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her of emigrants to provide for. You must still furnish us with beef, pork, fish, flour, meal, butter, lard, &c., &c., until we can become more independjent in these respects.
HEMP. I am unable to meet your wishes with regard to this article. It grows along the beach, but not in any quantity, and while labor is so high as at present in the Colony, it is difficult to get it gathered. It might doubtles be cultivated to advantage, and perhaps will be by and by, but now the more cerlain articles of sugar, coffee, and indigo, are engrossing the attention of those who are inclined to agriculture. Last year I offered specie for hemp, but got none; I shall, however, give publicity to Judge Halsey's proposition.
MAP. A map of Liberia, such as you request, would require more time and care than I can at present bestow upon such a work; however, I shall keep it in view, and endeavor to have it done before I leave for home.
AGENCIES TO AMERICA. Rev. G. Brown intends visiting the United States in the Spring, and will serve if you wish. Mr. Burns, of this place, whom I have already mentioned favorably, will also go out in the Spring, probably in company with BROWN, and will accept an agency. One of the very best men in the Colony, however, is James Brown of Sinou. I have partially engaged him, and if he can get ready, he will go by the first opportunity after the Hobart. His election to the Council, will prevent his going in the Hobart. He is a man of good sense, considerable talent as a speaker, and is devoted heart and soul to the Colony.
MISCELLANEOUS. We suffer, very much still from the want of draft animals, and we can never hope to succeed in our agricultural operations until the Colony is well provided in this respect. All the jacks brought out last year by myself are dead. The fine large cattle of the interior suffer so much from the effects of the climate on the coast that it is impossible to work them. It has been often tried, and some of our most enterprising men have lost considerable money in the experiment—their oxen always dying before they are accustomed to the yoke. The small cattle of the coast do very well for light work, but they are now difficult to obtain. I have two pairs of them at the farm, now employed in driving the sugar-mill. Six such pairs would be scarcely sufficient to drive it properly. What I have to propose is, that the experiment be tried next year of introducing a few mules and horses from the Gambia or Goree. The horses of that reighborhood are said to be har. dy, and it is known that the change to this part of the coast does not injure them. Some years ago there was a horse brought here from Bo Poro. which it was said a company of traders had brought to that place from the “long bush,” that is froin a long distance inland. It was a fine animal, and throve well here, but was after some time killed. The time is not very distant, I hope, when we shall penetrate the “long bush," and bring back horses and many other things ; but at present we must look to other quartera,
STEAM POWER. Would it not be advisable to send a small steam engine of six or eight horse power for the sugar mill? The same fire that raises the steam might also boil the sugar, and thus the expense of carrying on the work would be actually less than by animal power. If the engine was a little larger, a shingle machine, and even a saw-mill might be connected with the sugar mill. What do you think of it?
MILITARY. In addition to our supply of Military articles, I am in want of three drums, two for Millsburg and the other for Marshall-they will be paid for by the people-also, one fise. If you could send the brass field-pieces promised in a former letter, they would be of the greatest service, in case of any suture expedition into the country. We have no guns at all that could be moved in the woods except with great difficulty and delay. We have no need of any more iron guns at present. Are any of the Congreve rockets to be obtained ?
The first of December, the anniversary of the memorable defence of this place by Ashmun, was observed throughout the Colony as a day of thanksgiving. The forenoon was generally devoted to religious exercises in the churches, and the remainder of the day was occupied with military parades, and, as in good New England, in discussing substantial dinners.
My old friend Bob Grey attended the public celebration at Edina, and was honored, as he deserved to be, on that occasion, by the most distinguished attention—(you are aware that he was the true friend of ASHMUN, and communicated to him the plans of the enemy.) In return for the distinction conferred on him, Bob made a speech, in which he spoke of his union with the Colony in these words- -"'Merican man and Bob Grey be one,'pose somebody cut Bob Grey, 'Merican blood pill :-'pose 'em cut 'Merican man, Bob Grey blood pill,-'pon me soul!"--This last is a favorite expression with which he always affirms what he considers very important.
As our light house on Cape Messurado is nearly completed, I have to request you will send us some suitable lantern for it.
The light will be somewhat less than three hundred feet above the sea. Captain Parsons can explain what kind of a lantern would be proper. After the light is up, we shall charge three dollars additional on all vessels anchoring in the harbor, which will probably pay all the expenses attending it.
LAWS I am very glad you have sent us a code of laws, though I have not yet had a moment of leisure to look into them, and can say nothing about their adaptation to our circumstances. As our Colonial Legislature will be in session in a few days, these laws will then undergo a careful examination, together with the whole body of statute laws of the Colony, which aster infinite trouble I have compiled and arranged from the old Council books-acts of Governors--resolutions of the Board, &c., &c. After this year ! trust we shall be able to have a more systematic and simple body of laws than heretofore.
This morning, Her Britanic Majesty's “Schooner Ascension" arrived here from Sierra Leone, on her way to the Island of Ascension ; she reports the
Trafalgar," at Sierra Leone, after a long and stormy passage from Baltimore. I learned from her further particulars about the destruction of Gallinas, and find that in some material particulars, my first information was erroneous. Besides the number of slaves found in the baracoons, Captain DENMAN succeeded in collecting from the native princes upwards of eight hundred; so that the whole number carried to Sierra Leone, is NINE HUNDRED AND FIFTY! As soon as the place was captured, the natives, according to the invariable custom of making the most out of all parties, turned against their late guests, the Spaniards, and on condition of being allow. ed four hours of plunder from the baracoons, agreed to surrender all the slaves that had been placed in their hands for safe keeping. The property
carried off by the natives, and destroyed on the spot, was immense ; my informants say, not less than one million or a million and a half of dollars. One item destroyed, was two thousand puncheons of rum !
A few days after this transaction, Captain Denman captured a slaver off Shebar, with three hundred and fifty-nine slaves on board. She was under Spanish colors, and called the Regulana.
Gallinas is now in such a state, that treaties could be easily effected with the native princes, for the entire suppression of the Slave Trade, and I have not the least doubi, were a vessel at my command, that in three weeks I could add that splendid country to the territory of the Colony, and secure forever its freedom from the curse of the Slave Trade. New Cesters, too, might be obtained with very little difficulty, as Canot, it is said, intends leaving the coast for England, in the spring. I feel the most intense anxiety to accomplish these two objects, and if I can do no better I shall be tempted to visit those places in my boat, after the Council adjourns.
GALLINAS AND NEW CESTERS AGAIN.
On Saturday, the 26th, I had a visit from Mr. Cannt, and gave him a private interview of some length, in the course of which he assured me most solemnly that he never again would buy or sell a human being; that he would leave New Cesters within three months, and would gladly give me his assistance in negociating with the native princes for that place. He brought up here some natives who belonged to this part of the conntry, to whom he ueclared their freedom, and placed thein under my protection. He had forty domestic slaves, who are now all free, and at liberty to go where they choose. I was glad to find, though he did not directly acknowledge it, that the uncompromising hostility of the Colony to the traffic, and especially our allowing no kind of intercourse with him, had a good deal to do in bringing him to his present position. Since my interview, I have not a doubt that I can obtain New Cesters, but I have less hope than before of acquiring a right to Gallinas. However, I shall try for bo h,
A BELL. The Baptist church at Bassa Cove has requested me to order a bell for its use. One that will cost, including transportation, one hundred dollars, will be about the right size. It will be paid for on delivery. I hope they will not be disappointed.
The " Trafalgar” has just arrived, but brings me no letters from you.
The garden-seeds sent out from the Patent Office mostly failed, except the cotton and corn, which nearly all has come up, and is growing very well. Seeds seldom come up that are sent out in the usual manner, in pa. pers, whilst those put up in bottles, and sealed, or well corked, never fail. I regret my inability to make any return to Mr. Ellsworth for his kindness in this very acceptable present of seed, but hope by the next opportunity to make up some African seeds for him, though there is too little attention paid to the business of horticulture among us yet, to enable me to collect much. I send you two small parcels of African cotton, one of them still containing the seed.
I have had colleeted, and carefully shipped, most of the articles requested in your letters, though I fear the cold weather on the American coast will injure the fruit and vegetables. There are four hundred lemons, four hundred oranges, eight hundred limes, twelve bushels of potatoes, six bushels of cassada, a cotton bush, a bean vine two years old, some stalks of sugar cane, and three hundred canes of the lime, lemon, orange, and coffee trees. I would have sent some other things from my own garden, but for fear of the cold weather.
I have just obtained some of Mr. David Moore's leather, tanned at bis place on Bushrod island, which I send as a specimen of Liberian manufacture.
With the highest respect and consideration,
General Agent, &c., Washington City.
P.S. I am exceedingly anxious about New Cesters, the more so as I have just learned from Lieutenant SEAGRAM some facts that leave no doubt on my mind of the intention, as far as the authorities on this coast are concerned, to keep it under British subjection, (though he says not.) Canot has received a letter from the new Governor of Sierra Leone, Sir John JEREMIE, and has hoisted the British flag at his door. I suspect negotia. tions are in progress to connect him with a great London trading house, and to make New Cesters the head-quarters of English trade on the coast.
NOTES OF AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BY THE REV. G. W.
BETHUNE, D.D., AT THE UNITARIAN CHURCH, CITY
We expected before this time to have been able to give to our readers the eloquent address delivered by the Rev. Mr. BETHUNE, in this city, during the annual meeting of the American Colonization Society, in January last, but have been unable to obtain a report of it, and have to content ourselves by giving a very imperfect sketch of a part of it, from notes taken by an unpracticed hand;
In the long history of the Jews, there was scarcely an administration more wise, prosperous and happy, than that of Samuel ; and yet the account of it is very brief. It was so wise, so prosperous, that the historian has but little to say:
I remember reading the journals of two gifted friends who crossed the Atlantic. One had written a volume of incidents. When he left the port portentous omens were in the sky. The first night out was one of trouble and distress ; soon there were storms of thunder and lightning, and 'rain and hail, and the winds were fierce and contrary, and the vessel sprung aleak, and all lives on board were greatly endangered. This is but a specimen of what he experienced from the beginning to the end of the voyage.
The journal of the other was very brief, recording that on such a day they saw a shark ; that on another a bird few past the ship; the wind was fair, the sky clear, and scarcely a sail was changed from the time they left one port till they reached the other, so prosperous was their voyage.
For the same reason, I have little to say to-night of the history of this Society during the past year. It has been so prosperous, has accomplished so much, has met with such favor in the community, that its story can be told in sew words.
While the country has been embarrassed, while pecuniary distress has crippled all other benevolent enterprises, and while storms have raged in other seas, the course of this Society has been marked by unwonted prosperity, as is known by its receipts being larger than during any preceding year.
It is a principle every where acknowledged, that those virtues and events which are quiei in their operation, and make the least noise, are the most
useful. God moves the vast machinery of the universe silently. The Gospel, in achieving the most wonderful transformations of human character, operates through a “still, small voice."
Such has been the course of this Society the past year. No loud hurrahs have heralded its march. No thunder of artillery has announced its victories. Silently its peaceful publication has entered the family circle, and called forth the liberal contribution; or the quiet letter, describing its wants and its prospects, has been placed in the hands of the liberal and philanthropic, and has received a welcome reception, and secured an encouraging response.
My honorable friend who has just sat down said, he would leave abstract principles to theologians. I am a theologian, and I believe in a species of universal equality. I hear it proclaimed by the voice of the Almighty, that all men have sinned ; and the precepts of my Saviour teach me to love niy, neighbor as myself. Wherever a human heart beats, there is my brother, no matter how sable his hue; and as such it is my privilege, as a Coloniza. tionist, to do him good. Slavery existed when our Saviour was upon earth, but he did not heap anathemas on those who, I must say, were so unhappy as to be masters; and his chief Apostle, when he had in his care a slave, sent him home to the hand and the heart of his master, as a brother beloved." I think the Epistle to Philemon is an example of the manner in which we should act and feel in similar circumstances.
It cannot be doubted that, in promoting the scheme of Colonization, we fall in with the general spirit of Christianity, which promises the universal triumph of peace on earth. This promise, like a day-star from on high, has visited us, and, like the pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night, it leads us on, under safe protection, and with sure pledges of final triumph.
My friend has said that the whole world was colonized from Eden; that Colonization has led out the spirit of civilization and improvement in all ages of the world. I do not expect to present any thing new on this subject, but there is one striking instance of Colonization to which I will direct
your attention. There was once a time when the Jews, the chosen people of God, were all slaves, under the most cruel bondage; and though they, by a peculiar regulation of the country, were separated, to live by themselves, and were taught their own religion, yet they were degraded in the extreme. God determined to free them. How did he do it? He put a sea between them and their oppressors. They became refractory and rebellious, and even sighed for the flesh-pots of Egypt. But God did not abandon them. For forty years he educated them in the wilderness. He: taught them by the trials they endured, and prepared them for the enjoyment of freedom.
Let those who become discouraged, or who object to the Colonization of Liberia because so many die, think how many of the children of Israel perished in the wilderness! Of all that vast number that came out of Egypt, only two lived to enter the promised land! Surely, reasoning according to some modern rules, this must have been a very unjustifiable, unpatriotic scheme! Only to think, too, that these poor, deluded creatures, who were thus cheated into the wilderness to die, were the native-born children of the land they left, and were actually expatriated.
But it is said there are difficulties about this subject, both in this country ánd in Africa. We admit this in all its force. There are difficulties; and these difficulties are the very best parts of the system. Necessity is the most effectual teacher. The fabulous history of Rome represents that ils founder was nursed by a wolf; and no man and no nation ever has become great, that was not nursed at the shaggy breast of difficulty !