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“At daylight the whole household arise ; the women begin to clean the house, the men to wash from head to foot; the women and children are then washed in water, in which the leaf of a bush has been boiled called Bambarnia ; when this is done, breakfast of cocoa is served out, every one having their separate dish, the women and children eating together. After breakfast the women and children rub themselves over with the pounded red wood and a little grease, which lightens the darkness of their black skin. A score or patch of the red powder is put on some place where it will show to the best advantage. The eyes are blacked with khol. “The mistress and better looking females stain their teeth and the inside of their lips of a yellow color with gora, the flower of the tobacco plant, and the bark of a root; the outer part of the lips, hair and eyebrows, are stained with shani or prepared indigo. Then the women who attend the market, prepare their wares, and when ready, go. The elderly women prepare, clean, and spin cotton at home, and cook the victuals ; the younger females are generally sent round the town selling the small rice balls, fried beans, &c. The master of the house generally takes a walk to the market, or sits in the shade at the door of his house, hearing the news or speaking of the price of natron or other goods. The weavers are daily employed at their trade ; some are sent to cut wood and bring it to the market, others to bring grass for the horses that may belong to the house, or to take to the market to sell ; numbers, at the beginning of the rainy season, are employed in clearing the ground for sowing the maize or millet; some are sent on distant journeys to buy and sell for their master and mistress, and very rarely betray their trust. About noon they return home, when all have a mess of the pudding called waki or boiled beans, and about two or three in the afternoon they return to their different employments, in which they remain till nehr sunset, when they count their gains to their master or mistress, who receives it, and puts it away carefully in the strong room. They then have a meal of pudding or a little fat stew. The mistress of the house when she goes to rest, has her feet put into a cold poultice of pounded henna leaves. The young then go to dance and play, if it is inoonlight, and the old to lounge and converse in the open square of the house, or in the outer coozie, where they remain till the cool of the night.”
This town is one of the great centres of the inland trade, in which all the larger streams meet, and from which the smaller ones radiate. It is, however, much disturbed by conquests and invasions of various kindscivil war often prevails, and insurrections. There is nothing like a settled constitution or form of government, or equitable code of laws. Captain CLAPPERTON informs us
“ That there are here, besides the daily market attended by the inhabitants, two markets held weekly, which are resorted to by strangers. The extent of their attraction may be thus explained: from Bornou, far to the east; from Cubbi, Yaoori, Zamfra, and the borders of the Desert on the north ; from Yarriba and the Gold Coast westward ; and from Benin and Jaboo, and the furtherest part of Nysie, to the south. There resorts to this market parties of regular merchants, bringing the produce of their several countries for sale, as for instance, salt from the north; red wood, peppers, and European cloths from the south ; kolla and goora nuts, gold, wollen cloths and printed coitons, brass and pewter dishes, earthen-ware, and muskets, from the western coast; horses, natron, unwrought silk, undyed tobes, from Bornou ; besides a variety of articles which find their way across the Desert. Venitian beads, Maltese swords, Italian lookingglasses, gums, and scented woods of the east; silks, turbans, and tunics of
checked silks and linen from Egypt, and many more, all of which are to be had at Coolsu, and meet with a ready sale. Some of these merchants erect tents for themselves outside the walls, where they sell their wares ; others send them by their slaves to the market, and round to the different houses; others entrust them to brokers, of whom there are many in town, both male and female; others live in the houses of their friends. And besides these regular merchants, there are a great number of petty traders, chiefly women, who come from the towns lying to the west of the Niger in Yarribah, and Borgoo, many days journey distant, carrying their goods on their heads, and trading at the several markets as they pass. These lodge in the town, and, while they attend the markets daily, support themselves by spinning cotton during their spare time. As soon as they have sold what they have, and bought what they want, they return to their homes again. The inhabitants likewise, (not excepting the artizans and manufacturers, of whom there are many,) are mostly engaged in buying and selling."
From the above statements it will be seen that the wants of these people are rather simple, and comparatively few. They seem, however, not to be indifferent to superfluities. And in this particular at least they show some advancement toward civilization! They must possess considerable enterprise, or they would not go on such long journeys to buy and sell. And there must be more order and regard for the rights of others, than prevail in most other parts, or they could not find security for their persons and property in carrying on such an extensive traffic. If good government could be established among them, and good example set before them, and religion and education, the great levers of society, be made to exert their elevating and expanding influences, great things could be accomplished. Having reached their present stage, they will probably advance but little until some new motives of ambition are set before them, or some new stimulus to improvement is applied.
A people somewhat resembling these, but possessing perhaps more shrewdness and intelligence, is found at Kano. They are by no means unprepared to profit by new opportunities and brighter examples of civilization. They are ingenious, industrious, and full of traffic. They have a well-supplied market, a brisk and thriving trade, well regulated by laws and customs, and they show many signs of industry and ingenuity. The capital of this province is called Kano. Capt. CLAPPERTON spent considerable time in it, and says it contains from 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants, of whom more than one-half are slaves.
Tae GABRIELLA.-We regret sinecrcly to learn that this notorious slaver succeeded in shipping some FIVE HUNDRED slaves in the neighborhood of Gallinas, with whom she got safely off the coast. H. B. M. Brig Saracen, it is reporte:1, ww in sight nearly all the time the slaves were embarking, but confident in her superior sailing, the Gabriella paid no attention to the cruizer until she was nearly within gun shot, when the anchor was weighed, all sails spread to the bremze, and the Gabriella, with her human cargo safely stowed, stood across the bows of the "Saracen," and was soon out of sight on her voyage to the Ilarana. Another slaver, whose name we have not learned, sailed a few weeks since, with about THREE HUNDRED slaves from the same neighborhood --Liberia Herall.
Purchase of TERRITORY.—The American Colonization Society claims jurisdiction over the coast embraced between the limits of Grand Cape Mount, and Little Poor River, near New Cesters, to which jurisdiction the Society has a constructive right, from its owning lands and having settlements at several points within those bounds. This claim, too, has been repeatedly acknowledged, even by some of the most distinguished and influential men in England, though not formally by the English Government. This territory is none of it occupied until fairly purchased of the natives ; who are generally willing to sell it in order to secure the protection of the Colony. And the Society, being equally anxious to buy, has directed their Agent to purchase as fast as he can within the prescribed limits.
We have hitherto omitted to mention, that in the month of March, Governor BUCHANAN, through the active and effective agency of J. Brown, Esq., was enabled to acquire the different tracts on the coast, known as Grand Boutaw, Little Boutaw, and Blue Barre-a distance on the sea of fifty miles, and extending indefinitely inland.
The transfer made for a valuable consideration, subjects the native inhabitants to the laws of the Colony, and annuls their laws and customs which are at all contrary to the spirit of our statutes. The universal law among' them, by which they appropriate every thing to their own use that is driven on shore, even sometimes to the clothes of a hapless mariner, stranded on their beach, is one they are most loth to abrogate, for by it they not unfrequently become masters of large vessels and cargoes of valuable articles, which make them rich for a time.
The loss of the schooner Hard Times at Sinoe river, on the 6th March last, afforded an opportunity of testing the fidelity of the Blue Barre people, to the laws of the Colony, which they had a few days before agreed to respect and obcy. The schooner, as soon as she struck, by their country law, was theirs, but they said " this is Mr. Brown's vessel," and did rot lay a finger on it, till the Captain and crew very unjustifiably forsook the wreck. Then, thinking the Americans gave it up to them, they commenced getting what they could from her. When Mr. Brown heard of the accident and came to the spot, he succeeded in saving a chain cable, anchor, and the main sail ; these he left in charge of a head-man to be delivered when called for. Rendered greedy by the trifling booty taken from the cabin, they afterward manifested an inclination to hold with a strong hand the things deposited by Mr. Brown.
This occurred while Governor Buchanan was on his way to visit Cape Palmas. Seeing the wreck, he was induced to anchor and go on shore. Learning the state of things, he immediately went and demanded the articles mentioned, they being the only ones of much value. The smaller articles which were of the cargo, were so scattered, it was thought impracticable to attempt a requisition for their collection. To this abandonment of their old customs and adoption of those of the Colony, they had willingly subscribed on paper, but the practical operation of it, by which they were compelled to yield property they had been so long accustomed to think theirs by the special gift of God, was entirely another matter. The Governor seeing the necessity in the case, would listen to no compromise, but the speedy delivery of the articles demanded. These were finally returned to Mr. Brown. And it happened well that so early in their allegiance to the Colonial Government, an opportunity was thus afforded of enforcing the Colonial authority in a matter of so much practical importance. -Liberia Herald.
CONTRIBUTIONS to the Pennsylvania State Colonization Society,
from the 20th August, to the 20th September, 1841, inclusive. Aug. 23, Received 4th July col. in Presb. church, Fairview, Rev. J. Eaton, $10 00 26, Do
do Carlisle, Rev.A.T.McGill, 22 00 28, Do from a Gentleman at Canonsburg, per W.S. Martien,
4 00 Sept. 3, Fourth July col, in Upper Octorora Presb. church, per Rev. J. Gault,
10 00 10, E. W. Howell, his annual subscription $4, and donation $1,
5 00 11, Fourth July col. in Presb. church, Dunlap's Creek, Rev. S. Wilson, pastor, by the hands of Rev. R. Baird,
3 47 11, Fourth July collection in Presb. church, Wilkesbarre, Rev. J. Dorrance, pastor, per the hands of N. Rutter, Esq.,
3 25 14, Fourth July col. in Presb.church, Congruity, Rev.S. McFerran, in part,
5 83 16, Presbyterian congregation of Mingo Creek, to constitute Rev. Dr. S. Ralston a Life-member, ($45 before paid Mr. Pinney,)
5 00 16, Rev. G. Marshall, of Bethel church, Alleghany county,
32 00 16, Centre congr'n, Washington co., per G. R. White, Esq., of Pittsburg,
5 00 18, Fourth July collection in Presh, church, St. George's, Delaware, Rev. J. C. Howe, pastor, per Rev. Mr. Phelps,
5 00 20, Rev. J. H. Grier, per Saml. Hemres, Esq., part of the money subscribed to Rev. J. B. Pinney, when he was there last August,
12 00 Collected by Rev. J. B. Pinney, Agent, at the following places :Sept. 1, Mifflinton, A female friend, D. I. Frow, cach $2, E.T. Doty, Esq., A.
Parker, Esq., each $5, E. C. Davidson, R. C. Giallaher, R. Gallaher, N. A.
Elder, S. Pannebaker. J. K. Vallence, W. Bell, J. Schweir, J. Rothrock, each $1, 23 00 Sept. 2, Waynesburg, Hon. J. Criswell $10, Wm. Patton, J. Haman, each $5,
Rev. B. Carell, Mrs. J. Dull, J. Asteel, N. Wilson, each $2, J. McDonald,
42 00 Sept. 3, Huntingdon, John Kerr, J. Miller, S. Steel, Mrs. Allison, W.Orleison,
P.Swope, ea. $5, Col. in M.E.church, $3 48, J.Criswell, Rev.J. Peebles, ea. $1, 35 48 Sept. 4, Alexandria, A. Caldwell, Dr. D. Hout, Dr. J. M. Young, E. Isenbury,
Wm. D. Shaw, each $1, Maguire & Moore $1 50, Mrs. Criswell, H. C. Walker, C. G. Thompson, each 50c., J. Porter, J. Graffins, Mary Neff, each $2, Mary Roe 25c.,
14 25 Sept. 6, Hollidaysburg, C. Garber, Win. Walker, each $10, A. Crawford, J.
D. Rea, T. McNamara, J. Moore, A. Knox, Mrs. J. Walker, each $5, Mrs.
Baker, W.F. Leech, ea. 2c., Cash, Cash, Cash Cash, Cash, Cash Cash, ea. 25c., 117 75 Sept. 7, Johnstown, S. Kennedy, Peter Levergood, George W. Kern, John
Roger, each $5, J. Pickworth, S. H. Smith, J. Mathews, John Hedrig, C.
31 32 Sept. 11, Indiana, Mr. Stewart, Judge White, James Sutton, each $5, John
Sutton, $3, J. M. Watts, H. N. Cannon, James Bailey, Mr. Ayres, Mr.
52 62 Sept. 11, Blairsville, Esq. Morehead, Esq. Steele, ea. $5, Cash 25c., Mr. Cunningham, Mr. Devine, ea. $1,
12 25 Sept. 11, New Alexandria, S. M. Read, A. Torrence, T. M. Johnston, Mr.
McGinley, S. Agnean, J. Shields, Rev. A. Torrence, R. Rainey, J. Barnes, each $1, J. McAllister, Wm. Shields, James Jartside, M. Shields, H. Cameron, Mrs. J. Cook, G. Kincaid, each 50c.,
Sept. 13, Freeport, J. Gillespie, Esq. $5, J. A. Barton $1,
L. Robinson, Miss J. D. Brown, each $5, F. Dobbs $3, A. Arnold $2, J. R.
CONTRIBUTIONS to the American Colonization Society, and Receipts
from August 25, to September 25, 1841.
MASSACHUSETTS. Worcester, Hon. Daniel Waldo $50, Miss Waldo $100,
150 00 Tewksbury, Miss Rebecca Kittridge, per Hon. T. Shaw,
10 00 Northampton, Per L. Strong, Esq., a further payment on account of the bequest of J. L. Pomroy, deceased,
250 00 Fairhaven, Samuel Borden,
6 00 Salem, Collections by Capt. H. Parsons–G. Whitemore $5, H. C. Mackey $5, A. French $5, Captain Bacon $1,
16 00 432 00
5 75 30 00
Fairfield, Remitted by Rev. Samuel A. Nicholls,
Col. Society, ($5 of which is for the yearly sub. of Mr. Hulbert,)
Weathersfield, Per B. Bartlett, two years' subs. of Hon. Wm. Jarvis, 20 00
15 00 Williamstown, Donations, per Hon. E. Paine,
31 00 NEW YORK. New York, L. D. Forest,
JERSEY. Bridgeton, Lucius Q.C. Elmer $10, Ebenezer Elmer $10,
20 00 Elizabethtown, Collection in First Presbyterian Church, Rev. N. Murray, pastor, by Jas. Earl, Treasurer,
22 06 VIRGINIA. Romney Church, per Roht. B. White,
$15 00 Collections by T.J.Shepherd, Agent:—[Particulars in next No.] Fredericksburg
24 21 Richmond,
580 00 Petersburg,
24 00 Fluvanna county,
60 00 2d instalment of J. H. Cocke, jr.,
100 00 Randolph Harrison, Esq., $50, W. B. Harrison, $25, 75 00 863 21 Richmond, B. Brand, Treasurer Va. Col. Soc.,
J. Points, each $1, W. W. Donague, $2. R. Cowan, A. Waddel, N.
Garber,ea $1, Mrs. McDowell,$ 2, Mrs.G.K.Taylor,$10,Mrs.Hill,50c., 56 00
Warwick, J. W. Bagwell, cach $10, Geo. W. Turner, Cash, Rev.