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hand or pluck out a right eye, as sell a fellow creature to the slaver! This is the process by which we hope to see the slave trade abolished. Not by rendering it hazardous for the slavers to carry them away, not by cutting off the demand for them in other countries; but by rendering it impossible to buy them, because the minds of the natives are changed, and they have abandoned, of choice, and under the force of conscience, the horrible traffic. And there is no other way of securing this result than the one we are pursuing.
The view we have here taken of the character and operations of the American Colonization Society, cannot fail to interest most deeply every benevolent heart. The Colony it has planted forms a bright and powerful centre of civilization and religion. How mighty must be its operations and influence on the surrounding nations of Africa ! What a heaven-bound bulwark it presents against the men of blood who have so long infested that shore and bound its children in chains ! How rapid must be the triumphs of the Gospel in such circumstances! How marked and manifest to the world must be the glory of its results, coming in contact with the strongest powers of earth and hell, and vanquishing them, when all the arts and devices of men, all their implements of war and conquest, had utterly and signally failed!
What an appeal then does this cause make to every patriot, philanthropist and christian in our land! Something has already been contributed in its aid. But does not a work so great in itself, so auspicious in its promise, and so brilliant in its achievements, demand something more? Ought not rent, torn Africa, to have a larger share in the affections ? Will not the earnest appeal, the importunate cry from the thousands congregated on board the slave ships, be regarded with deeper interest, and arouse the dormant feelings of every American citizen?" If thou forbear to deliver them that are drawn unto death, and those that are ready to be slain ; if thou sayest, behold I know it not; doth not He that pondereth the heart consider it, and He that keepeth thy soul, doth He not know it, and shall not He render to every man according to his works ?” Reader! do you not know it? Have you delivered them? Can you not redeem some poor African that is “ drawn unto death," and restore him to the land of his sathers ? Can you not do something more to rescue “ those that are ready to be slain,” and to kindle up amidst their dark and benighted dwellings a light of liberty and religion which shall never be extinguished ? Come then, nobly, generously come, help us to redeem a nation from oppression, and to beautify it with righteousness! Come, lay up a treasure in this cause! It shall never rust! It will gather interest in the gratitude and thanks of a nation--a continent disenthralled.
Washington City, August 15, 1841.
DIRECTOR FOR LIFE. We take pleasure in announcing that Francis Griffin, Esq., of Washington county, Mississippi, has constituted himself a Director for Life of the American Colonization Society, by the payment of one thousand dollars ($1000) on the Fifth of July, ult.
AGENTS. T. J. SHEPHERD, Esq., of this city, has been appointed an Agent of this Society for Virginia. We trust he will meet a warm reception from our numerous friends in that State.
L. T. WALKER, Esq., of this city, has accepted an Agency for this Socieiy, and has proceeded to Tennessee, in company with Sion Harris, a Colonist, from that State, who has resided ten years in Liberia, and visits his native place to take his friends with him to Liberia. He is one of the persons who so valiantly defended the Missionary station at Ileddington.
New PUBLICATION.—" Lelier to the Hon. Henry Clar, President of
ihe American Colonization Society, and Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Chairman of the General Commitice of the African Civilization Society, on the Colonization and Civilization of Africa. Ilith other Documents on the same subject.-By R. R. Gurley.-London, Wiley & Pumam, 1841."
The above is the title of a pamphlet of sixty-six pages, which has just been laid on our table. It is written in Mr. Gurley's usual felicitous style, and abounds in passages of great beauty and eloquence. It embraces a wide range of subjects, some of which are of a controversial character. It was called for, as the author suggests, by the circumstances in which he found himself placed. In the preface he says, "I regret extremely that I have been favored with so few opportunities of explaining the views and policy of the American Colonization Society to the British public, and that means have not been afforded me for defraying the expenses necessarily connected with the plans and preparations for large meetings."Again he says, “I visited Scotland, and sought every proper occasion, among her hospitable and high-minded people, to correct the prevalent errors in regard to the Colonization Society, and to commend its principles and philanthıropy to their benevolent and reflecting minds. Though no general sympathy was shown in the cause which I advocated, I received many civilities and kind attentions, for which my thanks are due.”
“ I subsequently submitted the views of the American Colonization Society to the General Committee of the African Civilization Society, expressed to them the warm interest selt by the Society I had the honor to represent in their cause and proceedings, but received from them no cordial responses or proofs of reciprocal regard. There was courteous attention, a decent respect, and liberty to retire!”
Under these circumstances Mr. Gi thought some publication setting forth the purposes and accomplishments of American Colonization was demanded ; and hence the pamphlet now before us. We give below some of its finest passages. Much of it is filled up with letters, documents, and an address, which have before been published in this country.
“ There is much variety as well as peculiarity of misfortune in the condition of the African race. The great majority of this people still inhabit their ancient lan lof Africa, broken up into alinost innumerable tribes, differing, to some extent, in complexion, customs, knowledge, and superstitions, slightly united by social ties, governed by arbitrary chiefs with little form of law, and generally and deeply degraded by long-prevalent barbarism, the rites of a debasing religion, by slavery and the slave trade. Estimates of the population of Africa have varied from sixty inillions to one hundred and fifty millions, and probably the exact number lies between these two extremes. This vast population is spread over å country of great extent and fertility, abundant in resources, penetrated by many large navigable rivers, and blessed with rich advantages for agriculture and commerce with civilized nations.
“ A portion of this race occupy the British West Indian Islands, with advantages and encouragements for improvement, having been raised 'oy the power of the English Goverament from slavery to freedom.
" Another portion (not exceeding probably altogether, including the free blacks of Mexico, five millions) exist as slaves in the Brazils, Cuba, and the French, Spanish, Poringuese, Danish, and Dutch colonial possessions in various parts of the globe.
“ Another portion (about 3,000,000) are in the United States, the majority in slavery in the Southern States of the union, and about half a million free and scattered thronghout all the States.
“ Finally, a considerable number (though less we presume than are in the same condition in Christain countries) are in slavery in the Malomedan empire.
* From this brief and very imperfect survey, it is evident that the whole number of Africans in exile in all parts of the world is small compared with that of those still residing on the soil of Africa. For can we doubt, from the facts and statements exhibited in the recent work on the slave trade and its remedy, that the greatest physical evils endured by the African race result from the slave trade, which, though uiterly condemned by the general opinions and laws of Christian nations, is nevertheless prosecuted by avarice and inhumanity to an unprecedented extent, attended by the most shockingly criminal and cruel acts, and an immense waste of human life. Nearly or quite hall a million of wretched Africans are annually torn from their homes, a moiety of whom perish in capture, during their march to the coast, in the holds of slave-ships on their passage across the ocean, or during the first trials of toil and exposure in a foreign climate. In view of an evil so terrible, so enormous, it becomes all humane and Christian men, immediately, solemnly, and with their might, to exert themselves to discover and apply the remedy; and, unmindful of minor differences of sentiment and all merely personal considerations, to unite in measures the most efficient for the relief of such inexpressible miseries, and the redress of such atrocious wrongs as are involved in the slave trade. Yet as the source and seat of this trade is in the harbarisin and degradation
of Africa, all measures will prove, we fear, but palliative of the evil, which do not include as an end the civilization and elevation of the African race. The great'inquiry should be, I conceive, How shall the greatest good, in the shortest time, be conferred upon the greatest number of this afficted and injured people ?"
" I have expressed the opinion that the Colonization of free persons of color, with their own consent, in Africa, on the principles developed in the establishment and progress of Liberia, is of all plans, practicable ai present, most deserving support in England and America, because of highest utility and promise to the African race.
The history of the Colony of Liberia, though brief, is full of interest and instruction to the student of human nature, and particularly to those philanthropists who seek to civilize Africa, and elevate the minds of her children. GRANVILLE Sharp, Dr. FOTHERGILL, and their associates, had founded Sierra Leone. The rude materials with which they commenced their work, and extraordinary disasters, soon compelled them to commit the destinies of this Colony to the English Government; and though it looks out brightly and encouragingly from the African shore, it has hardly fulfilled the best hopes of its earliest friends. The Colony of Liberia owes its existence to a benevolent American Society, has no connexion with the Government, and from it has derived but occasional, and compared with that of individuals, but small aid. The wise and good men who, twenty-four years ago, organized the American Colonization Society, proposed a plan of benevolence to the African race so simple, and unobjectionable, that the citizens of the whole United States might contribute to its support, so powerful in its tendencies of good in all directions and comprehensive in its promised beneficence as to want, in theory, at least, little if any thing of perfection. The plan was, to purchase from the African chiefs a suitable and sufficiently extended territory, and to assist such bold and energetic free men of color residing in the United States, as might desire to emigrate, to found thereon a free and Christian State, which, from the nature of its institutions, the development of its principles and resources, and the discipline of its circumstances must strengthen and elevate the intellect and moral character of its citizens; by example and endeavors plant and propagate civilization and Christian doctrine in Africa ; suppress the slave trade ; react powerfully on America io promote emancipation by means disconnected from danger, demanded by general justice, and fraught with blessings never yet attained by it, to the liberated Africans and to their race ; thus showing by experiment and demonstrating in fact, how this race may cast off the incumbrances and entanglements of their thraldom, and self-respected, because deserving praise, stand in dignity and honor before the world. It is the peculiar excellency of this plan, that for its success, reliance is mainly placed upon the ability of the descendants and people of Africa themselves, when favored in position and stimulated by high motives, to rise from their degradation, assume a national character, and secure prosperity and a name among the nations. The purpose of the Society has been to place the objects of its bounty in such a position, and supply to them such motives. Poor are the richest endowments of fortune, compared with the acquisitions of the mind. Worthless are the distinctions which others may confer upon us compared with those we may by great acts and great endurance achieve for ourselves. It has been hy toil and trial, by susiering and conflict, by self-denial and self-discipline, hy hazardous adventure, and often by the iron hand of necessity, that individuals and nations have ascended from weakness, obscurity and disgrace, to power and grandeur.
“Since a band of persecuted pilgrims, impelled by concern for the rights of conscience and the truths of God, first trod the icy and rock-bound coast of New England, few events of higher moral interest or sublimity have occurred than the establishment of the Colony of Liberia. Much praise is due to the Colonization Society, but far more to the heroic men of color who went forth, at the peril of their lives, with no safeguard but Providence, to plant the seeds of liberty and Christianity in the most barbarous quarter of the world, and there, far away from the arm of any civilized Government, in the face of a fierce and mighty opposition, to rear the fabric of a free, well-ordered, and religious Commonwealth. It is true that this small company of brave adventurers in the cause of their race, have been assisted by teachers and guides from among the whites, and Heaven has smiled upon them; yet it is to their own awakened energy, their industry, resolution, courage, and faith in God that we must mainly attribute their success. The world has little observed, perhaps less applauded them. Probably not one in a thousand in this metropolis has any knowledge of their existence. Yet they have founded a Republican and Christian State in Africa which promises to grow and extend itself for ages, and constituted and adapted in the whole character of its institutions and laws to kindle the individual mind, and give full play to all those intellectual and moral faculties which, nobly exercised, exalt men to greatness, may prove a central light and power to revive and renovate their country and their race.
“ But to be more specific in regard to the principles embodied and developed in the Colony of Liberia.
“ It is designed for a national and independent political existence.
Slavery can have no existence within the limits of the Colony. " All transactions with the native tribes are to be conducted on principles of exact justice. “ Both law and practice are in hostility to the slave trade.
Provision is to be made for universal education. “No preference is to be given to any religious sect, but perfect and therefore equal toleration is secured to all.
“Missionaries of all Christain denominations among the native Africans are to be countenanced and encouraged in their work.
Colored emigrants are aided by the Society during six months after their arrival, receive donations of land, and having taken possession of the same, and cultivated a few acres, become entitled to all the privileges of citizenship
“ Various, recent, and unexceptionable testimony from sources, English as well as American, might be adduced to show how these principles, incorporated in its constitution, laws, and the manners and sentiments of its citizens, are so well adapted to make it a contented, enterprising, improving, religious community, aiding to suppress the slave-trade and to diffuse a knowledge of civilization and Christianity among the native African tribes."
AFRICAN MISSION. Extract from a Letter of the Rev.O.K. Canfield: Monrovia, Mar. 23,1841.
Our voyage was, from the roughness of the sea, unpleasant. We encountered three successive gales, one of which caused us to “lie to" 36 hours. We came near being wrecked on Bonavista, one of the Cape de Verd Islands, owing to the inaccuracy of the chronometer. It was a