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ing petitions, and hearing evidence of manufacturers and mer. chants of every description. The first of these petitions was from Liverpool : it was presented on the 3d of March by Mr. Gascoigne, and drew a considerable long speech from Mr. Pitt, to refute the conclusions drawn by the petitioners from their own premises. On the 16th of March Mr. Stanley presented a petition from Lancashire, signed by eighty thousand persons : sixty-four petitionts in the whole* were presented against the propositions, from which the opposition strongly urged, that the sense of the country was against them. On no subject had Mr. Pitt ever spoken with more warmth and zeal. On the 12th of May, 1785, Mr. Pitt brought forward, in consequence or under pretext of the new lights thrown upon the subject from the examinations, petitions, and reports, a new series of propositions or resolutions, twenty in number, some of the ad
• Mr. Jenkinson in argument in favour of the measure observed, that the number of petitions was no matter of triumph, for that in Lord North's ad. ministration fifty.one petitions had been presented in favour of Ireland.
† The following was the form of the new resolutions or propositions, viz.
1. That it is highly important to the interests of both countries, that the commerce between Great Britain and Ireland should be finally regulated on permanent and equitable principles, for the mutual benefit of both countries.
II. That a full participation of commercial advantages should be permanently secured to Ireland, whenever a provision, equally permanent and secure, shall be made by the parliament of that kingdom towards defraying, in proportion to its growing prosperity, the necessary expences in time of peace, of protecting the trade and general interests of the empire.
III. Tliat towards carrying into full effect so desirable a settlement, it is fit and proper that all articles, not the growth or manufacture of Great Britain or Ireland, “ except those of the growth, produce, or manufacture, of any of the “ countries beyond the Cape of Good Hope, to the Straits of Magellan,” should be imported into each kingdom from the other reciprocally, under the same regulations, and at the same duties, (if subject to duties) to which they “ would be” liable when imported directly from the country or place from whence the same may “have been imported into Great Britain or Ireland re“spectively, as the case may be ;” and that all duties originally paid on importation into either country respectively, except on arrack and foreign brandy, and on rum, and all other sorts of strong waters not imported from the British colonies in the West Indies, shall be fully drawn back on exportation to the other. “ But, nevertheless, that the duties shall continue to be protected and guard. “ed, as at present, by withholding the drawback, until a certificate from the "proper officers of the revenue in the kingdom, to which the export may be " made, shall be returned and compared with the entry outwards”
IV. That it is highly important to the general interests of the British em. pire, that the laws for regulating trade and navigation should be the same in Great Britain and Ireland; and, therefore, that it is essential towards carrying into effect the present settlement, that all laws which have been made, or shall be made in Great Britain, for securing exclusive privileges to the ships and mariners of Great Britain, Ireland, and the British colonies and plantations, and for regulating and restraining the trade of the British colonies and plantations, such laws imposing the same restraints, and “conferring the same be"nefits on the subjects of both kingdoms, should” he in force in Ireland, “ by " laws to be passed by the parliament of that kingdom for the same time, " and" in the same manner as in Great Britain,
ditional being supplemental, others explanatory, and several entirely new. The chief objects of additional propositions
V. That it is farther essential to this settlement, that all goods and commo. dities of the growth, produce, or manufacture, of British or foreign colonies in America, or the West Indies, and the British or foreign settlements on the coast of Africa, imported into Ireland, should on importation be subject to the same duties " and regulations” as the like goods are, or from time to time shall be subject to, upon importation into Great Britain ; " or if prohi. “ bited from being imported into Great Britain, shall in like manner be prohi“ bited from being imported into Ireland.”
VI. That in order to prevent illicit practices, injurious to the revenue and commerce of both kingdoms, it is expedient, that all goods, whether of the growth, produce, or manufacture of Great Britain or Ireland, or of any foreign country, which shall hereafter be imported into Great Britain from Ireland, or into Ireland from Great Britain, should be put, by laws to be passed in the parliament of the two kingdoms, under the same regulations with respect to bonds, cockets, and other instruments, to which the like goods, are now sub. ject in passing from one port of Great Britain to another.
VII. That for the like purpose, it is also expedient, that when any goods, the growth, produce, or manufacture of the British West India islands, “or any other of the British colonies or plantations,” shall be shipped from Ireland for Great Britain, they should be accompanied with such original certificates of the revenue offices of the said colonies as shall be required by the law on importation into Great Britain ; and that when the whole quality included in one certificate shall not be shipperl at any one time, the original certificate, properly indorsed as to quantity, should be sent with the first parcel; to identify the remainder, if shipped at any future period, new certificates should be granted by the principal officers of the ports in Ireland, extracted from a register of the original documents, specifying the quantities before shipped from thence, by what vessels, and to what ports.
VIII. That it is essential for carrying into effect the present settlement, that all goods exported from Ireland to the British colonies in the West Indies, or in America, “or to the British settlements on the coast of Africa,” should from time to time be made liable to such duties and draw backs, and put under such regulations as may be necessary, in order that the same may not be ex. ported with less incumbrance of duties or impositions than the like goods shall be hurthened with when exported from Great Britain.
IX. That it is essential to the general commercial interests of the empire, " that so long as the parliament of this kingdom shall think it advisable that “ the commerce to the countries beyond the Cape of Good Hope shall be car. “ried on solely by an exclusive company, having liberty to import into the “port of London only, no goods of the growth, produce, or manufacture of
any countries beyond the Cape of Good Hope should be importable into Ire“ land from any foreign country, or from any settlement in the East Indies be. “ longing to any such foreign country; and that no goods of the growth, pro• duce, or manufacture of the said countries should be allowed to be imported “ into Ireland but through Great Britain ; and it shall be lawful to export “such goods of the growth, produce, or manufacture of any of the countries “ beyond the Cape of Good Hope to the Straits of Magellan from Great “ Britain to Ireland, with the same duties retained thereon as are now retained
on their being exported to that kingdom ; but that an account shall be kept “ of the duties retained, and the net drawback on the said goods imported to “ ireland ; and that the amount thereof shall be remitted by the receiver ge"neral of his majesty's customs in Great Britain to the proper officer of the " revenue in Ireland, to be placed to the account of his majesty's revenue “ there, subject to the disposal of the parliament of that kingdom; and that “ whenever the commerce to the said countries shall cease to be carried on by “ an exclusive company in the goods of the produce of countries beyond the
were to provide, 1st. That whatever navigation laws the Bri. tish parliament should thereafter find it necessary to enact for
“ Cape of Good Hope to the Straits of Magellan, the goods should be im. “ portable into Ireland from countries from which they may be importable to “ Great Britain, and no other; and that no vessel should be cleared out from “ Ireland for any part of the countries from the Cape of Good Hope to the * Straits of Magellan, but such as shall be freighted in Ireland by the said “ exclusive company, and shall have sailed from the port of London; and that “ the ships going from Great Britain to any of the said countries beyond the “ Cape of Good Hope should not be restrained from touching at any of the
ports in Ireland, and taking on board there any of the goods of the growth, "produce, or manufacture of Great Britain.”
X. That no prohibition should exist in either country, against the importation, use, or sale of any article, the growth, or manufacture of the other; except such as either kingdom may judge expedient, from time to time, upon corn, meal, malt, flour, and biscuits ; " and except such qualified prohibitions, “ at present contained in any act of the British or Irish parliament as do not “ absolutely prevent the importation of goods or manufactures, or materials “of manufactures, but only regulate the weight, the size, the packages, or “ other particular circumstances, or prescribe the built or country, and di“mensions of the ships importing the same ; and also, except on ammunition, “ arms, gunpowder, and other utensils of war, importable only by virtue of “ his majesty's licence ;” and that the duty on the importation of every such article (if subject to duty in either country) should be precisely the same in the one country as in the other, except where an addition may be necessary in either country, in consequence of an internal duty on any such article of its own consumption," or in consequence of internal bounties in the country “ where such article is grown, produced, or manufactured, and except such “ duties as either kingdom may judge expedient, from time to time, upon “ corn, meal, malt, flour, and biscuits.”
XI. That in all cases where the duties on articles of the growth, produce, or manufacture of either country, are different on the importation into the other, it is expedient that they should be reduced, in the kingdom where they are the highest, to an “ amount not exceeding' the amount“ payable in the “other;" °so that the same shall not be less than ten and a half per cent. upon
any article which was charged with a duty, on importation into Ireland, of “ ten and a half per cent. or upwards, previous to the 17th day of May, 1782 ;” and that all such'articles should be exportable from this kingdom, into which they shall be imported, as free from duty as the similar commodities or home manufactures of the same kingdom.
XII. That it is also proper, that in all cases where the articles of the con. sumption of either kingdom shall be charged with an internal duty on the ma. nufacture, the said manufacture, when imported from the other, may be charged with a farther duty on importation, adequate to countervail the interpal duty on the manufacture “ as far as relates to the duties now charged “ thereon ;” such farther duty to continue so long only as the internal consumption shall be charged with the duty or duties to balance wliich it shall be imposed ; and that where there is a duty on the importation of the raw matc. rial of any manufacture in one kingdom, greater than the like duty on raw materials in the other, such manufacture may, on its importation“ into the other “ kingdom,” be charged with such a countervailing duty as may be sufficient to subject the same, so imported, to "burdens adequate to those which” the manufacture composed of the like raw material is subject to, in consequence of duties on the importation of such material in the kingdom into which such manufacture is so imported; and the said manufacture, so imported, shall be entitled to such drawbacks or bounties.on exportation, as may leave the same subject to no heavier burden than the home made manufacture. VOL. III.
the preservation of her marine, the same should be passed by the legislature of Ireland. 2dly. Against the importing into Ireland, and from thence into Great Britain, of any other West
XIII. That, in order to give permanency to the settlement now intended to be established, it is necessary, that no new or additional duties should be hereafter imposed in either kingdom, on the importation of any article of the growth, produce, or manufacture of the other, except such additional duties as may be requisite to balance the duties on internal consumption, pursuant to the foregoing resolution, or in consequence of bounties remaining on such articles when exported to the other kingdom.
XIV. That for the same purpose, it is necessarv, farther, that no prohibi. tion, or new additional duties, shall be hereafter imposed in either kingdom, on the exportation of any article of native growth, produce, or manufacture “ from the one kingdom” to the other, except such as either kingdom may deem expedient, from time to time, upon corn, meal, malt, four, and biscuits.
XV. That for the same purpose, it is necessary, that no bounties whatsoever should be paid or payable in either kingdom, on the exportation of any article to the other, except such as relate to corn, meal, malt, four, and biscuits, " and except also the bounties at present given by Great Britain," on beer, and spirits distilled from com; and such as are in the nature of brawbacks or compensation for duties paid, and that no bounty should be “payable” on the exportation of any article to any British colonies or plantations,
or to the British settlements on the coast of Africa," or on the exportation of any article imported from the British plantations, or from the British settlements " on the coast of Africa, or British settlements in the East Indies ;” or any manufacture made of such article, unless in cases where a similar bounty is payable in Great Britain, on exportation from thience, or where such bounty is merely in the nature of a drawback or compensation of or for duties paid, over and above any duties paid thereon in Britain ; and where“ any internal " bounty shall be given in either kingdom, on any goods manufactured therein, " and shall remain on such goods when exported, a countervailing duty " adequate thereto may be laid upon the iniportation of the said goods into " the other king lum."
XVI. That it is expedient for the general benefit of the British empire, that the importation of articles from foreign “ countries” should be regulated from time to time in each kingdom on such terms as may, “ effectually favour" the importation of similar articles of the growth, product, or manufacture of the other, “except in the case of materials of manufactures, which “ are or hereafter may be allowed to be imported from foreign countries, duty “ free; and that in all cases where any articles are or may be subject to bigher “ duties on importation into this kingdom from the countries belonging to any • of the States of North America, than the like goods are or may be subject " to when imported, as the growth, produce, or manufacture of the British “ colonies and plantations, or as the produce of the fisheries carried on by
British subjects, such articles shall be subject to the same duties on impor“ tation into Ireland, from the countries belonging to any of the States of “ North America, as the same are or many be subject to an importation from “ the said countries into this kingdom."
“ That it is expedient, that measures should be taken to prevent disputes touching the exercise of the right of the inhabitants of each kingdom to fish “ on the const of any part of the British dominions."
XVII. That it is expedient, that “ such privileges of printing and vending " books as are or may be legally possessed within Great Britain under the
grant of the crown or otherwise, and” the copy-rights of the authors and booksellers of Great Britain, should continue to be protected in the manner they are at present, by the laws of Great Britain ; and that it is just that measures should be taken by the parliament of Ireland for giving the like protec. tion to the copy.rights of the authors and booksellers of that kingdom.
India merchandises than such as were the produce of our own colonies; and 3dly. That Ireland should debar itself from any of the countries beyond the Cape of Good Hope to the Straits of Magellan, so long as it should be thought necessary to continue the charter of the English East India Company.
In the course of the debates upon the propositions as they stood with these amendments and additions, that which met with the most vigorous opposition (independent of such general reasoning as went against the system altogether) was the fourth, in which Great Britain, it was contended, assumed both a present and a future power to bind freland by such acts, as she should
relative to the trade and commerce of both kingdoms. This was stated to be a resumption of the right of legislating for Ireland, which this country had renounced.
On one hand it was argued, against the propositions, that the house ought to congratulate with itself upon its happy escape from the system proposed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer but two months since; all opposition to which was then treated as the effect of faction and disappointment. If the original resolutions had passed, they would have lost for ever the monopoly of the East India trade; they must have hazarded all the revenue arising from spirituous liquors; they would have sacrificed the whole of the navigation laws of this country. Had these resolutions passed into a law, they would have risked the loss of the colonial market for the manufactures of Great Britain, and incurred the most extensive danger to the colonies themselves; they would have left it in the power of Ireland to have drawn a revenue from our consumption. The just alarm of the minister on the subject of the navigation laws, sufficiently appeared from the extraordinary nature of the remedy he had thought it expedient to adopt, which was no other than to assert that, notwithstanding the independence of Ireland, she must still in commercial laws and external legislation be governed by Britain. That the wild scheme of extravagant speculation
“XVIII. That it is expedient, that regulations should be adopted with respect " to patents to be hereafter granted for the encouragement of new inventions, “ so that the rights, privileges, and restrictions thereon granted and contained, “ shall be of equal duration and force throughout Great Britain and Ireland.”
XIX. That the appropriation of whatever sum the gross hereditary revenue of the kingdom of Ireland (the due collection thereof being secured by permanent provisions) shall produce, after deducting all drawbacks, repayments, or bounties granted in the nature of drawbacks, over and above the sum of six hundred and fifty-six thousand pounds in each year, towarıls the support of the naval force of the empire, to be applied in such manner as the parliament. Ireland shall direct, by an act to be passed for that purpose, will be a satisfactory provision, proportioned to the growing prosperity of that kingdom, towards defraying, in time of peace, the necessary expences of protecting the trade and general interests of the empire.