## An Introduction to the Theory of Mental and Social Measurements"It is the aim of this book to introduce students to the theory of mental measurements and to provide them with such knowledge and practice as may assist them to follow critically quantitative evidence and argument and to make their own researches exact and logical. Only the most general principles are outlined, the special methods appropriate to each of the mental sciences being better left for separate treatment. If the general problems of mental measurement are realized and the methods at hand for dealing with variable quantities are mastered, the student will find no difficulty in acquiring the special information and technique involved in the quantitative aspect of his special science. The author has had in mind the needs of students of economics, sociology and education, possibly even more than those of students of [psychology, pure and simple. Indeed, a great part of the discussion is relevant to the problems of anthropometry and vital statistics. The book may with certain limitations be used as an introduction to the theory of measurement of all variable phenomena"--Preface. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). |

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ability actual American amount approximately array attendance average boys calculated called causes cent central tendency chance CHAPTER coefficient combination common compared comparison constant correct correlation course Determination deviations difference distance distribution divergence divided Dollars equal error exact example expressed extreme fact figures five form of distribution Frequency girls give given hand highest identical illustration individual instance least less limits marked mean measure median method mode nature needed normal distribution obtained person practice present probability problem Quantity ratings ratio records relationship represent respect result Root scale sciences selection shown simple single Society spelling Square standard statistical step student Suppose surface of frequency table of frequencies taken theory thing tion trait true units values variability variation varying weight zero points

### Popular passages

Page 38 - The standard deviation, mathematically, is the square root of the average of the squares of the deviations of the individual cases from the mean.

Page 47 - Dire tengo antipatía senores; esto seria necedad, porque hombre vale siempre tanto como otro hombre. Todas clases hombres merito; resumidas cuentas, sulpa suya vizxonde; pero dire sobrina puede contar dote viente cinco duros menos, tengo apartado; pardiez tamado trabajo atesorar-los para enriquecer estrano. Vizconde rico. Mios, quiero ganado sudor frente salga familia; suyo, pertenence, tendran. Conozco marido pueda convenirle Isabel; Carlos, sobrino. Donde muchacho honrado, mejor indole, juicioso,...

Page 123 - ... would, per contra, mean that the city which spent most for one item would spend the smallest amount for the other, that any degree above the average or median in the one would be accompanied by the same degree below the average or median for the other, and vice versa. A coefficient of + 62 % would mean that (comparison being rendered fair here, as always, by reduction to the variabilities as units) any given station for one item would, on the whole, imply 62 hundredths of that station for the...

Page 127 - ... the influence of chance inaccuracy in the measures to be related is always to produce zero correlation. If two series of pairs of values are due entirely to chance the correlation will be zero, and in so far as they are at all due to chance, the correlation will be reduced toward zero. "The chance variation, which in the long run cuts its own throat in the case of averages, can not, in the case of a correlation, be . . . rendered innocuous by mere numbers.

Page 123 - It expresses the degree of relationship from which the actual cases might have arisen with least improbability. It has possible values from +100 percent through 0 to — 100 percent. A coefficient of correlation between two abilities of +100 percent means that the individual who is the best in the group in one ability will be the best in the other, that the worst man in the one will be the worst in the other, that if the individuals were ranged in order of excellence in the first ability and then...

Page 123 - A coefficient of + 62 per cent. would mean that (comparison being rendered fair here as always by reduction to the variabilities as units) any given station in the one trait would imply 62 hundredths of that station in the other. A coefficient of — 62 would of course mean that any degree of superiority would involve 62 hundredths as much inferiority, and vice versa...

Page 47 - The given words were in the case of the easy opposites — good, outside, quick, tall, big, loud, white, light, happy, false, like, rich, sick, glad, thin, empty, war, many, above, friend. Part-whole test.

Page 69 - There is nothing arbitrary or mysterious about variability which makes the so-called normal type of distribution a necessity, or any more rational than any other sort, or even more to be expected on a priori grounds. Nature does not abhor irregular distributions.