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the hearts of their pupils ? You are too young, | low ; methinks, had I been the peasant, I should Pavel, to understand what I mean ; but one day have struck him dead at my feet.”' you will more easily feel that it was as impolitic Ay, but the peasant knew better-his life is as it was cruel to refuse so long placing us on a dear to him, serf though he be.” par with the rest of the world. Now, before “ Serf—serf,” repeated the boy, and not all looking in at the fair, I must go and see if certain the gayety of the fair could dissipate the idea debtors of mine cannot be brought to feel that I connected with that word, which haunted him have a right to my money. I lent it to them at a throughout the day. At last their purchases time when no Christian would have advanced a were made, and Pavel was most eager to return stiver—of course, I take an unusual interest on home, for to him the pain of witnessing the deep it, for if nothing had tempted me to take upon humiliation of Noah, part of which was reflected myself so onerous a bargain, what should have upon himself, was as exquisite as it was new. induced me to run the risk ?”

Turning down the principal street leading to the Emerging from the Jewish quarter into a street town gate, they passed beneath a scaffolding of fine appearance, Noah entered one of its most erected against one of the houses, and the boy showy houses, leaving Pavel the whilst outside. chancing to raise his head, encountered the maWhen he again made his appearance, his face was licious glances of a couple of young house-paintsadder, and he looked about him with a more timid ers engaged in their avocations immediately above air than before.

him. With a cry of derision the youths flung “ I have been paid, as usual, with threats,” he down on poor Noah's bright new silk dress and said. “It is one of those many houses that in- cap as much of their white paint as their brushes dulge in a criminal expenditure which is to be could contain. For the first time that day Pavel covered by any means, lawful or unlawful, that saw the meek being wince under hard usage, and can be devised ; but even whilst yon proud gen- as the boys in the street echoed the hoarse laugheral spoke to me with such contempt, and in so ter of those on the scaffolding, two hot tears stole high a tone, and with such coarse words, and down Noah's subdued countenance. Pavel felt would have me thrown down stairs, forsooth, I his blood boil. partly for the unmerited aggresread on his pale brow and in his anxious eye cares sion, and partly at what he considered the unmanworse than those that hover round my board. I liness of Noah's resignation. He was

on the would not change conditions with him.”

point of giving utterance to his feelings in unA little further on a drove of cattle blocked the gentle expressions, when the Jew, guessing by way, and compelled Noah and Pavel to step be- his heightening color and flashing eye what was neath a gateway. Whilst waiting patiently the passing in his mind, seized him by the arm, and moment when they could resume their peregrina- hurried him away ; nor did he loosen his hold tions, they heard two voices, one raised in anger, until they had left the town gate behind them. the other in a tone of supplication, issuing from a “ You mean it well, you mean it kindly, Pavel, courtyard, and, turning round, they saw a young I know,” he said, “ but you might have brought man, in a military costume, belaboring to his us to a fearful pass—child that you are ! You heart's content, about head, face, and neck, a gi- know not yet what it is to be mobbed; you know gantic young peasant, who held the reins of two not what it is to be a Jew! Ah!” he added, heavpowerful horses. To effect this piece of brutali- ing a deep sigh as he gazed on his besmeared vestty, the young officer had been obliged to mount ment, “it is not for this foolish stuff that I grieve : upon the wheel of the vehicle. One touch of the it is for my Salome's vexation. But what right whip on the fiery animals, and the tormentor would have we to wear fine, or even clean things ? No have been flung to the earth, but the young peas- other joys are permitted us but those we conceal. ant, even whilst howling beneath his master's We are obliged to hide our every pleasure, howblows, instinctively tightened the reins. One ever innocent, and people accuse us of mystery ! thrust of his iron hand might have proved deadly They laugh at our innocence, and shudder at our to the effeminate-looking being who indulged in imagined crimes! Ay, it's a hard lot to bear; 1 this paroxysm of despotism, and yet that strong know but of one which at all resembles it-it is hand stirred not. Pavel could not endure the that of the vassal.” sight. He who, a couple of years previous, had “ But I–14” said Pavel ; he stopped short, his coolly witnessed the flogging of men, and, for that breathing became thick, his voice husky,“ I-I am matter, of women too, in the general's stable-yard no vassal!” -nay, had himself struck older children than The inflection of doubt which he gave those himself, as confident in their passiveness as was words went to Noah's very heart. There were now the elegant officer in that of his victim-he suppressed tears, there was a poignant anguish, in covered his eyes in disgust, and ran from the spot. the tremor of that voice. But he then ranked among the strikers, and was “You, my poor boy,” said Noah, “I know it now likely to rank among the struck, and this not for sure, but have been told so by your cousin change had quickened his sensibilities.

-you are registered as such on the estate on which “ It was a shocking sight !” he said, as soon you were born.” as the Jew rejoined him ; “ I wonder that strong I

may be so inscribed, but I am not !" said the man could endure so much from such a puny fel- boy, proudly.


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“Of that I have not the means of judging,” | workmen of the towns that you monopolize all the Noah replied. Many a lord's son is his own trade.' brother's vassal ; many a nephew has mounted be- “Even that charge I will not deny. No one hind the carriage in which his aunt sat; it all could buy or sell—there were no traffic in Poland depends which side the relationship comes. or in Gallicia without our aid—the whole activity

“ If I thought so, I would run away,” said Pavel. of the land is ours. But why is it? Because we “ You would get no passport.”

are more industrious, more active than the people “Can a man, then, be rooted, like a tree, to a of the soil. Where we have found competition, as particular spot!"

in Russia, have we been able to supersede the “ Even so."

natives? No! Besides, are we not also children “ Then it is his own fault,” said Pavel, with of the soil? have we not been born upon it for cenvehemence, “if he make not those repent who turies ? Take away a heartless prejudice which keep him against his will !”

the priesthood, in times past, created, and envy “Very true,” said Noah ; “but of what use is has fanned, and have we not a right to call ourone man standing forth to revenge the wrongs of selves Poles, and to flourish as part and parcel of the community? He only forfeits his life.” the nation? You know, Pavel, you yourself were

“What’s life?" exclaimed Pavel, disdainfully. delighted the other day with the account given us

“A thing you don't yet know," said Noah, with by a learned brother of my creed, of a distant couna sad smile. “ Besides, that 's not the worst. He try called America ; well, do you think that the who rises singly is but a criminal. It's only when foreign settlers there will not, in fewer centuries one can, by his example, effect a useful progress-than we have dwelled in Europe, call that land gain a general aim, that any deed of violence can their own, and consider themselves part of the be excused-it were otherwise but an instance of nation? Is it not madness to treat us as strangers private vengeance which a man cannot justify even or mere sojourners who have, generation after gento his own conscience. It were, moreover, totally eration, been born on the land, and have no other useless. It would only embitter the condition of to go to? Why should we not be Poles or Gerthe rest. But what are we talking of?—subjects mans; because we do not believe in the divinity of far beyond your years, if not beyond your discre- Christ? Are there not thousands of Poles and tion. I wish my poor Salome had not so set her Germans who share that heresy? And if we could heart on this dressmay, it is a sad thing to be a be crushed into a hopeless poverty—if the laws Jew! You have seen but little to-day of the humil- should increase in severity, what might not be iation it is our lot to encounter. I was once pres- feared from our numbers and our despair ?" ent with some friends, at a grand review in War- “But you have no wish to return to Jerusalem,” saw, and to command a better sight we got up into said Pavel. a tree. Would you believe it?—under pretence " What should we do there?of inadvertency, we were fired at, and one or two 6. That's it,” said Pavel ;

" the moment you of us dropped to the ground, more hurt, I will own, cannot earn money you will have nothing to say to by the fall—and the shouts of merriment with which anything. I'll be bound you would not care to the incident was witnessed by the Christian specta- enter into Paradise if you could not traffic there, tors, ay, even by fine ladies in their carriages, and, what 's more—cheat!” than by the shot; but blood flowed, and a limb was “We are what people have made us," answered broken."

Noah, darkly. “ Before casting our sins in our “I will tell you,” said Pavel,“ your chief sin teeth, let them do something towards improving lies in submitting as you do—it is your tameness us. No one pays higher taxes to the state ; and yet that makes you the scorn of the Christians.” does government give us schools, hospitals, a clergy,

“ Does the savage vindictiveness of the gypsy, asylums, or the benefit of any public institution? a wanderer and an outcast like ourselves, cause all these we have to provide for ourselves, or do him to be respected ? An oppressed people who without. And think you that hate begets lovehave no hold on the sympathies of the rest of the oppression, cheerful acquiescence ? Go ask the human race would be misunderstood in their just serf how he feels towards his lord ?" And thus resentment as they have been in their resignation.” was Pavel taught early to enter upon the most dan

“ But, then, the peasants complain,” said Pavel, gerous social questions, and to view them in the " that you get possession of all their lands, and the darkest light.

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(COOKE THE ACTOR-HIS MENTAL INTOXICATIONS.) Upon this curious passage his biographer re

Cooke the actor says in one of his journals, “ To marks, “ These mental intoxications, it is needless use a strange expression, I am sometimes in a kind to observe, were the consequence of physical intorof mental intorication. Some I believe would call ications, and it was in these humors, when he it insanity; I believe it is allied to it. I then can could • imagine himself in strange situations and imagine myself in strange situations, and in strange strange places.' But he used to indulge himself places. This humor, or whatever it is, comes un- in a species of romancing that might perhaps be invited, but is nevertheless easily dispelled ; at termed coherent madness.”—Dunlop's Memoirs of least generally so. When it cannot be dispelled, George Frederick Cooke, vol. 1, p. 104. it must of course become madness."



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From Fraser's Magazine. pepper and tomatoes. This was the miner's THE MATCHLIGHTER OF SAN ADRIAN. simple dinner. Tearing off a piece of one of the

tortillas, he twisted it with his fingers into a sort

of scoop, (called in Mexico la cuchara de MonteThe sun had not yet attained its meridian height zuma, or Montezuma's spoon,) and taking up in above the bare and rugged mountains of Zacatecas, this a mouthful of the beans, he dipped it into when a man in the garb of a Mexican miner de- the burning sauce, and swallowed it, spoon and scended slowly down a narrow and tortuous path all. which wound along the side of a steep declivity. “How is it that you are so early to-day, ManuAt length he reached a spot where a small plat- elito?”' asked the female, who watched him with form or shelf, jutting from the mountain slope, and an affectionate smile, while he was thus satisfaccovered with vegetation, seemed to invite him to torily engaged. rest. It appeared, indeed, that he had intended to “ Because, mi corazoncitomy little heart," stop at this spot, for he turned aside at once and replied the young man, " there is to be another seated himself on the green sward beside a foun- blast to-day; and the administrador wishes to have tain which here gushed from the overhanging it fired while the men are at dinner.” steep, and created by its moisture the verdure that The smile instantly disappeared from Margarita's surrounded it. Directly over this spring, a large face. tree, a species of mountain ash, sent its thousand “Santa Maria!" she exclaimed," another blast! roots into the crevices of the rock, and shaded with Oh, Manuel, how long do you mean to continue in its spreading branches the gushing fount and the this dreadful duty ?"! green

turf beneath. The miner's first act was to “ Until I can find a better, my life,” replied the take a long draught of the refreshing wave, and miner gayly. “Would you have me go back to then he proceeded to bathe his face and hands in my old employment of barretero—of simple miner the running water. When the earth-stains which —at six dollars a week, when here as pegador, as covered his visage were washed away, he appeared the sole and trusted matchlighter, I am earning a young creole of some twenty-two or three years, sixteen ?”! with a bright black eye, long straight hair, dark “Alas !" returned Margarita, “ of what use will complexion, and a frank, gay, fearless expression the money be, if it happen to you as to Pedro of countenance. He wore a coarse jacket and Bravo, only three months ago? Ah, I think I see loose trousers of some brown woollen stuff, bound the mangled body, as it was carried by our cotat the waist by a leather girdle, in which was tage, with poor Inesita crying over it. And then, thrust the never-failing knife. He sat for a time, there is Juan Valdez, stone-blind now for five years. whistling carelessly, with his eyes fixed on the de- And old Anton, a cripple from his youth. Of scending path.

what advantage was their high wages to them?” Presently a wide covered basket became visible None, sweetheart,” replied Manuel,“ because in this direction, with a small hand grasping it on what they won by boldness and skill they lost by one side. Then a pretty face, with a pair of carelessness. If a man will persist in firing sparkling black eyes, and two small ruddy lips, matches when his brain is muddled with aguardiparted in a smile of pleasure and surprise, came ente, he must expect to suffer for it. However, I into view. Then followed the erect and shapely shall not be a pegador always. In good time, if figure to which the pretty face belonged, gayly it please San Francisco, I shall be captain of a auired, as became a miner's wife, in a gorgeous mine. And who knows but that one of these days petticoat, whereof the upper part was of a bright I may be an administrador--an overseer, and a yellow and the lower of a flaming scarlet ; an rich man, as well as others ?" equally brilliant roboso, or cotton shawl, of many “ To be sure," replied Margarita, eagerly. variegated hues, was thrown over the shoulders, “ Why not you as well as Miguel Gomez?-Don and the small feet were daintily encased in sky- Miguel, forsooth, as he must be called now! And blue satin shoes.

yet I remember him when he was only a poor busEnhorabuena—in good time, Margarita,” said con—a common mine-hunter, and always in debt the miner, showing his white teeth. “ I am here to my father for aguardiente and tobacco. Yet before you."

because he happened to light on a good vein, and “Yes, in good truth," replied the young wo- sold it to the English company for ten thousand man, laughing ; " and I was afraid all the time dollars, and was made overseer, he thinks himself that I might be too early, and the tortillas and fri- now a great gentleman, and that everybody must joles would get cold. But now they will be a give way to him." dinner fit for a governor.”

“ Poor Don Miguel !” said the miner, laughing. With these words she quickly deposited her “ You are too hard upon our administrador, Marburden on the ground, and removed the covers, garita. you refuse his hand and heart, not first from the basket, and then from the earthen- to speak of his dollars; and then you abuse him ware dishes which it contained. There was a behind his back." plate of tortillas, or thin pancakes of maize, a bowl “Ah!" said Margarita, hastily, “if you knew of stewed frijoles, (a kind of small black beans,) -” and then she stopped suddenly, as if she and another bowl containing a fiery sauce made of Jhad said more than she intended.

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" What is there that you know, mi mugercita

Si las minas de San Bernabé

No dieron tan buena ley, my little wife, that I do not?” asked Manuel, look

No casaria Juan Barra ing up in surprise.

Bon la hija del virey. " It was something that happened before our

be rendered : marriage,” replied Margarita, seriously. “I promised then to conceal it; but I have often been

If Saint Barnabas' mine troubled since with the thought of my promise. If

Had not yielded ore so fine,

Juan Barra ne'er had wedded I sin in breaking it now, I will beg Padre Isidro

A maiden of the viceroy's line. to absolve me, for I know there should be no secrets between us two. It was Anita, the wife of Manuel's song ceased when he reached the Juan Pedraza, the poor drunken cargador, who Rinconada, a sharp angle in the path, beside told me what she heard from her husband. When which the precipice sank plump down, a sheer you and Miguel Gomez were quarrelling for love descent of more than five hundred feet. The of me,'' continued the young woman, with naïve' recollection of what his wife had just told him gravity, “ Juan said that Miguel promised him sent a cold shudder through his frame, and he the place of captain of the galera, with twenty had not recovered his usual gayety when he dollars a week, if he would commit a dreadful reached the mouth of the shaft. Here, in the crime. It was to follow you when you were com- galera, or great shed surrounding the pit, he ing down the mountain, and push you off the preci- found the English director, Don Jayme, the overpice at the Rinconada, so that you might seem to seer, Miguel Gomez, and several clerks, miners, have fallen by accident. Juan would not be guilty porters, and mule-drivers. Don Jayme seemed of such a horrible act for the world, but he was to be in a bad humor, and the overseer looked so afraid of the overseer that he dared not speak black and sullen. of it to any one but his wife. I did not know it Enhorabuena-in good time, my man,” said till after we were married, and then I would not the director. “ We are all ready for you ; and tell you because it could do no good; for Gomez now let every one here be attentive to his duties. knows now that if I were free to-morrow I would There has been too much carelessness heretofore, rather jump off the Rinconada myself than take him particularly in the blasting. Many complaints with all his money.

have been made among the townspeople and pro“ The villain !" said Manuel, while his eyes prietors of the accidents which occur here. You, sparkled and his hand clutched instinctively at his I am told, are a very skilful and quickwitted workknife. “It was well for him, Margarita, that man,” he continued, addressing Manuel. It is you did not tell me this a year ago. But perhaps well that we have some on whom we can rely." he has repented of it since; he has been very Gomez listened to this significant speech withgood-natured to me of late. However, I think out venturing to reply, but his swarthy face grew his time is up.

The English director, Don livid, and his eyes flashed with a baleful fire. Jayme, came this morning from Mexico, and Two horses, especially trained to the duty, were seems very much dissatisfied with the working of now attached to the malacate, a machine by which the mine. It is whispered among the men that the buckets were raised and lowered in the shaft. the overseer is certain to lose his place.” Manuel then placed upon his head a conical hat,

“Ah, that is good news, indeed!” said Mar- having a socket on the top, which held a lighted garita, clasping her hands.

candle. He took in one hand a small rope, of “And so this was the reason," added Manuel, which the other end was held by the overseer, gayly, “ why you preferred a poor barretero, with and by shaking which the matchlighter was to only his miner's pick and his dollar a day, to the give the signal when he was ready to ascend. rich administrador ?"

On the promptitude with which his ascent took “Of what good is money," returned Margarita, place depended, of course, his safety from the earnestly," without happiness ? Riches fly away, effects of the explosion. Manuel now stepped but the good heart remains."

into the bucket, which was slowly lowered down “ That is as true as though Padre Isidro had the shaft, a distance of about a hundred yards. said it,” rejoined Manuel, as he rose hastily from Two arreadores, or drivers, held the horses' heads, his seat on the turf; " but time flies, too, my dear and waited in anxious silence for the signal from little preacher, and they will be waiting for me at Gomez. All was still as death in the galera. the mine."

Let go !” shouted the overseer. The young couple separated with many affec- The drivers loosed the heads of the horses, and tionate injunctions on the part of the wife, to which the well-trained animals dashed off at once, and the miner laughingly promised a punctual atten- circled the malacate at full speed. In a minute tion. Margarita, as she replaced the basket on the bucket rose to view_empty! her head, heard the clear manly voice of her hus- “ Back! Down with it! For life! for life!" band, far above her, singing the refrain of a ballad exclaimed the director, stamping with impatience once very popular among the miners of Zacatecas, and anger. “ Oh, what idiotcy, what insanity, which described the good fortune of a poor adven- is this !” turer of that town in former days ::

The men hastened to obey his order, but before

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the bucket had descended a dozen yards, the roar him. After some reflection, he fixed upon the of the explosion smote upon their ears, and a direction in which he judged the passage to lie, cloud of smoke and dust was driven violently up and swam carefully towards it. He was soon the shaft, and filled the galera. When it cleared convinced, by the space passed over, that he was away, the faces of all present were seen to be mistaken in his judgment; but considering it betpale with horror.

ter to keep on until he found the wall than to You villain !” cried the director to Gomez ; waste his strength in swimming about at random, “ what is the meaning of this ?”

he proceeded steadily forward for a distance, as “Upon my life—as I am a Christian—the rope he judged, of nearly two hundred yards. At shook in my hands," replied Gomez, whose teeth length he encountered the wall, which rose per chattered, and whose whole frame seemed to trem-pendicularly far above his head, as he found by ble with nervous agitation, while his eyes careful- the splash of the water which he threw against ly avoided those of the director.

it. Coasting along it, and occasionally touching The latter did not waste another word upon it with one hand, he advanced for about a hundred him, but seizing a shovel he sprang into the buck- yards further, by which time his limbs were beet, along with two of the miners, and was quickly coming stiff and benumbed in the ice-cold water, lowered down the shaft. Here they set about and his heart had almost failed him. But he was removing, as rapidly and carefully as possible, the not destined to perish thus. He suddenly came pile of earth and stones with which the explosion upon a passage, the opening of which was a little had filled the bottom of the shaft, not doubting lower than the surface of the water. It was evithat they should find the mangled remains of the dent from this fact, as well as from the size of the poor matchlighter beneath them.

passage, that it could not be that by which he had While they are thus engaged in a fruitless entered. However, it offered him at least a ressearch, let us follow the actual course of Manuel's pite from death, and he promptly availed himself proceedings. He had just lighted the matches, of it. After sitting motionless for a time to reand was on the point of stepping into the bucket, cover from the exhaustion of his recent efforts, he when it was suddenly drawn up. A conviction rose and proceeded to explore the passage.

It of the overseer's perfidy instantly flashed upon proved to be a sort of vaulted chamber, of about. him, and with it a sense of the horror of his posi- his own height, and just wide enough for him to tion. But Manuel was, as the director had said, touch its sides with his outstretched hands. A a quick witted fellow. He knew that the work- soul-cheering idea suddenly flashed upon his mind. men employed in the shaft had, a few days before, There was a tradition of an ancient socabon, or come upon a small side-cut, or passage, barely adit, which had been driven at vast expense through large enough to admit the body of a man, and the mountain, to effect the drainage of the old mine that, on tracing it to its termination, it was found of San Adrian. When the mine was abandoned, to lead to an immense chamber in the old mine of the adit, of course, was no longer attended to; its San Adrian. This famous mine, as is well known, external opening became closed up, and, in the was worked shortly after the conquest of Mexico, space of more than two hundred years which had and, having yielded immense wealth to its proprie passed, its precise locality—indeed, everything but tors, was abandoned, about the end of the sixteenth the mere fact of its existence-was forgotten. century, on account of the difficulty experienced Manuel well remembered to have one day heard in its drainage. The workmen who had explored Don Jayme say to a Mexican gentleman, who acthe passage had reported that the chamber was companied him on a former visit to the mine, that nearly full of water, and was so large that the he should consider the discovery of the old socabon light of their candles did not penetrate to the fur- an inestimable service, as it would, probably, save ther extremity. The recollection of this discov- the company an immense expense for drainage in ery now occurred to Manuel's mind, and seemed their new works. to offer him a chance of escape. Looking eager- The further the miner advanced the more asly around, he observed the opening about three sured he became of the truth of his supposition. feet above his head; and gaining it by a desperate The adit was-as from its situation it must necesspring, he drew himself up by the hands, and sarily be—of great length ; and Manuel walked, plunged into the passage. Urged by the dread as he supposed, nearly five hundred yards before of the coming explosion he rushed eagerly on reaching the extremity. The water all the way ward, and just as the roar of the blast filled his was just up to his ankles, and he thought he could ears he fell headlong forward into a sheet of water, perceive at times that it had a slight current in the which spread about three feet below the extremity direction in which he was going. The passage of the passage.

He sank beneath the surface, was closed, as he had anticipated, by a solid mass and when he rose, confused and breathless, it was of earth and stones, which he at once set about to find himself floating in utter darkness, without removing. Making good use of his long knife, the slightest idea of the point by which he had he worked indefatigably for more than an hour. entered, and with hardly a chance of discovering At last he struck the roots of a tree, a circumthe opening, which lay so high above the water. stance which assured him that he was approachA more horrible situation can hardly be conceived. ing the surface. The conviction gave him reStill, even in this extremity, hope did not desert newed strength. He cut with his knife, and dug

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