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olic and Apostolic Mother of Christendom." His praise of the Jesuits, pp. 212, 213, Vol. II.- his reference, p. 87 in the same volume, to Romish miracles —"holy hermits able to command the elements of nature and the savage beasts of the desert;” his sneers at what he terms “ the truly barbarous era of the Reformation,” p. 216—these, and many such phrases smack a little too much for us of the New CRUSADE, in which Austria is well known to take the lead, of the Church of Rome against all dissenters from her pale. But the mention of this reminds us personally of the feeling entertained towards Frederick Von Schlegel throughout Protestant Germany, after his defection to Austria. In answer to an inquiry made by us, in the course of conversation with Professor Schlosser, of Heidelberg, years after that event, of the whereabouts of the Schlegels, the Professor, after answering us at large touching Willian, added—“ Quant à Frederick, il est mort.

" Dead !" was the reply; " I had not heard of it.” Oui, vraiment; il est mort," he rejoined: il est allé en Autriche --nous y arons écrit son épitaphe.As to ourselves, we were content to hold him not dead, but blind—for such adhesion to the Papal yoke. It augurs, at least, not well for his clear-sightedness in history.

In thus qualifying, as above, our praises of Schlegel, we are aware that we run counter to high authority. We stand, however, upon our rights as independent critics, as well as upon our duties as conscientious ones; and having uttered no hasty judgment in

-nor, as we truly think, a prejudiced one-shall stand ready at all times, by ample analysis, to justify it.

this case

5. Religion in its relation to the Present Life; in a Series of Lectures

delivered before the Young Men's Association of Utica, by A. B. Johnson, and published at their request. New York. Harpers. 1841. 12mo. pp. 180.

We are sorry we cannot concur with the Young Men's Association at Utica in their flattering request to the author of these lectures. We deom them too crude to pass into that permanent form which art gives to the winged words of the speaker. As lectures, they doubtless (for we have the proof) were successful; as a critical production, they as doubtless will not be. Setting aside their flippant familiar style, they labor under the deeper want of soundness in the principles of the teaching, and knowledge of the thing taught. It is, in short, an argument above the author's powers, or at any rate beyond his acquisitions, inasmuch as it lay beyond his professional duties. The “lay preacher" will ever be found, we think, to secularize religion, therefore we care not to NO. XVI. VOL. VIII.


hear him preach — to debase it from its spiritual character — to convert it from a heavenly instrument “ for the salvation of souls " into a worldly and utilitarian scheme for the promotion of man's present interests. It is sufficient to add that such (however unintended) is the actual teaching of the author before us. His very foundation must be esteemed infidel. Religion has no “ bearing upon the present life,” except as derived from what it teaches of the life to come; and to separate, as he thoughtlessly does, the teaching of the Bible from its inspiration, is the very signal for its overthrow. What shall we say to such religious teaching as this? - "Many people deem the whole merit of the Bible dependent on the question of its divinity, but if my estimate of its tenets be correct, the Bible, whether human or divine, (though human I think it cannot be,) is precisely such a guide as our intellect needs." p. 169. All we do say is this, — Behold therein the folly of men stepping out of their profession to teach that which in truth they have never learned.

6. Transactions of the Apollo Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in the United States, for the year



ALTHOUGH it requires of us to deviate somewhat from our ordinary course, to take notice of the above report, its subject, in our view, is one of such great importance as fully to justify the devia

In nothing connected with intellectual cultivation are we so far in the rear, as in attention to the fine arts, and hence we are bound to bestow especial consideration upon every plan for advancing them. If they are ever to be generously fostered in our country, it will be done, we think, by associated efforts, and not by private patronage; there is little probability that wealth and taste for so refined a pleasure will be found united in a sufficient number of individuals, to secure to them the needed encouragement. Opulence seeks gratification in almost everything else, in preference to objects of art - splendid houses, rich furniture, fine equipages, choice wines, and the like delights of sense, are of far greater value in common estimation, than any to be derived from the cultivation of taste. The slightest observation of the condition of things in this respect, in our great capitals, will satisfy any one of the correctness of this remark. But were it otherwise, and private patronage of the arts ever so great, it would not lessen the necessity of public institutions to promote them; however numerous may be the works of art in the possession of individuals, unless there are open galleries and exhibitions, the influence on public taste is in a great measure løst, for the people at large have no access to private collections. We have thus two strong points in favor of associations, as the best method in our country of promoting the arts; it is the only one which promises a sufficiency of means, and it places the works of art within the reach of all classes of the community. Were it necessary, we might strengthen the argument by a reference to the experience of other countries. In Germany, where the arts have been more successfully cultivated during the present century, than in any other part of the world, there is scarcely a city without its Kunst Verein, or Society of Fine Arts ; and in

every instance, they have been eminently successful in promoting their object, as Prague, Dresden, Berlin, Munich, Dusseldorf, Manheim, and Frankfort, most satisfactorily witness. The Apollo Association is an institution similar to those just named; its objects, as expressed in its constitution, are, " the cultivation and diffusion of correct taste in the fine arts, by the exhibition and distribution of good works of art, and the encouragement of artists, by raising a fund for the purchase of their works, and by providing a place for the exhibition and sale of them.” A person becomes a member of the association by the small annual contribution of five dollars. The fund is appropriated to the purchase of works of American artists, or of artists resident in the United States, and to defray the expenses of such engravings as the Association may order to be made. It also provides for two exhibitions annually, to which the members and their families have free access. At the close of the year, the works of art which have been purchased are distributed among

the members, and each one is entitled to a copy of every engraving that is executed for the Association. No one can question the excellence and utility of this plan – it holds out encouragement to artists by creating a new demand for their productions ; it acts directly upon public taste by frequent exhibitions of works of art, and by the annual distribution of a considerable number of them. To make this plan completely successful, it is only necessary that the community generally should take an interest in it and give it a generous support

. If good prices are paid, good paintings and good statues will be offered, and public liberality will be rewarded by fine exhibitions. Large means are wanted for another purpose absolutely essential to the prosperity of the association; without a suitable building of its own, to be held in perpetuity, and exclusively for its specific object, it cannot safely form a permanent gallery, or any great plan of operations for the promotion of the arts, as past experience here has conclusively and sadly proved. We know of no instance in this country, of uninterrupted success in forming a public gallery of paintings and other objects of art,. except that of the Athenæum in Boston, and much of that must doubtless be attributed to the confidence in its permanent duration, which the possession of a fine edifice well adapted to all its purposes creates. Contributions to such institutions are freely made, when there is good reason for believing that they will be permanently preserved; but none are willing to give, when the chance is that what they give may be lost or destroyed in a year or two.

by lot

In full confidence that the Apollo Association is formed upon the right principle for effectually promoting the fine arts among us, and that if duly encouraged it will do more for this great object than can be done in any other way, we have bestowed a few words upon it, hoping to interest the public in the efforts it is making. Our explanation of its objects and operations has been necessarily imperfect, from the small space we could now appropriate to it, but our readers will find them set forth at large in their pamphlet; the address of the president of the institution, Dr. J. W. Francis, well known as the liberal patron of letters and arts, most eloquently urges its claims to public favor, and exhibits in glowing language the labors of our artists abroad, the laurels they are gathering for themselves, and the honors they are conferring upon their country. We miss one name from the list, which was doubtless accidentally omitted; the great fame of Powers is too widely spread through the world, not to have come to the knowledge of the learned President. This artist, we are glad to find, is no longer wasting his genius in chiselling busts, but is now exercising it with marvellous skill upon the ideal; his Eve, at the moment of temptation, with the apple in her hand, is, we learn, such an Eve as might well tempt any man to risk expulsion from Paradise ; such a one, indeed, as would make a Paradise of any spot on earth.

We have already overstepped our limits, and encroached upon the space assigned to other matters, but we cannot close our remarks without adding a few words upon a subject of highest interest to the friends of the arts and of American genius. This great metropolis has not in any public collection a single chef d'aurre of that artist, who is first, not only on the list of American, but of all living painters ; in fact the name of Allston is better known and more honored in most of the cities of Europe than in New York. We have no right to a share in his fame; we have done nothing to encourage his genius; we have taken no pains to give an opportunity to our artists and the public in general of studying his works, and improving their taste by them. Whilst this reproach remains upon us, we can make no boast of our exertions for the promotion of the arts. We could name several of Allston's paintings, which future ages will rank with the finest of the Italian pencil, as imperishable even as those of their immortal masters of the art-several of more value for forming public taste, than all the galleries ever exhibited in our city.

7. Additional Remarks on the Currency of the United States. By

Publius. Together with the Previous Remarks on this subject by the same Author. New York: 1841. Wiley and Putnam.

By some accidental oversight, Publius's first remarks on the Currency of the United States did not receive from us that attention

to which they were entitled, both by the importance of the subject and the very able manner in which it was treated by this writer. It is too late to revert to it now, as many of the topics therein discussed have since been settled in various ways, and in some instances so much to the credit of the author's foresight, that what with him was prophecy has become history. We desire, however, to make him the amende honorable; assuring him, that the omission was not owing to any undervaluing of his labors. In the “Additional Remarks," the author replies most satisfactorily to the objections which he had elicited to his former positions, and comes to the result which all men do, whose understandings are not darkened by prejudice, that a national bank is indispensable to the commercial and general prosperity of the country. He then exhibits the fallacies of Mr. Wright's reasoning, in his address to the people in the Park, last September; and next inquires into the consequences that must result from the late change in the administration of the government, and the necessity of an extra session of Congress in May, to decide upon the two great questions of the Tariff and a National Bank. We have only to refer to the article on the latter subject in our present number, to show that we are in entire accordance with Publius on the great point of the necessity of the institution in question; and as to all minor ones, we do not essentially differ, except perhaps in regard to the propriety of making a distinction between the bank of issues and banks of discount. Publius's pamphlet, in both its parts, is a very valuable one, and should be read by every man who wishes for information upon the great subjects of which it treats.

8. An Introductory Lecture on the Erils, Social, Moral, and Political,

that flow from Party Divisions and the Prevalence of Party Spirit. Delivered before the Mercantile Library Association, Feb. 2, 1841. By John Duer, Esq. New York : 1841. Baker, Crane, and Co. Svo. pp. 27.

The subject of Mr. Duer's discourse being one upon which we have dwelt at large in another department of our journal, in reviewing the Political Writings of Mr. Leggett, we cannot again enter upon the discussion of it here, but must restrict ourselves to the expression of our

hearty concurrence in his sentiments. We rejoice to find Mr. Duer's eloquent pen employed upon this topic: the evil which it depicts and deplores is one of most threatening portent to our political welfare, and it is the imperative duty of every patriot to attempt to arrest its progress. This Mr. Duer has done in the address before us with great force and beauty of language; and were this address not within the reach of most of our

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