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to the origin of local names, and not a few historical and political facts that are new and worthy of notice. We will give a. page or two of extract, and begin with our own island.

“ Our island of Manhattan, or as pronounced by the Dutch, and spelt by the whites of New-England, and both prefixing the article the, Manhadoes; and the like observed by Stuyvesant in his answer to the summons to surrender, 'the Manhattans,' and in the articles of capitulation, signed at the governor's BOUWERIE, Farm, still in the family, the road or lane leading to it, known as the BOUWERISCHE LAENING, corrupted to Bowery-Lane, now Bowery-Street, the town and the inhabitants are mentioned as the town of Manhattans,' the town of the Manhattoes,' the townsmen of the Manhattans.'

“A marsh or swamp extended across the island, froin between where Canal-street lerminates at the North river and the space of the shore of the East river, the portion of Cherry-street between James and Catharine streets. Cherry-street, so called from being laid through a public garden, with a bowling-green in it, called Cherry-Garden, having a front on the East river of 384 feet, and extending in the rear to the meadow of Wolvert Webbers, the property of Richard Sacket, Maltster ; the western side of his malt-house the line of the eastern side of Roosevelt-street there. James-street, called after JACOBUS, James, Roosevelt, and Catharine-street, after Catharine, the wife of Hendrick Rutgers, proprietors, at the time, of the grounds through which they were laid.

“ There was a large pond, or Kolck, in the marsh, about midway between Broadway and Chatham-street, and a stream, or rivulet,' from it, running eastward, and crossing Chatham-street, between Pearl and Roosevelt streets, and there a bridge over it. The English pronounced the word Kolck, as if consisting of two syllables, Kol-lick, and the waters, from the adjacent high grounds collecting in it, an etymologist, not long since, chose to imagine the true original name to have been an English one, Collect; and, the pond having lately been filled up, thence the name of a street passing over the space it occupied, Collect-street.”— pp. 11, 12

The venerable author, aster merely mentioning the mysterious and fearful name of the devious creek at King's Bridge, without venturing to explain its origin, passes on to Hell-Gate, and relates, in an amusing manner, the change attempted to be made by modern refinement, in the long established name of that perilous strait. The industrious fraternity of newspaper editors will do well to read this page, where they may meet with a hint or two that may be serviceable to them.

“The passage between Long-Island and Great Barn Island, the Dutch called Her HELLE Gat, corrupted to Hell-Gate, and finally to HurlGate. I have shown what Gat imports in Dutch, when used as in the present instance, so that HELLEGAT may be interpreted either Hellgut, or the Gut of Hell. De Laet, in his Latin work, has it Inferi os.

When a ferry was, within a few years since, about to be established from Hoorn's Hoeck to Long-Island, and a dock being necessary for a landing or stairs, the persons employed to build it, having finished ii, a duty of hu.

manity still remained, the traveller was to be directed in the right way; they accordingly put up a hand or guide board, where the road turns off from the main road, with the direction coarsely painted on it, no matter how coarsely, it was plain enough for all to read it, "THE ROAD TO HURLGATE Ferry,' and this is the origin of the name Hurlgate. That they should be offended at the first syllable in the name Hellgate, may perhaps be accounted for: they may have considered the use of it, unless in open reprehension of themselves, or in rebuke of others, as naughty, having been so trained in their youth ; or they may have been apprehensive, that being too familiar with the name, might tend to render the place too familiar, and so take off from the dread of it; but why they should adopt hurl as the substitute cannot be conceived, inasmuch as a gate, so far from hurling or hurrying us through, inay, at times, perform to us one of the best offices of a friend, to stay or check us in our career of more haste than good speed. Perhaps the dockbuilders never thought so far; and I am fearful, that however inclined we may be to find a motive for them, we shall, after all, be obliged to say, that when they undertook to amend the name, they went beyond their dock. But the persons most to blame are the editors of our public papers. It will be acknowledged they have it in their power to give currency_limit it for the moment to names; it ought, however, to occur to them, that all power implies trust for the due exercise of it; and they speak as familiarly of going, and coming, through Hurlgate, as they do of going out of, and coming into, Sandy Hook. I pray, however, I may not be considered as taking it upon me to be their censor-far different from it; for notwithstanding the carpings of some, :vho love to be ever finding fault, that, not unfrequently, their facts are not the fact, their reasonings not logie, their praise sickening, their dispraise, as to the manner of it, the reverse of good manners, their wit, omitting to remember that mediocrity in wit was never permitted in any,' their best excuse; and notwithstanding the sneers of others, that at times they are so sententious, so sagacious, so profound, as to be wonderful, I say, and say it with sincerity, may they flourish ; without newspapers, numerous and free, we are without Liberty; the growth even of weeds indicates soil and season; I, however, prefer another illustration more courteous and not less apt-the richest harvest must have its straws to sustain it. The English Hellgate has been so long peaceably in possession, I am content it should remain so, I have no desire to go back either to Dutch language or Dutch law; not to the one because not better than the English, nor to the other, because not so good. The Dutch took the civil law of Rome; there they erred; they should have taken the common law of England.”—pp. 33–35.

The worthy and venerable author is well known for the services he has rendered his country, as a statesman, a legislator, an advocate, and as a learned and upright judge. He has ever been a vigilant and zealous guardian of the rights and interests of his native state, and “ Ne quid respublica detrementi caperet," has ever been his motto. But in the republic of letters, his services, unfortunately for his fame, have been by no means sufficiently appreciated, though from his Latin quotations, and classical allusions, it is evident that he is no stranger to the Ro

man poets and historians. With the history of his own country, no American is more conversant ; and from the copious store of facts and anecdotes connected with the events of the revolution which he possesses, it might naturally be supposed, that memoirs of his own times would prove to be a work highly entertaining and interesting. But it is to be hoped he will not undertake to write them himself; for his good old-fashioned manner will appear to the eyes of modern readers so queer and grotesque, that, with a levity, characteristic of the admirers of the style à la mode, they will pay no attention to the excellence of the matter.

It is with feelings of deep regret, and with no little astonishment, that we find so respectable a man as Judge Benson, at this period of time, affecting to sneer at the character and celebrity of the illustrious Franklin. He ridicules the idea of giving his name to an American man of war, because Franklin, he intimates, was of a tame and pacific temper; and he insinuates, that in other respects, “his name cannot signify any quality of excellence in the object that bears it!"

Sic fatur senior ; telumque imbelle sine ictu

Conjicit. Now this assault is petty in the extreme, quite unworthy of the judge, and utterly incompatible with those feelings of generous pride and magnanimous patriotism, which every Ameri.. can should delight to cherish. The name and fame of Franklin are so associated and blended with our country's glory and renown, that we are at a loss to understand how any man, not an enemy to the cause of American independence, can have the heart and the hardihood to make so wanton an attack. But it is not necessary for us to vindicate the fame of Franklin-of him who, in the language of one of the most eloquent orators of Europe, was “one of the greatest men that ever served the cause of philosophy and liberty.” It is protected by a shield that the bolts of detraction, even though hurled by the veteran arm of Judge Benson, will strive in vain to pierce.

ART. XIII.—The Mathematical Diary, containing New Research

es and Improvements in Mathematics ; with Collections of Questions, &c. &c. In Quarterly Numbers. Conducted by Robert ADRAIN, LL. D. Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in Columbia College, New-York. Nos. I, II. New-York. "James Ryan.* 1825.

We have attentively examined the first and second numbers of the above little work, and feel convinced that it will abundantly deserve all the success which, under the auspices of the accomplished mathematician who conducts it, it has a very fair prospect of attaining. Its object is to furnish to all those who baye a fondness for mathematical pursuits, a convenient vehicle for their inquiries, speculations, and, at the same time, to excite the curiosity, and stimulate the industry of the contributors by proposing, in each number, a variety of interesting questions adapted to all capacities and tastes. These appeals to the ingenuity of students are known to have a powerful influence in promoting application and inquiry; and in this respect, mathematics has an obvious advantage over every other branch of human science.

In order that the method of mutual interrogation may be useful, it is absolutely necessary that the questions should be rendered interesting ; and this is never so well effected, as when they are such as lead to definite and demonstrative solutions. Questions of this sort have all the characteristic interest of enigmas and games of calculation, with the great additional attraction derived from a consideration

* We take this opportunity to recommend to mathematical instructors, Mr. Ryan's Elementary Treatise on Algebra. It appears to be prepared with great care and discrimination, from the very best sources, preserving such of the materials of his authorities, as are best calculated to render the book at once practically useful, and theoretically accurate; and keeping out of view such speculations, as would only lead the student from the line of progress, rendered necessary by our modes of education. Besides a great deal of valuable matter, not to be found in the treatises generally in use, Mr. Ryan's book contains an appendix, by Dr. Adrain, exhibiting an algebraic method of demonstrating the propositions in the fifth book of Euclid's Elements, according to the text and arrangement iu Simson's edition. Notwithstanding all that has been said of the force and perspicuity of geometrical demonstration, we cannot help believing that the experience of teachers will convince them, that the fundamental principles of ratio and proportion, may be far more effectually taught by the simple system here laid down, than by the tedious and verbose methods commonly pursuad.

of the value of their results. Accordingly we find, that in proportion to the number who cultivate the science, more mathematical journals have been well supported than any other kind of periodical work whatever. The English Ladies' Diary was commenced in 1704, and has continued without interruption to the present time. The Gentlemen's Diary, the Mathematical Repository of Leybourn,the Miscellanea Curiosa of Dr. Hutton, the Mathematical Companion, and the Belfast Almanac, are also instances of successful journals, supported by the peculiar interest which mathematical speculations possess,

for those whose tastes and habits incline them to such studies. Even in this country, where abstract science has never been much cultivated, several publications have from time to time appeared, which have fallen through, rather from mismanagement, or want of perseverance, than from want of adequate support. We are, therefore, glad to see another effort made to facilitate the prosecution and general dissemination of mathematical science, because we are convinced that there exists a natural demand for this kind of knowledge, quite sufficient to meet the proposed supply.

The articles in No. 1. of the Mathematical Diary, are, first, an Essay on the Rectification and Quadrature of the Circle, a curious and by no means unimportant subject, which the editor of the journal (for to him we venture to ascribe the paper) has discussed with great clearness and ability. The historical account of the successive efforts made by geometricians to square the circle, as it is called, will prove interesting even to the uninitiated reader. We look with much impatience for the promised continuation of this essay, and particularly for the new method of approximation, to which the present paper seems intended as an introduction. The second article is a review of Venturoli's Theory of Mechanics, giving an outline of its plan, and a concise enumeration of its merits. The writer points out, in the fifth chapter of the book, a curious oversight, which seems to have escaped the notice of the translator. These articles are followed by a list of twenty well selected questions of various degrees of difficulty, and in different departments of the science.

Number II. contains the solutions to the questions of No. I. with eighteen new questions to be resolved in No. III. The solutions to the thirteenth of No. I. requiring the greatest rectangle inscribable in one of the nodi of a given lemniscate, (a very pretty problem, by the way, and which we are very glad to see extended to the higher orders of lemniscates,) are by Vol. 1.

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