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beach, he fell into a rent to the middle; | lands, about two miles to the east, but and then, with the other stationed below, on a much smaller scale : there is, how he fled from the spot to the station near ever, a ridge also raised there, in the Axmouth. From thence they returned, Of the cause of these disturbances, at daylight of the 26th, with others, and we think there is at present too little found the whole beach changed, together evidence to form a decided opinion. with the under-cliff, east and west of it, Some eminent geologists refer it to the and a large reef raised in the sea. action of water; others imagine there

The following day, the inhabitants of was a cavity, into which the depressed Dowlands and Bindon farms came in part has sunk; and others incline to the great alarm to the cultivated cliff, and idea of galvanic operations originating in found that the eastern end of the part the sea, producing something resembling projecting to the sea, together with the earthquake: but the first opinion is the under-cliff adjoining it on the east, and one generally preferred. the beach adjoining it on the west, were all in agitation; they were sinking and rending in all directions. There were noises like the screams of many children at once, or like linen when torn across, with rumbling and grinding of a low and mournful kind. About seven or Fawkes was repeatedly examined, in eight o'clock, they saw the great mass, order to draw from him the names of now forming the bottom of the chasm, his accomplices. At first, he stoutly rebegin to sink, not suddenly, nor all at fused to implicate any one. According once, but piece by piece, proceeding, to the cruel practice of the times, he was however, in succession towards the west. tortured. The effects of the torture may Sometimes a mass would stay a few mi- be seen by comparing his signature to nutes, then sink again ; and thus it con- two examinations, one taken before, and tinued through the day, till the remark- the other after, its infliction. The first able scene appeared, which the engrav- is written with a firm hand; but, in the ing exhibits. The chasm is about a mile second instance, he was evidently unlong, two hundred yards wide, and two able to hold his pen, and the signature hundred and forty feet deep, at the is therefore incomplete. greatest depression. The hollow space Four days after his apprehension, he is filled up with terraces, confused heaps, made a general confession of the whole pinnacles and splinters, blocks and plot. The other conspirators soon folmounds, in such variety of form and hue lowed his example. Their trials took as cannot be conceived. The cliff left place on Monday, January 27, 1606, standing between the chasm and the sea, when they were all found guilty, (seven of is torn, shivered, partly raised and partly them by the verdict of the jury, and sir sunk; terraces are formed on its top, Everard Digby by his own confession,) and the whole is a blending of the sub- and received sentence of death. They lime, the terrible, and the beautiful. were executed the same week: Digby,

On examining the sea, near the ridge Robert Winter, Grant, and Bates, on raised there, about parallel to the chasm, Thursday, at the West end of St. Paul's though half a mile from it, the bottom is churchyard ; and Thomas Winter, Rookfound to be altered considerably. The wood, Keyes, and Fawkes, on Friday, reporter says, that to a great distance, opposite the Parliament House. It is there are now eight and nine fathoms of not necessary to describe the manner in water, where formerly there were only which traitors were put to death in that two or three ; and, instead of a foul bot- age. Suffice it to say, that they were tom of sharp rocks, there is now a firm, hanged, disembowelled, and quartered, hard sand : so that he thinks the convul- and their heads and mangled limbs ex. sion has extended far into this part of the posed in public places; a horrid and rechannel, if it did not originate there. volting spectacle. Several others suffered The banks along the cliffs extend full death in the country, of whom no record four miles. A pond of fresh water on has been kept. the beach bubbled violently, for some Father Gerard, who had administered days after the event, but was as cold as the sacrament to the conspirators, escap.. before.

ed to the continent. Greenway followed There has since been a slip at Whet- | him. But Garnet was not so fortunate,

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He had taken refuge at Hendlip hall, | find place for them, so that we were in near Worcester, the seat of Mr. Abing- continual pain of our legs; and both ton, a zealous Papist, who had caused a our legs, especially mine, were much number of hiding places to be constructed swollen.' After the surrender of the on the premises, for the purpose of con- servants, the search was resumed with cealing Popish priests, who might be activity and success. Several secret visiting him.

chambers were discovered ; and on the The house was still standing at the eighth day, January 27, an opening was commencement of the present century, found into the cell in which Garnet and and was thus described a few years ago : Oldcorne were concealed. Notwithstand“There is scarcely an apartment that ing the uneasiness of their position, they has not secret ways of coming in or going had been “ very merry and content" in out: some have back staircases concealed it; for their friends had contrived to take in the walls; others have places of re- care of them, and to supply them abundtreat in their chimneys; some have trap antly with nourishment. " Marmalade doors ; and all present a picture of and other sweetmeats were found lying gloom, insecurity, and suspicion.' Its by them; but their better maintenance situation, too, was very favourable for had been by a quill or reed, through a purposes of concealment. Built on high little hole in a chimney that backed ground, with an uninterrupted prospect another chimney into a gentlewoman's on all sides, it afforded means of observ- chamber; and by that passage, caudle, ing, in the distance, all unwelcome broths, and warm drinks, had been convisitors. Here Garnet remained several veyed to them.”† They were conveyed weeks, solacing himself in the company to London, and committed to the Tower. of Anne Vaux. But in the month of During the frequent examinations to January, information was received that which Garnet was subjected before his some Jesuits were probably concealed at trial, he resolutely denied, at first, all Hendlip, and sir Henry Bromley, of Holt knowledge of the plot. He acknowcastle, a neighbouring magistrate, was ledged the reception of the letter from commissioned to search the house. On Digby, informing him of its failure; but his approach, Garnet and Oldcorne (the would have it believed that, till then, he latter was

Mr. Abington's domestic had been wholly ignorant the enterpriest) withdrew into one of the hiding prise. A scheme was then hit upon, by places, and their servants, Owen and means of which an amount of selfChambers, into another.

accusing information was drawn from The house was immediately surround him, and used afterwards with fatal ed with men, and all the approaches to effect. He and Oldcorne were confined it closely watched and guarded. Every in cells adjoining each other. They rooni in the building was carefully and were both informed, by the lieutenant of repeatedly examined; but no discovery the Tower, whose affected kindness had was made, so ingeniously had the means won their confidence, that by opening a of access to the secret apartments been concealed door they might see and conconcealed. At length, on the fourth verse with each other. Strange to tell, day, the servants were compelled, by they fell into the snare.

Persons were cold and hunger, to leave their hiding placed in a situation where they could place. They declared, that during their overhear what passed between them; and confinement, they had eaten but an from their notes of the conversation, a apple between them. Still their masters clue was obtained to sundry important were safe, though their situation was far facts, evidently criminating Garnet. In from comfortable. “ After we had been short, he felt obliged, at last, to confess in the hole,” said Garnet, in a letter his guilty acquaintance with the plot. written in the Tower, and addressed to But before he was brought to this, he Anne Vaux, seven days and seven had repeatedly denied having had “any nights, and some odd hours, every man speech or conference” with Oldcorne, may well think we were well wearied; reiterating his denial “with so many deand indeed so it was, for we continually testable execrations, as it wounded the sat, save that sometimes we could half hearts of the lords to hear him.” He stretch ourselves, the place not being justified this afterwards, by saying that high enough; and we had our legs so his protestations were "made with equistraitened, that we could not, sitting, vocation ;" as though a

purpose to • Beauties of England, vol. xv. part i. p. 184.

Jardine, p. 206.

deceive did not constitute the very essence had denied all knowledge of the plot, of falsehood!

until betrayed by the conferences with His trial took place March 20, 1606, Oldcorne; and he denied those conand lasted from eight in the morning till ferences, until he plainly perceived that seven in the evening. It excited unusual he only injured himself by so doing ; interest. The king and queen were

and when afterwards abashed and conprivately present, with a large assem- founded at the clear discovery of his blage of courtiers, several of the foreign falsehood, he admitted, to the Lords, ambassadors, then in England, and an that he had sinned, unless equivocation immense concourse of people. He was could save him. From the beginning found guilty, and sentenced to the usual to the end of the inquiry, he had acted in punishment of traitors. Oldcorne and strict consistency with the principles he some others were tried in Worcester- now acknowledged, never confessing any shire, with similar results.

fact until it was proved against him, and Garnet was not executed till five weeks never hesitating to declare palpable falseafter his trial. In the interval, he was hoods respecting matters which tendvery frequently examined. The object ed to inculpate himself, and to affirm of these examinations was partly to ob- them by the most solemn oaths and protain fuller acknowledgment of his direct testations.", He retained his monparticipation in the plot, and partly to strous and demoralizing opinions to the elicit his sentiments respecting the obli- last. When reminded, at the foot of the gation of human laws, and equivocation, ladder, of the “

strange doctrines” he on which subject, as it has been justly had recorded in his written confessions remarked, “he avowed opinions as in- on the subject of equivocation, he replied, consistent with all good government as “In those confessions, I have stated my they were contrary to sound morality.' real opinions, and to them I refer you.”

This is very mildly expressed. It is Garnet's execution took place May 3, scarcely possible to speak of Garnet's 1606, in St. Paul's Churchyard. Strong sentiments, and his own practical illus- efforts were made, by the Recorder of tration of them, in terms sufficiently London, and the deans of Winchester strong. “Concerning equivocation, and St. Paul's, who were directed, by he said, “this is my opinion. In the king, to be present on the occasion, moral affairs, and in the common inter- to draw from him a thorough confession course of life, when the truth is asked of his guilt. But he still equivocated amongst friends, it is not lawful to and lied, though the dreadful instruuse equivocation; for that would cause ments of death were before him. It was great mischief in society : wherefore, in proved, by his own acknowledgments, such cases, there is no place for equivo- "that Greenway had confessed the matcation. But in cases where it becomes ter to him, not as a sin, but for the sake necessary to an individual for his de- of advice; that Catesby and Greenway fence, or for avoiding any injustice or had come together to him, to obtain his loss, or for obtaining any important ad advice ; that Greenway, long afterwards, vantage, without danger or mischief to had a conference with him in Essex, conany other persons, then equivocation is cerning the particulars of the plot; and lawful.” The plain English of this is, that Greenway, being asked by him, That it is lawful to lie, if any thing is to who should be the Protector after the be gained by lying. This was written crime was committed, answered, that March 20, before his trial. On April this matter was deferred till after the 28, only five days before his death, we plot should have taken effect."!. And find him asserting," that in all cases yet, when he was urged, by the dean of where simple equivocation was allowable, Winchester, to make a full confession, he it was lawful, if necessary, to confirm it boldly asserted, that he " by an oath, or by any other usual way, stood anything of the design of blowing up though it were by receiving the sacra- the Parliament House." "c Nay,” replied ment, if just necessity so require." the dean, “it is manifest that all the These sentiments were not entertained particulars were known to you; and you by him merely as abstract and specula- have declared, under your own hand, tive doctrines; for he had practically that Greenway told you all the circumadopted them in the whole course of his stances in Essex.”

“That,” said Garconduct during the examination.

“was in secret confession, which I * Jardine, p. 315.

† Jardine, p. 318.

I Jardine, p. 340.

never under

He net,

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could by no means reveal.” But this l ' In manus tuas, Domine, commendo was utterly false ; and to prove it, the spiritum meum; quia tu redemisti me, Recorder produced his own confessions, Domine, Deus veritatis !'* Then again and was about to read them, when Gar- crossing himself, he said, “Per crucis net said, “ that he might spare himself hoc signum fugiat procul omne maligthat trouble; that he readily acknow- num! Infige crucem tuam, Domine, in ledged whatever he had signed with his corde meo.'! And again, Jesus, Maria ! hand to be true; and that inasmuch as Maria, mater gratiæ,' etc. In the midst he had not declared the knowledge of the of these prayers, the ladder was drawn plot, which had been generally imparted away, and, by the express command of to him, he owned himself to be justly the king, he remained hanging from the condemned, and asked pardon of the gallows, until he was quite dead. All king.”

that he said, from first to last, was spoken The closing scene is thus described : in a hurried, timid, and disturbed man“He then ascended the ladder, and when ner; not using any clear and steady he had entirely undressed himself, he course of prayer; not confessing his unrequested the executioner to give him worthiness, and praying for forgiveness, notice before he threw him off. He then nor professing his faith in Christ. His addressed the people in the following mind appeared to suggest nothing to him words: 'I commend myself to all good which could enable him to address himCatholics. I am grieved that I have self to God with comfort, or rely with offended the king by not revealing the satisfaction upon his Redeemer. Condesign entertained against him; and that fiding wholly in his superstitious usages, I did not use more diligence in prevent- he seemed to have no prayers to use being the execution of the plot." More- sides those forms which daily repetition over, I pray God to bless the king's had impressed upon his

memory.”ll majesty, with the queen, and all their So died Henry Garnet, superior of the posterity, and grant him long to live and Jesuits in England. Such a death is reign. I commend myself, also, to the inexpressibly awful. Of Garnet's guilt lords of his majesty's council, and be- no reasonable doubt can be entertained. seech them not to judge hardly of me. He was a convicted traitor, and justly I am sorry that I dissembled with them, suffered the penalty of his crime. For and that I did not declare the truth until months before the time appointed for it was proved against me; but I did the dreadful blow, he knew that it was not think they had such sure proofs intended, and was frequently consulted against me, till they showed them to me. respecting it. Yet he solemnly denies As soon as I perceived this, I thought it all knowledge of the conspiracy. When most becoming to confess, although, be- proof is brought against him, he confore, it would have been unlawful for me fesses. He subsequently enlarges his to have accused myself. As to my bro- confession. Then he contradicts it. He ther Greenway, I wish the truth respect- asserts-retracts--swears-denies. When ing him were known.

I would never
can we believe him ?

With the rope have charged him, if I had not believed round his neck, he avows his sorrow for him to be beyond sea. But it seemed having dissembled ; but, for any thing right to me to confess the truth, which I we can tell, he was equivocating even wish he had done also, that false rumours then, for lying words had but just before might not make both of us more criminal issued from his lips. “ Your apologies, than we really were. I beseech all men, 1 your palliations for Garnet,” says Mr. that Catholics may not fare the worse for Townsend, addressing the late Charles my sake; and I exhort all Catholics to take Butler, “are made in vain. He died care not to mix themselves with seditious with a lie in his mouth. He died assertor traitorous designs against the king.' | ing a falsehood. He died the traitor to Having thus spoken, he raised his hands, his king, the foe to his country, the and made the sign of the cross upon his hater of its laws, the friend of its forehead and breast, saying, “In nomine

grace! mother of mercy! Patris, Filii, et Spiritus Sancti ! Jesus, the enemy, and receive me in the hour of death!" Maria! Maria, mater gratiæ ! mater

+ “Into thy hands, O Lord, I commend my

spirit; for thou hast redeemed me, O Lord God of misericordiæ ! Tu me ab hoste protege, truth!” et horâ mortis suscipe !'* Then he said, I “ By this sign of the cross may every evil thing

flee away! Fix thy cross, O Lord, in my heart !" • “In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Jesus, Mary! Mary, mother of grace," etc. Holy Ghost! Jesus, Mary!' Mary, mother of Jardine, p. 343.

Protect thou me from


enemies. He died peacefully and piously, seen, in the centre of the ear, with rays supporting the legends of his church with of glory surrounding them. One of them his last breath; and gaining strength represented Garnet, with the crown of from the superstition which venerated martyrdom on his brow; and in the midst the wood of the cross, instead of the of his beard appeared a cherub. I But Holy One who bled upon it. He died the miracle was not destined to live long, not the death of a hypocrite ; for his The privy council having commissioned falsehood was justified by his faith, and archbishop Bancroft to inquire into it, he might have believed it to be sanc- the inquiry was instituted in the latter tioned by his church. By wickedness, he part of November, somewhat more than would have served God; by equivocation, two months after the discovery of the he would have supported religion. He alleged wonder. But the straw was died a martyr, a liar, and a traitor."* not forthcoming. Well knowing that it

Although Garnet has not been re- would not stand the test of a searching gularly canonized, he, as well as other scrutiny, the parties concerned had conpriests, who suffered death for treason cealed or destroyed it. One gentleman, during the reigns of Elizabeth and James, who had seen it, deposed

" that he saw are commonly considered, by Roman- nothing in the straw but what any painter ists, as martyrs for religion ; and their could readily have drawn there;” that political innocence continues to be ob- “the face seemed to him to be described stinately maintained, in defiance of the by a hair, or some very slender instruclearest proofs to the contrary:t

ment; and that, upon the whole, he saw Shortly after Garnet's death, a ridicu- nothing whatever wonderful in the thing, lous tale was invented, which requires to except, that it was possible to draw a be noticed, as it illustrates the spirit and man's face distinctly upon so very small tendency of Popery. William Wilkin- a space.” Francis Bowen, a painter, son, a young Papist, attended the ex- made a drawing of the straw from reecution, anxious to obtain some relic of collection, and said, that "he thought the criminal, and expecting to “ witness that beyond all doubt a skilful artist some immediate testimony from God, in might depict, upon a straw, a human favour of the innocence of his saint.” countenance quite as artificially as that He succeeded in procuring an ear of which he had seen, and more so; and straw from the scaffold, stained with therefore, that he believed it quite possi. Garnet's blood, and took it home to his ble for an impostor to have fabricated lodgings. Some days afterwards, he gave this pretended miracle.” As to the supit to Mrs. Griffiths, a tailor's wife, at posed likeness to Garnet, Griffiths the whose house he lodged. She put the tailor said, “ As far as I could discover, straw in a bottle. In the month of Sep- the face in the straw was no more like tember following, Thomas Laithwaite, Garnet, than it was like any other man a footman, who was visiting Griffiths, with a long beard; and truly, I think was shown the bottle, and discovered, as that no one can assert that the face was he thought, a man's head depicted on like Garnet, because it was so small ; a part of the husk of the ear. It was and if any man saith that the head was immediately noised abroad. Crowds surrounded with a light, or rays, he flocked to see Garnet's straw. The says that which is untrue.”] The result of miraculous image, as it was deemed, was this inquiry put an end to the affair. It regarded as an undoubted proof of his was evident enough that Wilkinson had innocence. A month afterwards, a greater procured the drawing to be made, and discovery was made. Instead of one face, then would have passed it off for á miand that on a single husk, two faces were raculous attestation of Garnet's innocence.

Many a Romish miracle stands on no bet• Rev. G. Townsend's “ Accusations of History ter foundation. The annals of Popery against the Church of Rome," p. 315. + See Imago primi Sæculi Societatis Jesu, p.

are crowded with records of “lying wonAlso Challoner's “ Memoirs of Missionary ders” of a similar character, as disgracePriests,” passim. Dr. C. says, that Garnet was ful to their inventors as they are injuri"put upon the rack :" this is absolutely false. states that Owen, Garnet's servant,

ous to the profession of Christianity. cruelly racked in prison, that he died soon after he was taken off the torture:" the fact was, the man committed suicide. Dr. C. says, in his preface, An engraving of the straw is given in the that “ the first and most necessary quality that frontispiece to an " Apology for the Most Reverend ought to recommend history, is truth.It is a Father Garnet," by Eudæmon-Joannes, (L'Hengreat pity that he did not think of this when he reux, a learned Jesuit,) published in 1610,


He was so

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§ Jardine, p. 353,

wrote his “ Memoirs."

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