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Julian Pe- live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who Thessaloriod, 4762. loved me, and gave himself for me.

nica. Vulgar Æra, 31.

21 I do not frustrate the grace of God: for if righte-
ousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain.

§ 5. GAL. iii. 1-5.
St. Paul reproves the Galatians for deserting their first

Principles of Faith, in supposing that the New Dispen-
sation was not sufficient for Salvation ; although it had
been confirmed to them, by those spiritual blessings and
gifts which were unknown to the Mosaic Lan.

i O Foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that
ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus
Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?

2 This only would I learn of you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?

3 Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?

4 Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if it be yet in vain.

5 He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and
worketh miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of
the law, or by the hearing of faith?

GAL. ii. 6-18.
St. Paul proves the Truth of his Doctrine by the Example

of Abraham, who was justified by his Faith in the Pro-
mises of God.

6 Even as Abraham believed God, and it was account-
ed to him for righteousness.

7 Know ye therefore, that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abrabam.

8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed.

9 So then they which be of faith 23 are blessed with faithful Abraham.

10 For as many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse : for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

11 But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith.

23 We are all justified by a religious faith in the promises of God, like that of faithful Abrabam, producing good works; and not by the rigid observances of all the rites of a typical law, which enacted an uodeviating conformity, under the penalty of death, wbich it had not the power to redeem. Had the Jewish dispensation continued, the Gentiles could not have been united with the Jews, as the children of promise, but must have remained with them lhe children of law, and of bondage.

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12 And the law is not of faith : but, The man that Thessaloriod, 4762. Vulgar Æra, doeth them shall live in them.

nica. 51.

13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us : for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree :

14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

15 Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man's covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.

16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, and to thy seed, which is Christ a.

Lord Barrington, in an ingenious dissertation on this
much-discussed passage, supposes the word Christ here signifies
anointed, as it does in Ps. cv. 15. " Touch not mine anointed,”
(rendered Xpıses, according to the LXX.) and Hob. xi. 26. That
the secd, or the one seed, v. 16. signifies all those of the works
of the law, and of faith, who are made one by being anointed
with one spirit, or by being baptized into one spirit, as the one
spirit of the one Lord (Mediator), and of one God, even the
Father. But the covenant, or the promises that God made to
Abraham, he made to his seed, (Gen. xii. 13. xvii. 7, 8. xxii. 18.)
then it cannot be two seeds; for, says he, that one seed is Christ,
or the two different sorts of people, Jews and Gentiles, consi-
dered as one, being anointed with the same spirit, and therefore
the promises and blessings belong to the Gentiles, who are of the
one seed of faith, and have by it received the Spirit, as well as
the Jews. If then it should be asked, why was the law added ?
St. Panl answers, it was added to shew the Israelites the pu-
nisbment due to transgression, that they, seeing themselves so
manifestly concluded under sin, by the frequent breaches of the
numerous laws they were under, which were often followed by
death, might be led by the law to the Gospel, which promised
them righteousness and life. But this law was only added till
that onc seed should come, to whom the promise of life and
blessedness is made ; which one seed is composed of a body of
Jows and Gentiles, by one faith in one God, through one Lord,
and by one Spirit. The believing Jews receiving the Spirit first
after Christ's ascension, and afterwards the Gentiles, both ido-
Jatrous and devout. Now, argues the apostle, the law was or-
dained by angels in the band of a mediator, (v. 19.) Moses. But
still, says he, the law could not vacate the promise made to
Abraham, and his seed; because Moses (as Mr. Locke first
shewed us) was only the mediator at the giving of the law of
Sinai, therefore only one of the parties concurred to that of
Abraham's covenant, which was between God and Abraham,
and his one seed of faith in God's promises; therefore the cove-
nant of works entered into with Moses, and the carnal seed of
Abraham, could in no way disanoul the covenant of promise
made unto Abraham, and his spiritual seed of all nations. If
then we are one (seed) in Christ Jesus; that is, by faith in
God, through Christ Jesus, then are we Abraham's (one)
seed, to whom the promise was made, (Gen. xii. 3.) as ex-
plained Gen. xviji. 7, 8. and confirmed xxii., 18. and (conse-
quently) heirs according to that promise. If it should be ob-

Julian Pe- 17 And this I say, That the covenant, that was con- Thessaloriod, 4762. firmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four

nica. Vulgar&ra, 51. hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it

should make the promise of none effect.

18 For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more
of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.

§ 7. GAL. Üï. 19–29.
St. Paul declares the Object of the Mosaic Law was to pre-

serve the Jews, from whom Christ was to be born, from
the idolatrous Practices and Rites of the Heathens, and
to educate them in the Hope and Expectation of the
promised Messiah.

19 Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added be-
cause of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom
the promise was made ; and it was ordained by angels in
the hand of a mediator.

20 Now a mediator is not a mediator of one; but God

is one.

21 Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid : for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law.

22 But the Scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.

23 But before faith came, we were kept under the law,

jected against the sense I have given to the word Christ, (ver.
16, 17.) viz. anointed, the seed anointed by the Spirit; I an-
swer, that it is not an uncommon thing to find St. Paul keep his
term and vary his sense. But I must observe, that it is not likely
that he has done so in this chapter. He here varies his term,
and bis sense together; for there are very good copies that
give us other readings in these verses: ver. 13. some copies
read kvplos. ver. 24. Xpisov Inosv. ver. 27. some copies read as
ver. 24. and ver. 29. is read with the same addition. I prefer,
says Lord Barrington, these readings to Stephens's, which our
translators followed; because I find, that whenever St. Paul
designed to denole Christ's person by the name Christ, in
every other verse of this chapter, he adds Jesus to it: an
addition that he does not always make elsewhere ; as if be
designed to reserve the word Xpisos, to denote this one seed
anointed by the Spirit, whether Jews or Gentiles ; and so
added Jesus to Cbrist every where else in the chapter, to pre-
vent mistakes.

Mediator non est unius partis sed duarum, carumque dissi.
dentium. Cum igitur Moses Mediatorem ageret inter Deum, et
populum, hoc, ipso testatur-esse dissidium inter duas istas
partes. Deus autem unus est. Isque semper idem, semper
sibi constans. Dissidium igitur illud non Dei, sed hominis
mutationi deputandum est. Jac. Capellus, ap. Cradock Apost.
Harmony, p. 1 18.





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Julian Pe. shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be re. Thessaloriod, 4762. vealed.

nica. Valgar Æra,

24 Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.

25 But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.

26 For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus.

27 For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ

28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female : for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.

29 And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed,
and heirs according to the promise.

♡ 8., GAL. iv. 1-11.
St. Paul adds another Illustration, shewing the Purport of

the Law, and reproving the Jewish and Gentile Converts
for their Desire again to place themselves in Bondage
His Fear on that account.

1 Now I say, That the heir, as long as he is a child,
differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all;

2 But is under tutors and governors, until the time appointed of the father.

3 Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world :

4 But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,

5 To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.

6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

7 Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.

8 Howbeit, then when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods.

9 But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and

95 In the extracts from Photius, at the end of the fifth volume of Woltius Curæ Philologicæ, p. 737, is a curious illustration of this passge-ένδυμα δε το πνεύμα το άγιον λέγεται των πισών, ουκ ως ιμάτιον, αλλ' ως ενδύεται σίδηρος το πυρ. ουκ έξωθεν περιβαλλόμενος, αλλ' όλος δι' όλο-ούτο γάρ, &c. &c. and it is very certain that if we, by the assistance of the grace of God, can ever be said to put on the Spirit-o pul on Christ-to be clothed with the Spirit, &c. &c. it can only then be, when the whole man is so embued with a desire to foar God, and to love and serve him, that the inforior or animal nature, shall be conformed into that more spiritual nature, to which we are commanded to aspire.

Julian Pe- beggarly elements whereunto ye desire again to be in Thessaloriod, 4762.

nica. Vulgar Æra,

bondage ?

10 Ye observe days, and months, and times, and



11 I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed on you la-
bour in vain.

Ø 9. GAL. iv. 12–20.
St. Paul appeals to the Jews by their former Zeal, and their

Affection for him.
12 Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I am as
ye are : ye have not injured me at all.

19 Ye know how through infirmity of the flesh I
preached the gospel unto you at the first :

14 And my temptation which was in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected: but received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus.

15 Where is then the blessedness ye spake of? for I bear you record, that, if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your own eyes, and have given them to


16 Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth?

17 They zealously affect you, but not well; yea, they would exclude you”, that ye might affect them.

18 But it is good to be zealously affected always in a good thing, and not only when I am present with you.

19 My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,

20 I desire to be present with you now, and to change
my voice; for I stand in doubt of

§ 10. GAL. iv. 21—31.
St. Paul continues his Appeal by an Illustration from the

Old Testament, demonstrating the inferiority of the Law
to the Gospel Covenant.

21 Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye
not hear the law ?

22 For it is written, That Abraham had two sons; the one by a bond-maid, the other by a free-woman.

* By a very ingenious conjecture, which has been already alluded to, Michaelis reckons, that these ycars (Gal. iv. 8–10.) meant Jewish sabbatical years; and that the Galatians were then on the point of keeping such a year, by leaving their lands uncultivated; though the Mosaical law, designed for the Holy Land, certainly did not extend to Galatia. But the year A.D. 49, the ycar of the first apostolic council beld at Jerusalem, on the question whether the Gentile Church was bound to observe the law of Moses, he suspected was a sabbatical year, and the same in which the epistle itself was written.- Marsh's Michaelis, Introduct. vol. iv. p. 11. Hales's Annal. vol. ii. p. 1117.

11 That is, from the Christian covenant, unless you are cireumcised, and follow the opinions of the Judaizing teachers.

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