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authorized by the department was prepared by the writer for the use of the office, and printed July 1st, 1864. The modifications and additions contained in this pamphlet are now made a part of every surveying contract, subject of course to such subsequent changes as may from time to time be found necessary.
These rules and instructions are only intended to be furnished by the department to persons in the government service, and the aim of the writer has been to embody them in a practical form for the use of the student and the general public; he has endeavored to furnish a TEXT-BOOK which will enable surveyors to fit themselves for the public service. To this end the present work has been systematized and arranged in convenient divisions and subdivisions under appropriate heads, and illustrated by examples, forms, diagrams and maps.
To the Manual proper are added instructions for restoring extinct lines and corners of the public surveys, and for subdividing sections. These directions are based upon the laws of Congress and the well-established precedents of the General Land Office, and are very complete, embracing, it is believed, the principles at least, of nearly every case that will arise in practice. County surveyors in the public land states know well the difficulties experienced in executing this kind of surveys, and will find these instructions a great aid in performing their work.
The manner of proceeding to have certain public lands surveyed in advance of the regular progress of the public surveys, under the provisions of the 10th section of the act of May 30th, 1862, known as the deposit system, is explained; also how to proceed to get certain small islands surveyed.
An Appendix is added to the work containing instructions, forms, and rulings of the General Land Office, in regard to entering, locating, purchasing, and settling lands under the several acts following, to wit: Pre-emption Laws, Homestead Laws, Military Bounty Act, Agricultural College and Revolutionary Land Scrip, Mining Laws, etc.
Also in regard to the adjustment of public grants of land to states and corporations, for railroads, canals, schools, universities and other purposes, and the survey and settlement of private land claims, under foreign titles and special acts of Congress, with various forms, etc.
The comprehensive index attached to the book will enable the reader to turn readily to any subject desired.
The writer cheerfully acknowledges his indebtedness to Hon. JAMES M. EDMUNDS, late Commissioner of the General Land Office, for his valuable aid in selecting and preparing the instructions contained in the Appendix. He also takes this occasion to return his acknowledgments to Hon. JOSEPH S. Wilson, the present Commissioner, for the uniform courtesy and kindness shown him in affording every facility to obtain the necessary data to complete the work and bring it down to current date.
Trusting that he has to some extent succeeded in producing a hand-book of the public land system suited to the wants of a large and intelligent class of his fellow-citizens, the writer respectfully submits the following pages to the public, with the earnest wish that they may be instrumental in securing a uniformity in the laws and practice in the several land states, conforming to the laws of Congress and the decisions of the United States Courts.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Areas of the States and Teritories, and public lands surveyed in each... 18
U.S. SYSTEM OF RECTANGULAR SURVEYING.
stones-Section corner trees.......