History of Europe, from the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, in 1852, Volume 2

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W. Blackwood and sons, 1853 - Europe
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Contents

The physical circumstances of Spain favoured commerce but not manufac tures
10
Effect of the longcontinued hostility with the Moors
11
Important effect of the Romish faith
12
Difference of the towns and country in respect of political opinion
14
Disposition of the army
15
The church
16
State of the peasantry
17
State of the nobility
19
Huge gap in the revenue from the loss of the South American colonies
20
how it was formed
21
Its extreme democratic tendency
22
Utter unsuitableness of the constitution to the generality of Spain
23
Universal unpopularity of the Cortes and constitution
24
Influence of the Cortes on South America
25
Its general adoption of English habits and ideas
26
Character of Ferdinand VII
29
Universal unpopularity of the Cortes
30
Decree of Valencia
31
Invasion of France and retreat of the Spaniards Fresh tyrannical acts
40
Abortive conspiracy in Barcelona and death of General Lacy
46
Death of Queen Maria Isabella of Spain
52
Proceedings of the Cortes and progress of the civil war
55
his appearance and character and followers
56
Desperate assault of Cervera
57
The conspiracy is at first arrested by dAbisbal
58
Severe laws passed by the Cortes
59
Great extension of the civil war
60
Deplorable state of the Spanish finances
61
Riot in Madrid and death of Landabura
62
Commencement of the strife between the guard and the garrison
63
Revolution attempted by Riego
64
Progress of the negotiations with the insurgents
65
Attack of the guards on Madrid and its defeat
66
Destruction of the royal guard
67
Defeat of the insurgents in Andalusia and Cadiz
68
Change of ministry and complete triumph of the revolutionists
69
the king accepts the constitution
70
Murder of Geoiffeux
71
Legislative measures
72
its composition
73
Disorders in the provinces
74
Murder of one of the bodyguard and reward of the murderers ib 82 Opening of the Cortes
75
First measures of the new government
76
Suppression of the Jesuits and measures regarding entails
77
Financial measures
78
Tumult at Madrid and dismissal of Riego
79
Closing of the session and rupture with the king
80
Reception of the decree against the priests in Spain
81
Illegal appointment of General Carvajal by the king
82
Return of the king to Madrid
83
New society for execution of lynch law ib 94 Identity of recent history of Spain and Portugal
85
Revolution at Oporto
86
Which is followed by a revolution at Lisbon
87
Establishment of a joint regency at Lisbon
88
Return of Marshal Beresford who is forced to go to England
89
Effect of the banishment of the British
90
Reaction and adoption of more moderate measures ib 101 Commencement of reforms in Italy
91
Breach of the kings promise of a constitution
92
Progressive but slight reforms already introduced
93
Origin of secret societies
94
Their origin and previous history ib 106 Commencement of the Neapolitan revolution
95
Defection of General Pepe and the garrison of Naples
96
The king yields and swears to the constitution
97
Causes which prepared revolution in Sicily
99
Revolution in Palermo
100
Frightful massacre in Palermo ib 112 First measures of the new junta
101
Failure of the negotiations with Naples
102
Suppression of the insurrection in Palermo
103
Renewal of hostilities
104
Meeting of the Neapolitan parliament
105
Insurrection of the galley slaves in Civita Vecchia
106
Commencement of the revolution in Piedmont
107
Revolt in Alessandria and Turin
108
The king yields and accepts the constitution
109
General character of the revolutions of 1820 ib 123 What caused their speedy overthrow
111
What should the military do in such circumstances ?
112
RUSSIA AND POLAND FROM THE PEACE OF 1815 TO THE ACCESSION
113
Cause of the wretchedness of Ireland
116
His first acts of administration and training of the army
120
Dreadful famine in the south and west of Ireland
122
Their unity of purpose
126
The clergy
134
Privileges and advantages they enjoy
140
Foreign conquest ever forced upon Russia by its climate
146
Civilisation depends entirely on the higher ranks
152
The Cossacks
157
Striking instances of this corruption
163
Liberal ideas with which the troops returned from France and Germany
169
Alexanders memorable
175
Congress of Troppau
181
What share had the Holy Alliance in this
187
Increasing difficulties of the insurgents
193
Alexander refuses to support the Greeks
199
Death of Alexanders natural daughter
211
And death
217
How this came about
223
Information given of the conspiracy to Alexander
229
Nicholas advances against the rebels
236
Leaders of the revolt in the army of the south
243
Condition of the exiles in Siberia
251
Generous conduct of the emperor to the relatives of the convicts
252
Expiatory ceremony on the Place of the Senate
253
Great reforms in all departments introduced by the emperor
254
Great legal reforms of the emperor
255
Crime of the insurgents
257
Coronation of the emperor and empress at Moscow
258
Character of the Emperor Nicholas and parallel between him and Peter the Great
259
He is essentially Russian
260
His personal appearance and failings
261
CHAPTER IX
263
Rapid flow of prosperity which succeeded them in the next year
264
Brilliant appearance of Paris
265
Exports imports and revenue of France during this period ib 5 Thorough establishment of representative institutions in France
266
Which have no effect in conciliating the Liberal party
267
Popular acts of the new ministry ib 8 Return of Maret and many other of the proscribed to France
269
Increasing strength of the Liberals and resistance to the Government
270
Debate on the return of the proscribed persons
271
Speech of M de Serres on the subject
272
Immense sensation produced by this debate
273
Increasing violence and exasperation of the press
274
Budget of 1819
275
election of the Abbé Grégoire
276
Biography of the Abbé Grégoire
277
his biography
278
de Serres
279
His character ib 22 Conversation of Louis XVIII and the Count dArtois on the election
281
Change in the ministry
282
Violent attacks on the new ministry by the press
283
Kings speech at opening the session
284
Comparative strength of parties in the Chamber
285
Designs of the Liberals in Paris ib 28 New electoral law proposed by the Government
286
Electoral law finally agreed on by the Government
287
Violent opposition of the Liberals
288
The Duke de Berri
289
His biography
290
Louvel his assassin
291
Assassination of the Duke de Berri
292
3536 His last moments 293294
294
His death
295
Immense sensation which it produced
296
Chateaubriands words on the occasion
297
General indignation against M Decazes
298
The king resolves to support him
299
He at length agrees to his dismissal
300
Resiguation of M Decazes and the Duke de Richelieu sent for
301
The kings inclination for Platonic attachments
302
Her first interview with Louis which proves successful ib 47 Character of M Decazes
304
Merits of his measures as a statesman ib 49 Division of parties in the Assembly after M Decazes fall
306
Funeral of the Duke de Berri and execution of Louvel
307
5152 Ministerial measures of the session Argument against the first 308309
308
Answer by the Government
309
5455 Censorship of the press Argument against it by the Opposition
311
5657 Answer by the Ministerialists 312313
312
Result of the debate
314
Reflections on this subject
315
Alarming state of the country and defensive measures of Government
316
Denunciation of the secret government
317
Ministerial project of a new electoral law
318
6366 Argument against it by the Opposition 319321
319
6771 Answer by the Ministerialists 321324
321
CamilleJourdans amendment carried
325
The amendment of M Boin is carried by Government
326
Disturbances in Paris
328
The budget
330
Military conspiracy headed by Lafayette
331
Their designs and efforts to corrupt the troops
333
Which fails by accident
334
Lenity shown in the prosecutions ib 83 Birth of the Duke of Bordeaux
335
Universal transports in France
336
Congratulations from the European powers and promotions in Franco
338
Rupture with the Doctrinaires
339
Views of the Doctrinaires
340
Views of the Royalists ib 89 Disturbances in the provinces Internal measures of the Government
342
Changes in the household
343
Ordonnance regarding public instruction
345
Result of the elections favourable to the Royalists
347
Effect of the change in the Assembly
348
Accession of Villèle c to the ministry
349
Speech of the king and answer of the Chambers
350
Measures of the session fixing the boundaries of the electoral districts
351
Law for additional ecclesiastical endowments
352
Modifications in the cornlaws ib 101 Law for the indemnity of the Imperial donataries
353
Law regarding the censorship of the press
354
Speech of M Pasquier on the occasion
355
Increasing irritation of parties and difficulties of the ministry
356
Rupture with the Royalists and fall of the Richelieu ministry
358
The new ministry
359
Reflections on this event
360
Great effects of the change in the electoral law
361
Defects of the representative system in France
362
Undue ascendancy of the PartiPrêtre ib 111 Cause of the reaction against Liberal institutions
363
Death of Napoleon
364
Reflections on his captivity
365
Great exaggeration regarding the English treatment of him
366
Lamartines account of his exile
368
Difference in the causes which produced discontent in the two countries
377
Great effects of the change in the monetary laws
378
Mr Smiths views on this subject
379
Great effects of any variation in the value of the standard of value ib 6 Examples of this from former times
380
Discovery and wonderful effects of a paper currency
382
Advantages of a paper circulation duly limited
383
What is the standard of value ?
384
Vast effect of variations in the currency
385
When this effect takes place
386
Vast importance of an inconvertible currency as a regulator of prices
387
Concurring causes which brought about the bill of 1819
388
1
389
Danger of a currency entirely rested on a metallic basis
390
True system
391
Peculiar dangers with which the resumption of cash payments was attended
392
Strain on the money market from the immense loans on the Continent
393
Great prosperity of England in end of 1818 and spring of 1819 from extension of its currency
394
Great internal prosperity of the country
395
Dreadful flood at St Petersburg
396
Disastrous contraction of the currency
398
And on prices of all commodities
399
Rapid increase of disaffection in the country
401
Meeting at Peterloo
403
Great excitement and objects of the meeting
404
Its dispersion by the military ib 28 Noble conduct of Lord Sidmouth on the occasion
406
Result of Hunts trial
407
Reflections on the impolicy of allowing such meetings
408
And on the conduct of the magistrates
409
Seditious meetings in other quarters
411
Augmentation of the Chelsea pensioners
412
Meeting of Parliament and measures of Government
414
Lord Sidmouths Acts of Parliament
415
Impression Lord Sidmouth and Lord Castlereagh made on the Radicals
416
Death of the Duke of Kent
418
Death of George III
419
Birth of Queen Victoria
420
Alarming illness of George IV
421
Ominous questions regarding the omission of Queen Carolines name in the Liturgy
422
Remarkable speech of Mr Brougham
423
Cato Street conspiracy Thistlewoods previous life ib 45 Design of the conspirators
425
Sentences on the conspirators
426
Execution of the conspirators
427
Disturbances in Scotland and north of England
429
Outbreak of the insurrection and its suppression ib 52 Death and character of Mr Grattan
432
His character as a statesman and orator
433
Increase of the yeomanry force
434
The budget for 1820
435
Important subjects of debate in this session
437
Statistics on education in England and Wales by Mr Brougham ib 58 Difficulties of this subject and necessity of an assessment
439
Its difficulties and attempts at their solution ib 60 Probable mode of solving it
440
What is to be done with the educated classes ?
441
Page 62 Effect of education in leading to the dispersion of mankind
442
Disfranchisement of Grampound and transfer of its members to Yorkshire
443
Rise of freetrade ideas among the merchants and Lord Lansdownes declaration on the subject
444
6567 Lord Liverpools memorable speech in reply 445447
445
Appointment of a committee to inquire into agricultural distress
448
7274 Answer by Mr Ricardo 450452
450
Additional facts since discovered on this subject
453
Commencement of the troubles about the queen
454
Sketch of her life prior to this period
455
Her conduct abroad and proceedings in consequence of it
456
Omission of the queens name in the Liturgy and her return to England
457
Her landing in England and enthusiastic reception
458
Views of the Radical leaders on the occasion
459
Enthusiastic reception of the queen at Dover and in London
460
Failure of the negotiations and commencement of the inquiry
461
Scene which ensued on the trial
462
Progress of the trial and its difficulties
463
Peroration of Mr Broughams defence
464
Queens defence and failure of the bill
465
General transports of the people
467
Rapid reaction of public opinion ib 90 Consternation of the ministry who resolve to remain at their posts
468
Return of popularity of Government and causes of it
469
Meeting of Parliament and first proceedings
470
Debates on foreign affairs
471
Sir James Mackintoshs efforts to improve the criminal law ib 95 Mr Cannings striking speech on Catholic emancipation
472
Answer by Mr Peel
473
Which is carried in the Commons and lost in the Peers
474
Lord John Russells motion for parliamentary reform
475
Appointment of a committee to inquire into agricultural distress
476
Bank Cash Payment Bill
477
Vehement demand for a reduction of taxation
479
Agricultural committee reports and state of the consumption of articles of luxury
480
Increase of the desire for reform among the agriculturists
482
Coronation of George IV
483
Ceremony on the occasion
484
Aspect of Wellington Londonderry and George IV
485
her death
486
Kings visit to Ireland ib 111 Funeral of the queen
487
Dismissal of Sir R Wilson from the army
488
Changes in the Cabinet
490
Lord Wellesley appointed Viceroy of Ireland and change in the govern ment there
491
Peroration of Mr Cannings speech
502
Repeated defeats of Ministers in the House of Commons
515
Details of the measure
521
Political changes in progress from the resumption of cash payments
527
Sentence of Riego
530
Their execution
531
CHAPTER XI
533
His defects
539
Viscount Chateaubriand
540
His merits as an orator
544
His character as a statesman
545
de Villèle
546
His peculiar turn of mind and course of policy
548
de Corbière M Mathieu de Montmorency M de Peyronnet Victor
550
Law regarding the press
551
Its stringent provisions
552
Discussion on it
553
Rise of the Carbonari and secret societies in France
555
Rise of Carbonarism in France ib 18 Abortive conspiracy at Béfort
557
Bertons conspiracy at Thouars
558
Conspiracy at La Rochelle ib 21 Their trial and execution
560
Reflections on these events
561
Insurrection at Colmar Marseilles and Toulon
563
Budget of 1822
564
Favourable result of the elections to the Royalists
565
State of public opinion
566
Attempted restoration of the royal authority at Madrid
567
Opening of the Cortes and dismissal of the ministers
568
Conduct of the Cortes and appointment of a new Ministry
569
Effect produced in Spain by the crushing of the revolution in Italy
570
Extraordinary outbreak of revolutionary fury in the east of Spain ib 32 Revolutionary laws passed by the Cortes
571
Barbarous murder of the priest Vinuesa
572
Institution of the Order of the Hammer
573
Insurrection in Navarre and appointment of Murillo at Madrid
574
Proceedings of the Cortes
575
Deplorable state of the finances and measures regarding them
576
Fresh tumults in Madrid ib 39 Resignation of General Murillo
577
The secret societies or Communeros
578
Riegos plot at Saragossa and his arrest
579
Suppression of the tumults thence arising at Madrid
580
Yellow fever at Barcelona ib 44 Fresh agitation O
581
Refusal of Cadiz and Seville to receive the kings governors and revolt at Corunna
583
Opening of an extraordinary Cortes ib 47 Contradictory resolutions of the Cortes
584
Irresolute conduct of the king and Royalist insurrection in the north
585
Proposed laws against the press and patriotic societies
586
Riots in Madrid on the passing of a bill against the press ib 51 Composition of the new Cortes
587
New ministry
589
Opening of the Cortes and disastrous state of the finances ib 54 General disturbances in Spain
590
594
594
Reflections on this event
610
Urgel
612
CHAPTER XII
614
627
627
England
633
Views of what had occurred in this Congress
635
Views of M de Villèle and Louis XVIII
637
Secret correspondence of M de Villèle and M de Lagarde
638
Debate on it in the Cabinet and resignation of M de Montmorency who is succeeded by M de Chateaubriand
639
The warlike preparations of France continue
641
Failure of the negotiations at Madrid and departure of the French ambas sador
642
Speech of the king at the opening of the Chambers
643
King of Englands speech at opening of Parliament
644
Reply of the Spanish government
645
Hyde de Neuvilles address in reply to the speech of the king
647
Mr Canning adopts the principle of noninterference
654
de Chateaubriands reply in the French Chambers 656663
656
Immense sensation produced by this speech
664
Talleyrands speech on the war ib 55 Vote of credit of 100000000 francs
665
his speech
666
Storm in the Chamber
667
Expulsion of M Manuel
669
Dramatic scene at his expulsion
670
General enthusiasm excited by the Spanish war
671
Preparations of the Liberals to sow disaffection in the army
672
Feelings of Mr Canning and the English people at this crisis
673
Views of Mr Canning at this juncture
674
Portrait of Mr Canning by M Marcellus
676
His opinion as to the probable duration of the war
677
Views of George IV and the Duke of Wellington on the subject
678
Difficulties of the French at the entrance of the campaign
679
Which are obviated by M Ouvrard
681
Forces and their disposition on both sides
682
Theatrical scene at the passage of the Bidassoa ib 73 Progress of the French and their rapid success
685
Advance of the Duke dAngoulême to Madrid ib 75 Advnnce of the French to Madrid
686
Entry of the Duke dAngoulême into Madrid
688
Advance of the French into Andalusia
689
Proceedings of the Cortes and deposition of Ferdinand VII ib 79 Violent reaction at Seville and over all Spain
691
State of affairs in Cadiz
692
Advance of the Duke dAngoulême into Andalusia and decree of Andujar
693
Its provisions
694
Violent irritation of the Royalists in Spain
695
Progress of the siege of Cadiz
696
Assault of the Trocadero
697
Operations of Riego in the rear of the French
698
Defeat and capture of Riego
700
Noble conduct of the Princess Troubetzkoi and the other wives of
704
His execution
705
Triumphant return of the Duke dAngoulême to Paris
711
Recognition of the South American republics by Mr Canning
717
Meeting of the Chambers and measures announced in the royal speech
723
Statistics of France in this year
729
Political inferences from the result of the Spanish revolution
735

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Page 717 - It would be disingenuous, indeed, not to admit that the entry of the French army into Spain was, in a certain sense, a disparagement — an affront to the pride— a blow to the feelings of England...
Page 467 - ... from the roots and the stem of the tree. Save that country, that you may continue to adorn it; save the Crown, which is in jeopardy, the aristocracy, which is shaken; save the altar, which must stagger with the blow that rends its kindred throne!
Page 717 - I have already said that, when the French army entered Spain we might, if we chose, have resisted or resented that measure by war. But were there no other means than war for restoring the balance of power? Is the balance of power a fixed and unalterable standard?
Page 717 - Spain might be rendered harmless in rival hands, — harmless as regarded us, and valueless to the possessors ? might not compensation for disparagement be obtained, and the policy of our ancestors vindicated, by means better adapted to the present time ? If France occupied Spain, was it necessary, in order to avoid the consequences of that occupation, that we should blockade Cadiz? No: I looked another way; I sought materials of compensation in another hemisphere. Contemplating Spain such as our...
Page 467 - Save the country, my lords, from the horrors of this catastrophe ; save yourselves from this peril ; rescue that country of which you are the ornaments, but in which you can flourish no longer, when severed from the people, than the blossom when cut off from the roots and the stem of the tree.
Page 398 - The Prince Regent has the greatest pleasure in being able to inform you, that the trade, commerce, and manufactures of the country are in a most flourishing condition. " The favourable change which has so rapidly taken place in the internal circumstances of the United Kingdom, affords the strongest proof of the solidity of its resources. " To cultivate and improve the advantages of our present situation will be the object of your deliberations...
Page 637 - ... opinion, that to animadvert upon the internal transactions of an independent state, unless such transactions affect the essential interests of his Majesty's subjects, is inconsistent with those principles on which his Majesty has invariably acted on all questions relating to the internal concerns of other countries ; that such animadversions, if made, must involve his Majesty in serious responsibility, if they should produce any effect ; and must irritate, if they should not...

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