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And; from the improved state of the morals of the poor it might be hoped, that the sons, at least of those who would be most forward to complain of such an addition (as they might consider it) to the burden of poor rates, might experience some miugation of that evil. For í need scarcely observe, that the project would not be worth attempting, if the proposed instructions were not to go far beyond the customary reach of a threepenny weekly school*. The means of early instruction woulă thus be open to all, whose parents were willing to embrace them. How far it would be proper to warrant the use of coercion to enforce attendance, might be a fit subject for consideration;;, but it is to be hoped, that the necessity of having recourse to it, if general accommodation were consulted as much as possible, would occur too rarely to make it appear harsh or offensive. The authority, to which I have above referred, is that of Dr. Adam Smith, and to which, on no occasion contemptible, I venture, in this case, to attribute more than its usual weight; for, in general, he is sufficiently adverse to the too frequent interference of government with the choice and inclinations of the subject; and his very forcible chservations on the important consequences which may be looked for froin the morals of the poor, according as they are orderly or depraved (never more worthy of attention than in the present state of our poor, and in the present state of Europe) must come with added strength to all who entertain higher notions of the peculiar advantages of a, Christian instruction, than that eminent political writer seems to have done. Some expedient of the nature above-mentioned appears to me, for various reasons, so loudly called for, that I cannot mention it without regretting my want of leisure and of talent to do justice to the subject. The measure is, at all events, deserving of serious contemplation, and would certainly be better nog attempted, than unwisely executed. I should, therefore, be sufficiently flattered could I but be instrumental to the provoking of a discussion, which may, one day, perhaps, gain some share of notice from your pen; persuaded that
* An instiration under act of parliament perhaps would scarcely em brace the various objects proposed in “ An Essay on the Importance of Schools of Industry and Religious Instruction, &c. by Robert Acklom Ingram, B.D.” but the remainder would furnish an easier task for private beneficence to accomplish. 391.1 in Vol. VIII. Churchm. Mag. May 1805
the ablést champions of our establishment, comprising Church and State, need not think it beneath them to bear a part in it, ..!!! I am, dear Sir,
Your very sincere friend,
And humble servant, Giggleswick,
R.1 18th April
On the Latin Words Græcised, employed by the Writers' of
the New Testament.
Sir, N addition to my statement of the opinions of Mr
Evansou, inserted in your Magazine for last Month, I wish to lay before your readers a specimen of the arguments which that Gentleman brings to prove that the major part of the canonical scriptures of the New Testament are spurious.
3 In bis Dissonance of the four generally received Evana gelists (p. 28.) we have these words. "'There is however another circumstance in this story of the demoniac, as also in the passage cited as objectionable in the Acts of the Apostles, which if considered as it deserves, appears very satisfactorily to evince the spuriousness of both the pas sages, and even to point out nearly the date of their in. terpolation, which is, that the word legion in the first, and the words aprons and handkerchiets in the second, are hot Greek, but Latin words written in Greek characters." He then proceeds to bring forward his reasons for thinking that such terms evince the spuriousness of the passages in which they aie contained, which are too long to insert here, and afterwards draws this conclusion; “It is not probable that cominon Latin words were adopted into the Greek language by any, and still less so by good writerse till after the arms and arrogant haaghtiness of the Romans and the servile adulation of the conquered provinces, had been carried to their greatest beight; that
till the latter end of the reign of Trajan, or beginning of the second century of the Christian æra." (p. 29, 30.):
He says he does not recollect any Greek writer of note who has adopted such a practice prior to the Historian Herodian, in the third century, and that it is evident it was not in use some time after the writing of St. Luke's histories, becanse Josephus does not give into it (p. 30.) After some further observations on St. Luke's own practice, &c. he thus concludes his argumentation. " I must confess that this single circumstance of the language strikes my mind so strongly that I suspect every passage and writing, wherein it is tognd, to be either an interpolation or fiction of no earlier date than the beginning of
..on cumstances of inconsistency or great improbability, it affords me a full conviction of their spuriousness and want of Apostolic authenticity;” (p. 32.)
Who would not suppose, when he reads all that Mr. E. has so confidently advanced upon this question, that he had made himself master of his subject, and was sure of bis ground, before he ventured to rear such a superstructure upon it; that he had himself consulted, not only Herodian and Josephus, but all the Greek authors that treat of Roman affairs, and after a careful and minute investigation had found that none of them employed Latin words græcised ? But no such thing; Testimony, with this gentleman, we know possesses little weight. He appears to have been satisfied by his own reasoning that such a thing could not be, and then, with his usual precipitation, committed himself upon it to the public, bringing it forward as an argument to prove that large portions of scripture are forgeries.
I shall now, having myself a great respect for testimony, bring forward one sufficient witness, who will level this whole hypothesis, ingenious as it may seem, with the ground, and this witness shall be that honest and respectable Greek historian Polybius, who wrote a century and half before Christ, and who græcises the Roman military terms. I first learned this from Parkþurst's Lexicon upon the Greek Testament, under the word deyeww, but not having this author in my own collec. tion, I applied to a learned friend who has, that I might
ascertain the correctness of Parkhurst's assertion. He replied to my queries in these words, “I have no Paris
edition of Polybius, but I find in my edition, Lib. vi. the «words τριαρίες, πρίγκιπας, ανατες, κεντυρίωνας, δεκυρίωνές, all these occur two or three times in the chapter. Polybius renders Velites "ypocbocopas, and centuriones sometimes'ta ziepxes. He uses the word extra apdovapies, but this he thinks necessary toʻinterpret 'mixtures : parPerror occurs too. It is proper to observe that the words above mentioned are found nearly together' or in a few following pages which contain an account of the Roman militia ; I am not sure that they beçur elsewhere in the work; legion is usually rendered sparotidos:'I cannot find in him the words you quote from the New Testament, but I think they probably may be found' were the work of Polybius to be read through with the view of seeking for them : at any rate he seems to have fainiliarized the Greeks to Latin war terms to such a degree, as fo'make the continuance of such an adoption of Latin terms, easy to his followers.”
In a postscript to his letter my friend makes an observation upon the subject I am upon, which I think 'too *sensible and judicious to be lost.
Since sealing my letter'it has occurred to me (though I know pot that the opinion is worthy of attention) that pos'sibly some, if not all, of the words which you have quoted from the New Testament, may not have been græcised by the Apostles directly from the Latin, but may have been before introthiced from the Latin into the Hebrew tongue of the Apostles' time, and so græcised by the Apostles from the Hebrew; thus opa yenasar may be formed from the
Hebrew! byd, a word evidently made from, and of the same meaning as' flagellum, and what renders this alinost certain is, that if the Greek word had been formed directly from the Latin it would have been paseyorasor and not Φραγελλιον ; on the other hand it would be φραγελλιον if formed from the Hebrew brana."
The same reason also might be assigned for its being σιμικινθιον, and not σημικινθιον as Hederic would have it.
Though St. Luke upon other occasions does not use the word neryewe, yet here he was not at liberty to alter it: for here he was recording a Name not speaking of a thing; The dæmops said their name was pras (Gr. deyewr) it would have been quite absurd if the Evangelist had given i o tipk, or sparowidos.
Er uno disce omnes, From this instavce we may learn what little dependence is to be placed upon the arguments which Mr. E.
has adduced to invalidate the canon of the New Testament. If he could not submit to sober and in partial investigation in a case which so glaringly demanded it, can it be expected that he has in others. In fact, as far as I have considered his work, the bulk of his reasoning lies open to, similar objections. His love for his heretical opinions urged him to bring forward precipitately and inconsiderately every argument in favour of them, that he could clothe in a specious dress. April 29, 1805.
On the Neglect of READING the Bible.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE ORTHODOX CHURCHMAN'S
FEEL great pleasure in addressing a remark, which appears to me to be conducted on exemplary principles, with regard to both religion and politics. I see, with pleasure, a constant adherence to the established religion of the church of England, and to the excellent constitution of this kingdom, continually enforced and maintained, without the fulsome arrogance, of everlasting egotism, or the insolent clamour of perpetual vituperation. Avoiding every boast of your own religion and loyalty, you employ the best means of imparting those qualities to others; and, in your work, wit and learning, mirth and argument, combine in the same important
I do not make this eulogy in the hope of procuring attention to my communication, but as a genuine effusion of approbation : if my letter is not worth inserting, you will of course reject it ; but I assure you neither hope nor fear can influence me to abstain froin declaring, unreservedly, those sentiments which I feel sincerely.
I am not a very old man, but have been some years married, and lately sent my son to an academy near town. At his departure, following the recollected example of my own parent, I put into his hands a new Bible: on his return for the holidays, I saw, with surprise and regret, that it was still new. When I was at school, which is