Dynamic Modeling in Behavioral Ecology

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This book describes a powerful and flexible technique for the modeling of behavior, based on evolutionary principles. The technique employs stochastic dynamic programming and permits the analysis of behavioral adaptations wherein organisms respond to changes in their environment and in their own current physiological state. Models can be constructed to reflect sequential decisions concerned simultaneously with foraging, reproduction, predator avoidance, and other activities.


The authors show how to construct and use dynamic behavioral models. Part I covers the mathematical background and computer programming, and then uses a paradigm of foraging under risk of predation to exemplify the general modeling technique. Part II consists of five "applied" chapters illustrating the scope of the dynamic modeling approach. They treat hunting behavior in lions, reproduction in insects, migrations of aquatic organisms, clutch size and parental care in birds, and movement of spiders and raptors. Advanced topics, including the study of dynamic evolutionarily stable strategies, are discussed in Part III.

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Contents

Fundamentals
9
Basic Probability
11
12 Discrete Random Variables and Distributions
15
13 Conditional Expectation
18
Patch Selection
41
22 Biological Examples
42
23 The Simplest State Variable Model
45
24 An Algorithm for the Dynamic Programming Equation
52
51 Diel Vertical Migrations of Zooplankton
152
52 Diel Migrations of Planktivores
165
53 Predictions of Zooplankton Migrations
178
Parental Allocation and Clutch Size in Birds
182
61 A SingleYear Model of Parental Allocation and Clutch Size
183
62 A MultiYear Model of Parental Allocation and Clutch Size
192
63 Hypothesis Generation and Testing Dynamic Behavioral Models
195
Movement of Spiders and Raptors
198

25 Elaborations of the Simplest Model
58
26 Discussion
63
How to Write a Computer Program
82
Applications
105
The Hunting Behavior of Lions
107
31 The Serengeti Lion
108
32 Some Possible Explanations of Lions Hunting Behavior
109
33 A Dynamic Model
113
34 Communal Sharing
121
35 Discussion
124
Reproduction in Insects
126
42 A Model with Mature Eggs Only
131
43 A Model with Mature Eggs and Oocytes
142
44 Parasitism and Density Dependence
143
45 Discussion
148
Migrations of Aquatic Organisms
149
71 Movement of OrbWeaving Spiders
199
72 Population Consequences of Natal Dispersal
204
Additional Topics
213
Formulation and Solution of State Variable Models
215
81 Identifying State Variables Constraints and Dynamics
217
Fitness
223
83 The Dynamic Programming Algorithm
225
84 Alternative Modeling Approaches
233
Some Extensions of the Dynamic Modeling Approach
247
92 Dynamic Behavioral Games
259
Epilogue Perspectives on Dynamic Modeling
280
References
289
Author Index
303
Subject Index
306
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