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a majority of the members of the Local Council are not then in attendance; but no such nomination shall be made or considered by the General Council, unless supported by a statement in writing of at least three members of the Association from the same state with the person nominated, or in the absence of three such members, then by three members from a neighboring state or states, to the effect that the person nominated has the qualifications required by the Constitution and desires to become a member of the Association, and that his admission as a member is recommended by the signers of the statement.

(c) All nominations thus made shall be reported by the Council to the Association for its action. The vote shall be taken viva voce, unless any member demand a vote by ballot upon any name thus reported, in which case the Association shall vote thereon by ballot. Five negative votes shall prevent an election.

(d) During the period between annual meetings, members may be elected by the Executive Committee upon the written nomination of a majority of the Local Council of any state. One negative vote in the Executive Committee shall prevent an election.

(e) Persons of distinction who are members of the Bar of another country but not members of the Bar of any state of the United States, may, without formal nomination or certification, be elected by the Executive Committee to be honorary members of the Association. Honorary members shall be entitled to the privileges of the floor during meetings, but shall not be entitled to vote, and they shall pay no dues.


OFFICERS, COMMITTEES AND SECTIONS. The following officers shall be elected at each annual meeting for the year ensuing:

A President;
A Vice-President from each state;
A Secretary;
A Treasurer;
A General Council, consisting of one member from each


The same person shall not be elected President in two succes

sive years. The General Council shall be a Committee on Nominations

for office and shall elect its Chairman annually, but the same person shall not be elected Chairman more than

three successive years. There shall be an Executive Committee, which shall consist of the President, the last retiring President, the Chairman of the General Council, the Secretary and the Treasurer, all of whom shall be members ex-officio, together with eight other members to be elected by the Association upon nomination by the General Council, but no member shall be elected more than three years in succession. The President, and in his absence the former President, shall be Chairman of the committee.

The Executive Committee shall have full power and authority, in the interval between meetings of the Association, to do all acts and perform all functions which the Association itself might do or perform, except that it shall have no power to amend the Constitution or By-Laws.

There shall be one or more Assistant Secretaries, who shall be elected by the Executive Committee, and shall hold office at the pleasure of that committee.

The following committees shall be appointed annually by the President for the year ensuing, each to consist of five members, unless otherwise specifically indicated herein:

On Commerce, Trade and Commercial Law;
On International Law;
On Insurance Law;
On Jurisprudence and Law Reform, to consist of 15 members;
On Professional Ethics and Grievances;
On Admiralty and Maritime Law;
On Publicity;
On Publications;
On Noteworthy Changes in Statute Law;
On Membership, to consist of such number as the President

may appoint; and On Memorials, of which the Secretary shall be the Chairman.

The Chairman of each Section of the Association, and the President of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform

State Laws, shall each be deemed a committee of one, and each shall report the work of his Section or Conference and present its recommendations for action by the Association.

A majority of the members of any committee, including the General Council, present at any meeting shall constitute a quorum.

The Vice-President for each state and four other members from such state to be annually elected, shall constitute a Local Council for such state. The Vice-President shall be ex-officio Chairman thereof. It shall be the duty of the Vice-President from each state to report the deaths of members within the same to the Committee on Memorials.

The members of the General Council and the members of the Local Council in each state shall constitute a committee for their state to further the interests and opinions of the American Bar Association in such manner and in such ways as shall be suggested by the Executive Committee.

There shall be the following Sections of the Association:
Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar;
Section of Patent, Trade-Mark and Copyright Law;
Judicial Section;
Section of Comparative Law;
Section of Public Utility Law;

Section of Criminal Law and Criminology; and such other Sections as may from time to time be authorized by the Association upon the recommendation of the Executive Committee thereof.

Each Section shall have a Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary, Treasurer, and a Council which shall consist of eight members elected by the Section. Each Section shall have power to adopt By-Laws for the regulation of its functions, not inconsistent with the Constitution and By-Laws of the Association, and subject to the approval of the Executive Committee of the Association. The Council of each Section shall be known and designated as “The Council of the American Bar Association” on the particular subject which characterizes the work of the Section, as, for example, the Council of the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar shall be known The Council of the American Bar Association on Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar." Qualifications for membership in any


Section may be determined by the Section itself and shall be defined in its own By-Laws, provided that action taken by a Section must be approved by the Association before the same shall become effective.


BY-LAWS. By-laws may be adopted, amended, or rescinded at any meeting of the Association by a vote of three-fourths of the members present at any session of such annual meeting, provided there be not less than two hundred members present at such annual meeting, and provided further that notice shall have been given by the Secretary to the members of the Association either by mail or by publication in the JOURNAL at least thirty days before the meeting at which action is taken.



Each member shall pay $6.00 to the Treasurer annually, which sum shall include dues and the cost of subscription to the AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION JOURNAL, which to members is $1.50 per year. All other publications of the Association shall be free of charge to the members. No person shall be in good standing or qualified to exercise any privilege of membership who is in default. The Executive Committee, in its discretion, may remit the dues of any member under special circumstances.


PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. At each annual meeting of the Association, the President shall deliver an address upon such topics as he may select with the approval of the Executive Committee.


ANNUAL MEETINGS. The Association shall meet annually at such time and place as the Executive Committee may select, and those present at any session of any meeting shall constitute a quorum, except as provided in Articles V and X.

The American flag shall be displayed at all meetings of the Association.



The Executive Committee may submit from time to time by referendum to the individual members of the Association questions affecting the substance or the administration of the law which in the opinion of the Committee are of immediate practical importance to the whole country.


AMENDMENTS. This Constitution may be altered or amended only by a vote of three-fourths of the members present at any session of an annual meeting, but no such change shall be made unless at least two hundred members shall be present, nor unless notice of the proposed alteration or amendment shall have been given by the Secretary to the members of the Association either by mail or by publication in the JOURNAL at least thirty days before the meeting at which the amendment is offered.


CONSTRUCTION. The word “state," whenever used in this Constitution, shall be deemed to comprise state, territory, the District of Columbia or any insular or other possession of the United States and places over which the United States exercises extra-territorial jurisdiction.

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