserders, outrages, and oppressions, are not part of Wales, or of the marshes of the committed upon occasion of letters patents saine, which is the very point in question, are uranted to the duhe of Lenox, for searching now very hard to be obtained, except in cases and sealing of stutis and manufactures, called where wiose of that council do exceed the in- by the name of New Draperies - Which parent structions set down to them hy your majesty : we held in all, or the most part of it, to be As also for that, in cases where actions have questionable, and in many apparently unlaire

ful, and the execution thereof we found majesty, amongst other grievances of your peo-
stretched by the farmers and deputies beyond ple, in the secund session of this present parlia-
the extent of the said letters patents, as ap- ment, your highness was pleased to answer, that
pears in the particulars set down in the said your grants in that behalf were no other than
grievance.-To which it pleased your majesty such as were warrantable by the laws.-Where-
to give this gracious answer; that the validity as the grievance was the greater, for that all

of the said patent should be left to be judged laws concerning the sale of Wines being intend-
• by the law, and whensoever any abuse arising ed and conceived to stand and be repealed,
. in the execution thereof should appear, it there were nevertheless, by the oversight of them
should severely be punished.'-Which was which were trusted in that business, casually
for that time to our good satisfaction.-Yet omitted, and leti unrepealed, certain obsolete
finding by divers complaints made now in par. laws impossible to be observed; as namely,
liament, that not only the said letters patents one, in the time of king Edward 1. commanding -
are still in force, and the validity of them un- Wines to be sold at Is. the sextern; and one
decided by judgment, but disorders in the exe other made in the 28th year of king Henry 8,
cuion of them, are so far from being reformed, prohibiting all persons, under penalty, to sell
that they multiply every day, to the grievance any French Wines above 8d, the gallon; and
of your majesty's subjects; and those of the other Wines, as sacks and sweet Wies, above
poorer sort, who exercising these manufactures, 1s. the gallon :-And one branch of a statute
are subject to much oppression, to the great made in the 7th year of king Edward 6, prohi-
hindrance of some, and uiter undoing of many, biting men to seli any Wives by retail in their
as hath appeared in the particularities of the houses.
coinplaints presented to us.

Whereupon your majesty hath been induced
Our humble desire is, that your majesty will and drawn to ground new patents of dispersa-
be pleased, according to your former resolu- tion, and to grant the benefit thereof uito the
tion, to give order that this cause, which hath lord admiral :- Whereby the like discommodi-
thus long bung in suspence, be speedily brought ties and inconveniencies have since ensued unto
to judgment; and that before all the judges, the commonwealth, as formerly did arise and
because it concerneth all the subjects of the grow upon the other repealed laws, whereof in
land; and in the mean time that the execution the foriner petitions of your subjects, exhibited
of the said letters patents, so far forth as they unto your majesty in the said second session,
concern the said New Drapery, may be suspend your highness never had any direct and clear
ed till judgment be given : whereby your sub- inforınation :
jects, who do in all humility present this griev- May it therefore please your most excellent
ance unto your majesty, inay be relieved, and majesty, at the humble request of your com-
have no occasion to reiterate their complaints. mons, (who have taken into consideration thu
Licence of Wines.

greatest charges and expences which the said

lord admiral hath been at in your majesty's sero Whereas by ancient and late statutes it hath vice, and have considered liben ise the present been enacted, that Wines should be retailed at licences and grants, for valuable considerations such low rates and prices, as for this 50 years unto many hundreds of your lughness's subjects, past they could not be afforded; and for re- which, without great loss to the said grantees, dress thereof, it was ordained by a statute in cannot be so suddenly made void) out of your the 5th year of the late queen Elizabeth, that princely. wisdom and goodness, wherein you (those former laws not withstanding)Wines might have professed not to extend and strain your be sold at such prices, as by proclamation from prerogative royal, against the public good of time to time to be made by consent of many your people, for the particular gain of any prigreat offences, should be published and set vate persons, to vouchsate : that from thencedown : which proclamation, nevertheless, the forth there may no more grants of that nature late queen and your most excellent majesty have be made unto any of your subjects whonisobeen drawn to forbear, upon the earnest suit of ever; but that the said statute of the 5th of certain persons, who therein only iutended their Elizabeth for the apprising of Wines, to be pubprivate gain : by reason whereof, both great lished by proclamation, as time and occasion sums of money in fines, rents, and annual pay- shall require, may be put in execution : and ments, have been gotten and raised unto the that your majesty will likewise vouchsafe to said persons, and their assignees, and great da grant your royal assent to a bill of repeal of the mage and prejudice hath likewise fallen and said obsolete statutes, and all other whereupon light upon your people; not only by enhancing any such non obstantes and dispensations might the prices of wines, licencing over-many taverns, be grounded.--In which statute of repeal, proand appointing of unmeet persons, in unfit vision shall be inade for the indemnity of all places, to keep the same; but also by reason such, as under your majesty's great seal have that corrupt, mingled, evil, and unwholesome already procured Licence for such sale of Wines, Wines have been uttered and sold, to the great hurt of the health of your highness's people :

Ale-houses. one man sometimes engrossing all the licences Whereas by the laws of this


majesty's designed for that place.

realın of England, no taxes, aids, or impositions Whereupon complaint being made to your of any kind whatsoever, ought or can be laid



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or imposed upon your people, or upon any of , without just and reasonable cause, cannot be their goods or commodities, but only by auiho- satisfied touching their said oath, but are much rity and consent of parliament.-Which being distracted and perplexed what to do, the late undoubtedly the ancient and fundamental law instructions notwithstanding, against such perof the land, is yet for more abundant clearness sons, as otherwise being not kuown to be of expressly declared in sundry acts of parliament, evil behaviour, only to refuse to pay this late made and enacted in the time of sundry your taxed and imposed sum of money. majesty's progenitors, the noblest and most In consideration whereof, your humble comprudent kings of this realm: Your commons mons most instantly beseech your most excelwith just grief do complain unto your inajesty lent majesty, that the former letters and inof the late tax and imposition laid and imposed structions inay be countermanded or stayed, yearly upon such as are allowed to keep Vic- and all further directions and proceedings in tualling Houses, or sell ale and beer by retail : that kind forborn. which imposition not being taxed by assent oi

Searcval. parliament, but commanded and directed only Among many resemblances which are obe by letters and instructions, your commons are served to be between natural and politick bopersuaded that the same proceeded rather from dies, there is none more apt and natural than inisinformation, than by the direction and judg-this, that the diseases of both do not at one inment of your most noble and royal beart. stance commonly seize upon all parts; but be

Wherefore your said commons, kuowing the ginning in some one part, do by tract of time, grief of your people in this behalf, do (accord- and by degrees, get possession of the whole, ing to their duties) in all humility in form and unless by applying of wholesome and proper signify unto your majesty : 1. That the said remedies in due time they may be prevented, taxation being singular and without example, which, as it is in many things very visible, so it and it is in itself a precedent of dangerous con- is in nuthing more apparent than in this matter sequence, and (as your people fear) may easily of Impositions: which beginning at the first, (in time) be extended further, as tó badgers of either with foreign commodities brought in, or corn, makers of malt, drovers of cattle, and such of your own as were transported, is now such like, who in such sort are to be licenced by extended to those commodities, which growing justices of the peace, as those persons are, upon in this kingdom are not transported, but utterwhom, at this time, this present tax is charged ed to the subjects of the same: For proof and laid. 2. Such houses being oftentimes, at whereof, we do in all humility present unto the best, harbours of idleness, drunkenness, your majesty's view the late imposition of one whoredom, and all, manner of villanies, the shilling the chuldron of Sea-Coals, rising in Blith licences are now, (the honester sort in most and Sunderland, not by virtue of any contract places refusing to undergo the new charye,) or grant, as in the coals of Newcastle, but rented and taken by the looser and baser sori of under a mere pretext of your majesty's most people, who have no conscience how they gain. royal prerogative: Which imposition is not By reason whereof all inanner of vice and evil only grievous for the present, especially to those hehaviour is likely every day to increase of the poorer sort, the price of whose only and Neither can the justices of the peace conve- most necessary fuel is thereby to their great niently prevent the same: for that the persons grief enhanced, but dangerous also for the fulicenced' uuder the la:e contribution, affirm ture, considering that the reason of this precewith clamour, that they have a toleration for a dent may be extended to all the commodities year, and that such persons are not friends unto of this kingdom. the crown that seek to suppress thein, and May it therefore please your most excellent thereby to diminish your majesty's revenues. majesty, wbich is the great and sovereign phy

Thirdly, many justices of the peace, (being sician of the estate, to apply such a reinedy as sworn to execute their office) which for this this disease may be presently cured, and all particular conceive to be, that Ale-house keep- diseases for time to come of like nature preers formerly liceuced, are not to be suppressed / vented.

Speech of Sir FRANCIS Bacon to the King, the 7th of July 1610, on presenting the

Petition to his Majesty, who was attended on the Occasion by sir Francis and

eleven other Members; taken from 2 Bacon's Works, 4to ed. p. 212. Most. gracious Sovereign ; The knights, citi-, any additional preface, were neither warranted zens, and burgesses assembled in parliament, in nor convenient; especially speaking before a the house of your commons, in all humbleness king, the exactness of whose judgment onght to do exhibit and present unto your most sacred scatter and chase away all unnecessary speech majesty, in their own words, ilmugh by my as the sun doth a vapour. This only I must hand, their Petitions and Grievances. They are say. Since this session of parliament we have here conceived and set down in writing, accord- seen your glory in the solemnity of the creation to ancient custom of parliament; they are also of this most noble prince ; we have heard your preficed according to the manner and taste of wisdom in sundry excellent speeches which you these later times. Therefore for me to make have delivered amongst us. Now we hope to find and feel the effects of your goodness, in | bind us to wish unto your life fulness of days, your gracious answer to these our petitions. and unto your line royal a succession and conFor this we are persuaded, that the attribute, tinuance even unto the world's end. which was given by one of the wisest writers to It resteth that unto these petitions here intwo of the best emperors, divus Nerva et divus cluded I do add one more that goeth to them alle • Trajanus,' so saith Tacitus, 'res olim insocia- which is, that if in the words and frame of

biles iniscuerunt, imperium et libertatem,' them there be any thing offensive; or that we may be truly applied to your majesty For have expressed ourselves otherwise than we never was there such a conservator of regality should or would; that your majesty would in a crown, nor ever such a protector of lawful cover it and cast the veil of your grace upon freedom in a subiect.

it; and accept of our good intentions, and Only this, Excellent Sorereign, let not the help them by your benign interpretation. sound of grievances, though it be sad, seem Lastly, I am most humbly to crave a particuharsh to your princely ears. It is but gemitus lar pardon for myself that ha 'e used these few columbæ, the mourning of a dove, with that pa- words; and scarcely should have been able to tience and humility of heart which appertaineth have used any at all, in respect of the reverence to loving and loyal subjects. And far be it which I bear to your person and judgment, had from us, but that in the midst of the sense of I not been somewhat reliever and comforted by our grievaures we should remember and ac- the experience, which in my service and access knowledge the infinite benefits, which by your I have had of your continual grace and fa majesty, next under God, we do enjoy; which

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84. The Conviction and Attainder of ROBERT Lalor, Priest, being

indicted on the Statute of the 16th Rd. II. cap: 5, commonly called, The Case of Præmunire in Ireland. Hill. 4 James İ. A.D. 1607.

[From Sir John Davies’s Reports.) THIS Robert Lalor, being a native of this majesty, because the king is not of the pope's kingdom, received his orders of priesthood religion. above 30 years since at the hands of one Lalor's first Indictment and Conviction. Richard Brady, to whom the pope bad given the title of bishop of Kilmore in Ulster; and

The next term after he was indicted upon for the space of 20 years together bis authority the statute of 2 Eliz

. enacted in this realm and credit was not inean within the province against such as should wilfully and advisedly of Leinster. He had also made his name

maintain and uphold the jurisdiction of any known in the court of Rome, and held intelli- foreigo prince or prelate in any canses ecclesigence with the cardinal who was protector of astical or civil within this realm. By which this nation; by means wbereof he obtained statute the first offerce of that kind is punished the title and jurisdiction of Vicar-General of with loss of goods, and one year's imprisonthe See Apostolick, within the arch-bishoprick ment; the second offence incurreth the penalty of Dublin and the bishopricks of Kildare and of the præmunire;. and the third offence is Fernes. This pretended jurisdiction, extend-made high treason. Upon this indictment he ing we'l-nigh over all the province of Leinster,

was arraigned, convicted and condemned, and he exercised boldly and securely many years without any farther question. He then made

so rested in prison during the next iwo terms together, until the proclamation was published, whereby all Jesuits and priests ordained by fo? petition unto the lord-deputy to be set at lireigo authority were comunanded to depart out berty: whereupon his lordship caused him to of this kingdom by a certain time prefixed. be examined by sir Oliver St. John, sir James After which time he began to lurk and to

Fullerton, sir Jeffery Fenton, the Attorney and change bis name. Ilow beit at last he was ap- sive and indirect answers; but at last volunta

Solicitor-General. At first he made some evaprehended in Dublin, and committed to prison in the Castle there. Upon his first Examina- rily and freely he made this ensuing Acknowtion taken by the lord deputy himself, he ac

ledgment or Confession, which being set down knowledged that he was a priest, and ordained in writing word for word as he made it, was by a popish titulary bishop; that he had ac- advisedly read by him, and subscribed with his cepled the title and office of the Pupe's Vicar

own hand, and with the hands of those who General in the three dioceses before-named, firined it by his oath before the lord-depuly

took his examination; and afterwards he conand had exercised spiritual juri-diction in foro conscientia ; and in sundry other points he

and council. maintained and justified the pope's authority. Lalor's Confession or Acknowledgment. Only he said, he was of opinion that the pope First, he doth acknowledge, that he is not bad, no power to excoininunicate or depose his a lawful Vicar-General in the dioceses of Dube

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lin, Kildare and Fernes, and thinketh in his, within this kingdom of Ireland. 2. That by conscience that he cannot lawfully take upon pretext or colour of that bull or brief he was him the said otlice.--Item, he dich acknow- constituted Vicar-General of the see of Rome, leilge our sovereign lord king James, that now and tuok upon bim the stile and title of Vicaris, to be h s lawlui chef and supreme governor General in the said several dioceses. 3. That in all causis, as well ecclesiastical as civil, and lie did exercise ecclesiastical jurisdiction as that he is bound in conscience to obey biin in Vicar-General of the see of Rome, by institutall ri.e said causes; and inat neither the pope, ing divers persons to benefices with cure of nor any other foreign prelate, prince or poten- souls, by granting dispensations in causes matate, latta any poner to control the king in trimonial, by pronouncing sentences of divorce any cae ecclesiastical or civil within this king- between divers married persons, and by doing dois, truly of his majesty's dominions. Item, all other acts and things pertaining to episcohe oth in his conscience believe, that all bir pal jurisdicuon, within the said several dioshops ordened and made by the king's autho- ceses, against our sovereign lord the king, his thority

Hithin of his doininions are lawful crown and dignity royal, and in contempt of bishopis; and wat no bishop made by the pope, bis majesty, and disherison of his crown, and or by any u brity derived from the pope, contrary to the form and effect of the statute, within the king's dominions, bath any power or | &c. autority to impugn, disannul or controul any To this Indictment Lalor pleaded Not Guilact done by any bishop inade by his majesty's ty; and » ben the issue was to be tried, the authority as aforesaid.-Iten, be professeth bame and reputation of the mar', and the nahimselt wiliing and ready to obey the king, as ture of the cause, drew all the principal gentle. a good and obedient sulject ouglit to do, in all men both of the pale and provinces that were his lawful commandments, either concerning in town to the bearing of the matter. At his tinction of priesthood, or any other duty which time a substantial jury of the city of bel»nging to a good subject.

Dublin being sworn for the trial, and the points Atier this Confession made, the state here of the indictment being opened and set forth had no purpose to proceed against him severe by the king's serjeant; ihe attorney-general ly, either for his contempt of the proclamation, thought it not impertinent, but very necessary, or offence against the law : so as he bar more before he descended tu the particular evidence liberty than before, and many of his friends against the prisoner, to intorm and satisfy the had access unto him; who telling him what bearers in two points. 1. What reason moved ther heard oi his Contossion, he protested unto us to ground this indictment upon the old stathem, thai he had only achnowledged the king's tute of 16 Rich. 2, rather than upon some civil and temporal power, without any confes- other later law made since the time of Hen. 8. sion or admittance of his authority in spiritual 2. What were the true causes of the making

This being reported unto tlie lord of this law of 16 Rich, and other formal laws deputy by sundry gentlemen, who gave faith against provisors, and such as did appeal to unto why he sud, his lordship thought fit, that the court of Rome in those times, when both since lie had incurred the pain of pramunire, the prince and people of England did for the by exercising episcopal jurisdiction, as Vicar. most part acknowledge the pope to be the General to the pope, that he should be attaint- thirteenth apostle, and only oracle in matters ed ot ibat offence; as well to make him an of religion, and did follow his doctrine in most example to others of his profession, (for almost of those points wherein we now dissent from in a very diucese of this kingdom there is a vitu- liim. lary bishop ordained by the pope), as also that 1. For the first point, we did purposely forat the time of his trial a just occasion might be bear to proceed against bim upon any latter taken, to publish ihe Contession and Acknow- law, 10 the end that such as were ignorant ledgment which he had voluntarily inade, sign- might be informed, that long before Henry 8. ed, and controued by oath before the lord. was born.divers laws were made against the deputy and council, who have likewise sub- usurpation of the bishop of Rome upon the scribed their names as witnesses thereof. righis of the crown of England, well-nigh as Lulor's Indictment upon the Stat. 16 Ric. 2.

sharp and severe as any statutes wbich have

been made in later times; and that therefore Hereupon in Hill. term, 4. Jacobi, an In- we made choice to proceed upon a law made dictment was framed against him in the King's more than 200 years past, when the king, the Bench upon the stx'uie of 16 Rich. 2, cap. 5. lords and commons, which made the laws, and containing these several points.

the judges, which did interpret the laws, did 1. That he had raceived a bull or brief pur- for the most part follow the same opinions in chased or pr cured in the court of Rime, religion which were taught and held in the which bull or brief did touch or concern the çourt of Rome. king's crown and digniry royal, containing a 2. For the second point, the causes that commission of authority from the prope of Rume moved and almost entorced the English nation unto Richard Brady and David Magragh tô to make this, and other statutes of the same const'ule a Vicar-General for the set of Rome, nature, were of the greatest importance that by the name di the See Apostolick, in the could possibly arise in any state. For these several dioceses of Dublin, Kildare and Fernes, laws were inade to upbold and maintain the


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