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men? Is there any difference in their frames to produce these very different effects ? Are their constitutions worse, or appetites greater? Is there any disadvantage in the nature of our climate, soil, or situation of our country, to prevent our prospe. rity ?....No! the climate of this country is delightful....the soil as rich and vegetating in general as any in the world...and our situation adapted for intercourse with both worlds. Thus, those who render our people idle, are the first to ridicule them for that idleness, and to ridicule them without cause. National characteristics are always unjust, as there never was a country that has not produced both good and bad. Though one man may be idle, another will be industrious, and though that man may be a drunkard, this may be sober. I am grieved, sir, to hear those uncandid reflections thrown on Irishmen. They are general assertions, false as they are illiberal. Irishmen have shewn spirit and genius in whatever they have undertaken. They have shewn that they can make great exertions, when they are encouraged; the difference of the cultivation of this country, from what it was before the laws for promoting agriculture, will evince the truth of my assertion. A great proportion of the inhabitants of this country, previous to those laws, lived on imported corn, but no sooner was encouragement held forth to the plough, than the national industry broke forth, and instead of importing, a great quantity of corn was annually exported. This will ever remain a positive contradiction to the vague and ill-founded reflections on Irishmen. I will even go farther, and call on gentlemen to specify one instance, where the people were indolent, where the laws of their country protected them in their endeavours. Let us consider what has been done in respect to our linens. Though we were compelled to yield an established manufacture, and to apply ourselves to it, under the disadvantage of contending with a country that has arrived at great perfection, yet we prospered. And why? Because we were not interfered with. If this be not a proof of industry, I know not what may
be called so. Whenever this country has been encouraged, it shewed great industry....witness our linens, our broad stuffs, our tabinets, and poplins: how groundless, therefore, is the charge of indolence? Even admitting the people of this country were indolent, instead of contributing to keep them in it, by continuing their oppressions, this house ought to remove that indolence.
As every cause but the true one, has been assigned for the present distresses of the poor, those have not been wanting, who have attributed it to the low price of whiskey, and the drunkenness of the working manufacturers; but those gentlemen, who have of late been so fond of praising the industry of the north, ought to be informed, that there is no part of Ireland, in which
the people drink more whiskey, and yet manufactures succeed there perfectly. This I know, because I have an estate in that part of the kingdom. I know they think nothing of drinking a pint of whiskey in a day, and are able to attend to their business after. Some of my tenants have informed me, they could drink half a pint of whiskey with as much ease as any of us could a glass of wine. As for me, no man more disapproves of the abominable custom of drinking spirits ; but yet, I will be free to say the distress of our manufacturers, is by no means imputable to drunkenness.
As these are not the causes of the present calamities, it is natural to ask what may be the source of them? It may be answered, that want of employment is that source. Numbers of manufacturers cannot get their goods sold. How, therefore, can they give employment? Several circumstances contribute to forwarding the importation of English goods, whereby our own are injured. In England they have large capitals; they can buy and sell much cheaper than our manufacturers, who have in general very small capitals. The man with a large capital can afford to give long credit, which the other cannot, and eight per cent. will yield a greater profit to him in trade, who has 10,000l. than ten per cent. to him who has but 1000l. In England they give two years credit, when we can scarcely give six months, which induces people to deal with them, as they have a year and six months interest on the money. bles them to turn their capitals oftener, so that if they sell, even for less than others, the quick disposal of their goods will not fail to bring them at the end of the year a much greater profit. ' Something must be done to relieve the thousands who now are famishing in your streets. The city of Dublin, with a degree of humanity that will ever do it honour, has hitherto succoured them by voluntary donations. But the donations of the city of Dublin will be found inadequate to the miseries of those poor men. The non-importation agreement entered into in 1779, afforded them some small relief for that time, but served only to augment their distress since, as magazines of English cloths were then formed in this country.
Another expedient was : establish manufactories here: but, Sir, these have ended generally in the ruin of those, who have attempted it: for the English riders immediately give notice to their employers, when a manufactory is going to be set up; the consequence is, the British merchant resolves to lose for a time, sends over an abundance of the commodity, sells it cheaper than it possibly can be wrought for, and totally overthrows his rival. Sir, I remember an instance of this in England itself; there was a house in Nottingham carried on a considerable trade in one branch of business; another finding it so profitable, de
termined to undertake it also; but the owner of the first house determined to lose an immensity, and undersell the new one ; the latter, consequently, failed in a short time, and the business returned to its ancient channel. This shews, Sir, that the English merchant will always be an overmatch for any manufactory we set up, which can any way injure him. Now, Sir, andiher expedient was, opening our export trade; I never shall arraign that measure: It was conducted by a gentleman, whose memory I shall ever revere, and whom I never think of without. emotions which I cannot express; but, Sir, an export trade is beginning at the wrong end ; unless there be a home consumption it will never avail.
The home consumption is what gives money and spirit to the undertaker ; without money he cannot pay the men whom he employs, and that money is only to be had by home consumption. Since then the remedies that have been applied are ineffectual, let us now see what may be successful; and in this let us copy the conduct of England, of France, and other commercial countries; and that is by protecting our manufactures at home.
Then, Sir, fashion, though it may appear at first a trivial matter, has a very great effect on our trade, and for this reason, whatever is the fashion, the manufacturer has a home consumption for, and sells at an enormous advanced profit for ready money; as soon as the fashion alters, he has made so much by it, that he can send over the redundancy here, and sell it at first cost, or considerably under the first cost, and still be a gainers and therefore, though some persons here have sent to England, and got patterns of the fashionable articles, yet before the patterns could be procured, the dies prepared, and the manufacture wrought, the English merchant would have varied his fashion there, and sent the redundancy over to us, and undersold us so as to destroy our hopes.
Now, Sir, what have been the remedies, which we have endeavoured to provide? A non-importation agreement, which, while it lasted, had some effect, but it was but temporary, the benefit arising from it was but for a season, and I fear it has etablished a permanent evil; for, Sir, it was by no means genee ral, and the people, particularly in the north, who were not so much injured by importation, established warehouses, opened their ports, and laid in such a quantity of English goods, as poured an inundation upon us, the moment the agreement was at an end. A few words, continued Mr. Gardiner, will be sufficient to prove, that this measure will not be injurious to the landed property of this country. The advantages of the man of landed estate, and of the manufacturer are reciprocal; for
the prosperity of the one is the support of the other. The pe: tition therefore presented to this house, by an honourable gentleman, from certain landholders of his county, cannot with any degree of propriety be urged against this measure.
Mr. Gardiner then read the following resolutions.
1st. That it appears to this house, that the working manufacturers of this kingdom, are in the greatest poverty and dis. tress.
2dly. That the importation of foreign manufactures into this kingdom, has of late years considerably increased, and still continues to do so.
3dly. That this great importation, by impeding our manus factures, is the cause of this poverty and distress.
4thly. That the interference of parliament is necessary to remove those evils.
PASTORAL EXHORTATION OF THE RIGHT REVEREND DOCTOR
TROY, THE CATHOLIC BISHOP OF OSSORY TO HIS FLOCK.se P. 99.
AT this particular time, when the blessings of peace and a plentiful harvest should warm the hearts of Chris. tians with becoming gratitude to the Father of Mercies, and excite a spirit of industry amongst all ranks of people, we are much concerned to observe riot and disorder pervading marry of our communion in several parts of this county and diocese. Unmindful of the untimely and ignominious death of their relations and acquaintances formerly distinguished by the execrable appellation of White Boys, and deaf to the dictates of reason and religion constantly enforced by our exhortation from the altars, they are endeavouring to renew the horrid scenes of confusion and bloodshed, which disgraced this part of the kingdom not many years ago. They again seem to glory in the opprobrious name of White Boys, and have lately assembled at unseasonable hours, and in different parties, sounding their riotous horn. The have presumed to administer oaths of combination, and proceed to barbarous acts of violence against the persons and property of several individuals. In a word, they notori
ously violate the most sacred laws, and equally despise the injunctions of their spiritual and temporal rulers. Such accumulated enormities call to heaven for vengeance, which will most assuredly fall on the deluded offenders, if they do not speedily expiate their crimes by sincere and exemplary repentance. As our silence upon this occasion might be misunderstood by ignorant, or sinistrously interpreted by malevolent persons, we think it highly incumbent on us to declare, as we do hereby solemnly, in the name and by the authority of our holy mother the church: First, that the association oaths usually taken by the misguided and unhappy wretches called White Bors, are bonds of iniquity, and consequently unlawful, wicked and damnable. They are not, therefore, binding in any manner whatever. Secondly, we in like manner declare, that we condemn, abhor, and detest the above mentioned outrages, as contrary to the maxiins and canons of our holy religion, destructive of the public peace, injurious to private property, and subversive of every law. Finally, we condemn these deluded offenders, who call themselves Roman Catholics, as scandalous and rotten members of our holy church, from which they have been already cut off by the sentence of excommunication solemnly fulminated against them on the 17th of October, 1779, in all the chapels of this diocese. We cannot conclude without beseeching vou, dearest Christians, to join us in fervent and constant prayer for the speedy conversion of these unthinking creatures. Their condition is truly deplorable; in this life exposed, by their nocturnal excursions and wanton depredations, to sickness, loathsome imprisonment, and an infamous death; whilst in the next their obstinacy will be punished with endless torture. May our gracious God, by his efficacious grace, avert this greatest of all evils, and thereby prevent the bitter recollection of their having disregarded our timely and pastoral admonitions. We shudder at the very apprehension of the manifold evils which must necessarily ensue to themselves, to their families, and to their country, from a continuation of their unwarrantable proceedings.
It being equally our wish and duty to promote the happiness of mankind in general, and that of our country and flock in particular, we shall invariably conduct ovrselves in a manner becoming ministers of the gospel and members of society. Uninfluenced by fear or any worldly consideration, we are determined to adopt such further means, as shall be found conducive to the above mentioned, and other great objects of our vocation. Kilkenny, 12th November, 1784.
J. T. Tror,