History of Europe from the Fall of Napoleon in MDCCCXV to the Accession of Louis Napoleon in MDCCCLII.

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W. Blackwood & Sons, 1856 - Europe
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Contents

Want of industry in the national character
9
The physical circumstances of Spain favoured commerce but not manufac tures
10
Effect of the longcontinued hostility with the Moors
11
Important effect of the Romish faith
12
Difference of the towns and country in respect of political opinion
14
Disposition of the army
15
The church
16
State of the peasantry
17
State of the nobility
20
how it was formed
21
Its extreme democratic tendency
22
Utter unsuitableness of the constitution to the generality of Spain
23
Universal unpopularity of the Cortes and constitution
24
Influence of the Cortes on South America
25
Rio Janeiro
27
Its general adoption of English habits and ideas
28
Character of Ferdinand VII
29
Decree of Valencia
31
VOL II
33
its army and navy
50
Efforts of the Cadiz Liberals to promote
56
Sale of Florida to the Americans
62
Disfranchisement of Grampound and transfer of its members to Yorkshire 443
64
Perilous position of Quiroga in the Isle of Leon
68
Page 78 Legislative measures
72
its composition
73
Disorders in the provinces
74
Murder of one of the bodyguard and reward of the murderers ib 82 Opening of the Cortes
75
its leaders
76
Establishment of clubs in Madrid and other revolutionary measures
77
Financial measures
78
Tumult at Madrid and dismissal of Riego
79
Closing of the session and rupture with the king
80
Reception of the decree against the priests in Spain
81
Illegal appointment of General Carvajal by the king
82
Return of the king to Madrid
83
New society for execution of lynch law ib 94 Identity of recent history of Spain and Portugal
85
Revolution at Oporto
86
Which is followed by a revolution at Lisbon
87
Establishment of a joint regency at Lisbon
88
Return of Marsbal Beresford who is forced to go to England
89
Effect of the banishment of the British
90
Reaction and adoption of more moderate measures ib 101 Commencement of reforms in Italy
91
Breach of the kings promise of a constitution
92
Progressive but slight reforms already introduced
93
Origin of secret societies
94
Their origin and previous history ib 106 Commencement of the Neapolitan revolution
95
Defection of General Pepe and the garrison of Naples
96
The king yields and swears to the constitution
97
Causes which prepared revolution in Sicily
99
Revolution in Palermo
100
Frightful massacre in Palermo ib 112 First measures of the new junta
101
Failure of the negotiations with Naples
102
Suppression of the insurrection in Palermo
103
Renewal of hostilities
104
Meeting of the Neapolitan parliament
105
Insurrection of the galleyslaves in Civita Vecchia
106
Commencement of the revolution in Piedmont
107
Revolt in Alessandria and Turin
108
The king yields and accepts the constitution
109
12 Resignation of the king and proclamation of the Prince of Carignan as regent and the Spanish constitution
110
General character of the revolutions of 1820 ib 123 What caused their speedy overthrow
111
What should the military do in such circumstances ?
112
CHAPTER VIII
113
Increase of Russia by the treaties of 1814 and 1815
114
Important acquisition of Russia in the grandduchy of Warsaw
115
Statistics of the grandduchy of Warsaw
116
Establishment of the kingdom of Poland ib 6 Biography of the Grandduke Constantine
117
His character
118
His first acts of administration and training of the army
120
Great increase of its military strength
122
Failure of the representative system in Poland
123
Great influence of Russia
124
Great wisdom of its external policy
125
Their unity of purpose
126
its population
127
Great rapidity of increase of the Russian population
129
Great room for future increase in its inhabitants ib 18 Unity of feeling in the whole empire
130
Reason of this unity Their Asiatic habits and religious feelings
131
Unity of interest in the empire
132
General insufficiency of the schools to produce enlightenment
133
The clergy
134
the Tchinn
135
Great power given by the Tchinn
136
Caste of the nobles
137
Of the bourgeois and trading classes
138
The serfs their number and condition
139
Privileges and advantages they enjoy
140
its advantages and evils 14
142
Contrast of English and Russian cultivators
143
Opinion of Mr Haxthausen on the serfs and their enfranchisement
144
Evils of the Russian serf system
145
Foreign conquest ever forced upon Russia by its climate
146
Fear the universal principle of government in Russia
147
General use of corporal chastisement
148
Character which these circumstances have imprinted on the Russians
149
Causes which have led to this character
150
Great effect of the distances in Russia
151
Civilisation depends entirely on the higher ranks
152
Strong imitative turn of the Russians
153
Military strength of Russia
154
The inilitary colonies
155
The Cossacks
157
The admirable discipline and equipment of the army
158
Russian navy
159
Positions of the principal armies
160
General corruption in Russia
161
Enormous abuses which prevail
162
Striking instances of this corruption
163
Emigration in Russia is all internal
164
Great impulse to agricultural industry in Russia from free trade
166
What is the destiny of Russia ? ib 55 Two different people in Russia
168
Liberal ideas with which the troops returned from France and Germany
169
First steps of Alexander on his return to Russia in 1814
170
His beneficent measures
171
Incessant travels of Alexander from 1815 to 1825
172
Various beneficent measures introduced by him
173
His arrival at Warsaw in 1818
174
Alexanders memorable speech to the Diet
175
Journey of Alexander to his southern provinces ib 65 His efforts for the enfranchisement of the peasants
176
Transactions of 1819
177
Expulsion of the Jesuits
178
Great changes in the emperors mind from the revolution of 1820
179
Violent scene and dissolution of the Polish Diet
180
Congress of Troppeau
181
its resolutions
182
Congress of Laybach
183
Reflections on the division among the allied powers
184
Limits of the right of intervention
185
What share had the Holy Alliance in this?
187
Attitude taken by England on the occasion ib 77 War declared against the revolution in Naples
188
Unresisted march of the Austrians towards Naples
189
Subjugation of Naples and return of the king
190
Movement of the insurgents in Piedmont
191
Meeting of the Allies and fresh revolution in Genoa
192
Increasing difficulties of the insurgents
193
Total defeat of the insurgents at Agogna
194
Submission of the capital and termination of the war
195
Violent reaction in Italy
196
Reaction in Piedmont and treaty with Austria
197
Revolt in a regiment of guards at St Petersburg
198
Alexander refuses to support the Greeks
199
Extension of the Russian empire in North America
200
Suppression of freemasons and other secret societies
202
General failure of the emperors philanthropic projects
203
Dreadful flood at St Petersburg ib 9394 Description of the situation of St Petersburg 204205
204
Death of Alexanders natural daughter
211
And death
217
How tbis came about
223
Information given of the conspiracy to Alexander
229
Nicholas advances against the rebels
236
Leaders of the revolt in the army of the south
243
He is essentially Russian
260
Law regarding the press
270
his biography
278
The Duke de Berri
289
His biography
290
And marriage with the Princess Caroline of Naples ib 34 Louvel his assassin
291
Assassination of the Duke de Berri
292
3637 His last moments 293294
294
His death
295
Violent attacks on the new ministry by the press
296
Chateaubriands words on the occasion
297
General indignation against M Decazes
298
The king resolves to support him
299
He at length agrees to his dismissal
300
Resignation of M Decazes and the Duke de Richelieu sent for
301
The kings inclination for Platonic attachments
302
Her first interview with Louis which proves successful ib 48 Character of M Decazes
304
Merits of his measures as a statesman ib 50 Division of parties in the Assembly after M Decazes fall
306
Funeral of the Duke de Berri and execution of Louvel
307
5253 Ministerial measures of the session Argument against the first 308309
308
Answer by the Government
309
5556 Censorship of the press Argument against it by the Opposition
311
5758 Answer by the Ministerialists 312313
312
Result of the debate
314
Reflections on this subject
315
Alarming state of the country and defensive measures of Government
316
Denunciation of the secret government
317
Ministerial project of a new electoral law
318
6467 Argument against it by the Opposition 319321
319
6872 Answer by the Ministerialists 321324
321
CamilleJourdans amendment carried
325
The amendment of M Boin is carried by Government
326
Disturbances in Paris
328
The budget
330
Military conspiracy headed by Lafayette
331
Their designs and efforts to corrupt the troops
333
Which fails by accident
334
Lenity shown in the prosecutions ib 84 Birth of the Duke of Bordeaux
335
Universal transports in France
336
Congratulations from the European powers and promotions in France
338
Rupture with the Doctrinaires
339
Views of the Doctrinaires
340
Views of the Royalists ih 90 Disturbances in the provinces Internal measures of the Government
342
Changes in the household
343
Ordonnance regarding public instruction
345
Result of the elections favourable to the Royalists
347
Effect of the change in the Assembly
348
Accession of Villele c to the ministry
349
Speech of the king and answer of the Chambers
350
Measures of the session fixing the boundaries of the electoral districts
351
Great effects of the change in the electoral law
361
Defects of the representative system in France
362
Undue ascendancy of the PartiPrêtre ib 112 Cause of the reaction against Liberal institutions
363
Death of Napoleon
364
Reflections on his captivity
365
Great exaggeration regarding the English treatment of him
366
Lamartines account of his exile
368
Irritation between him and Sir Hudson Lowe
369
All parties were wrong regarding his treatment at St Helena
371
Change on Napoleon before his death ib 120 His death
372
His funeral
373
Immense sensation it excited in Europe
374
He was the last of the men who rule their age
375
CHAPTER X
376
Difference in the causes which produced discontent in the two countries
377
Great effects of the change in the monetary laws
378
Mr Smiths views on this subject
379
Great effects of any variation in the value of the standard of value ib 6 Examples of this from former times
380
Discovery and wonderful effects of a paper currency
382
Advantages of a paper circulation duly limited
383
What is the standard of value ?
384
Vast effect of variations in the currency
385
When this effect takes place
386
Vast importance of an inconvertible currency as a regulator of prices
387
Concurring causes which brought about the bill of 1819
388
Danger of a currency entirely rested on a metallic basis
390
True system
391
Peculiar dangers with which the resumption of cash payments was attended
392
Strain on the money market from the immense loans on the Continent
393
Great prosperity of England in end of 1818 and spring of 1819 from extension of its currency
394
Great internal prosperity of the country
395
Disastrous contraction of the currency
398
And on prices of all commodities
399
Rapid increase of disaffection in the country
401
Meeting at Peterloo
403
Great excitement and objects of the meeting
404
Its dispersion by the military ib 28 Noble conduct of Lord Sidmouth on the occasion
406
Result of Hunts trial
407
Reflections on the impolicy of allowing such meetings
408
And on the conduct of the magistrates
409
Seditious meetings in other quarters
411
Augmentation of the Chelsea pensioners
412
Meeting of Parliament and measures of Government
414
Lord Sidmouths Acts of Parliament
415
Sentences on the conspirators
416
Death of the Duke of Kent
418
Death of George III
419
Birth of Queen Victoria
420
Alarming illness of George IV
421
Ominous questions regarding the omission of Queen Carolines name in the Liturgy
422
Remarkable speech of Mr Brougham
423
Cato Street conspiracy Thistlewoods previous life ib 45 Design of the conspirators
425
Conflict in the dark in the Cato Street loft
426
Execution of the conspirators 49 Disturbances in Scotland and north of England
427
Outbreak of the insurrection and its suppression ib 52 Death and character of Mr Grattan
432
His character as a statesman and orator
433
Increase of the yeomanry force
434
The budget for 1820
435
Important subjects of debate in this session
437
Statistics on education in England and Wales by Mr Brougham ib 58 Difficulties of this subject and necessity of an assessment
439
Its difficulties and attempts at their solution ib 60 Probable mode of solving it
440
What is to be done with the educated classes ?
441
Appointment of a committee to inquire into agricultural distress
448
Commencement of the troubles about the queen
454
Enthusiastic reception of the queen at Dover and in London
460
General transports of the people
467
Answer by Mr Peel
473
Vehement demand for a reduction of taxation
479
Aspect of Wellington Londonderry and George IV
485
Lord Wellesley appointed Viceroy of Ireland and change in the govern
491
Cause of the wretchedness of Ireland
492
What would have relieved the country and its neglect
493
Ruinous effect of the contraction of the currency upon Ireland
494
Progress of the agrarian disturbances in Ireland
495
Lord Wellesleys able conduct and impartiality
496
Dreadful examples in the disturbed districts
497
Dreadful famine in the south and west of Ireland ib 123 Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act and Insurrection Act
499
Divisions on the Catholic claims
500
Increasing strength of the minority on parliamentary reform
501
Peroration of Mr Cannings speech
502
Sir James Mackintoshs motion regarding the criminal law
503
Great fall in the price of all sorts of produce
504
Measures for the relief of the agricultural classes
505
Detailed measures of Government for the relief of the agriculturists
506
Motion of Mr Western on the currency
507
136142 Reply by Mr Attwood 510514
510
Repeated defeats of Ministers in the House of Commons
515
Great reductions of taxation introduced by Ministers
516
The budget
517
Reduction of the Five per Cents
518
Equalisation of the Dead Weight and military and naval pensions
519
Details of the measure
521
Six acts relating to commerce and navigation
522
Visit of the king to Edinburgh ib 153 Particulars of the royal visit
523
Death of Lord Londonderry
525
Its indomitable firmness
526
Political changes in progress from the resumption of cash payments ib 159 Internal changes arising from the same cause
528
Lord Londonderry was the last of the real rulers of England
529
Increased ascendant of the rulers of thought
530
Their execution
531
CHAPTER XI
533
Peculiar causes which augmented this divergence
534
Character of Mr Canning
537
His peculiar style of eloquence
538
Viscount Chateaubriand
540
His peculiar turn of mind and course of policy
548
Rise of the Carbonari and secret societies in France
555
Reflections on these events
561
Attempted restoration of the royal authority at Madrid
567
Institution of the Order of the Hammer
573
Riegos plot at Saragossa and his arrest
579
Irresolute conduct of the king and Royalist insurrection in the north
585
Proceedings of the Cortes and progress of the civil war
591
his appearance and character and followers
593
Desperate assault of Cervera
594
Severe laws passed by the Cortes
595
Great extension of the civil war
596
Deplorable state of the Spanish finances
598
Riot in Madrid and death of Landabura
599
Commencement of the strife between the guard and the garrison ib 64 Departure of the royal guard from Madrid
600
Progress of the negotiations with the insurgents
601
Attack of the guards on Madrid and its defeat
602
Destruction of the royal guard
603
Defeat of the insurgents in Andalusia and Cadiz
604
Change of ministry and complete triumph of the revolutionists
605
The new ministry and provincial appointments
606
Murder of Geoiffeux ib 72 Second trial and execution of Elio
607
Civil war in the northern provinces
609
Reflections on this event
610
Capture of Castelfollit and savage proclamation of Mina
611
Continued disasters of the Royalists and flight of the regency from Urgel
612
Great effect produced by these successes of the Liberals
613
CHAPTER XII
615
Lamartines observations on the subject
616
Opposite views which prevailed in Great Britain
617
Repugnance to French intervention
618
Danger of a renewal of the family compact between France and Spain
619
Influence of the South American and Spanish bondholders
620
Immense extent of the Spanish and South American loans
621
Views of the Cabinet on the subject
622
Congress of Verona agreed on by all the powers
623
Members of the Congress there
624
Description of Verona
625
Views of the different powers at the opening of the Congress
626
Brilliant assemblage of princesses and courtiers at Verona
627
Treaty for the evacuation of Piedmont and Naples ib 16 Resolution of the Congress regarding the slavetrade
628
Note of Englaud regarding South American independence
629
Instructions of M de Villèle to M de Montmorency regarding Spain
630
Mr Cannings instructions to Duke of Wellington
631
Measures adopted by the majority of the Congress on the subject
632
England
633
Views of what had occurred in this Congress
635
Views of M de Villèle and Louis XVIII
637
Secret correspondence of M de Villèle and M de Lagarde
638
Debate on it in the Cabinet and resignation of M de Montmorency who is succeeded by M de Chateaubriand
639
The warlike preparations of France continue
641
Failure of the negotiations at Madrid and departure of the French ambas sador
642
Speech of the King at the opening of the Chambers
643
King of Englands speech at opening of Parliament
644
Reply of the Spanish government
645
Hyde de Neuvilles address in reply to the speech of the king
647
Mr Canning adopts the principle of noninterference
654
de Chateaubriands reply in the French Chambers 656663
656
Immense sensation produced by this speech
664
Talleyrands speech on the war ib 55 Vote of credit of 100000000 francs
665
5657 Affair of M Manuel in the Chamber of Deputies his speech
666
Storm in the Chamber
667
Expulsion of M Manuel
669
Dramatic scene at his expulsion
670
General enthusiasm excited by the Spanish war
671
Preparations of the Liberals to sow disaffection in the army
672
Feelings of Mr Canning and the English people at this crisis
673
Views of Mr Canning at this juncture
674
Portrait of Mr Canning by M Marcellus
676
His opinion as to the probable duration of the war
677
Views of George IV and the Duke of Wellington on the subject
678
Difficulties of the French at the entrance of the campaign
679
Which are obviated by M Ouvrard
681
Forces and their disposition on both sides
682
The Spanish forces
683
Theatrical scene at the passage of the Bidassoa ib 73 Progress of the French and their rapid success
685
Advance of the Duke dAngoulême to Madrid ib 75 Advance of the French to Madrid
686
Entry of the Duke dAngoulême into Madrid
688
Advance of the French into Andalusia
689
Proceedings of the Cortes and deposition of Ferdinand VII ib 79 Violent reaction at Seville and over all Spain
691
State of affairs in Cadiz
692
Advance of the Duke dAngoulême into Andalusia and decree of Andujar
693
Its provisions
694
Violent irritation of the Royalists in Spain
695
Progress of the siege of Cadiz
696
Assault of the Trocadero
697
Operations of Riego in the rear of the French
698
Defeat and capture of Riego
700
Noble conduct of the Princess Troubetzkoi and the other wives of
704
His execution
705
483
706
Triumphant return of the Duke dAngoulême to Paris
711
Recognition of the South American republics by Mr Canning
717
Meeting of the Chambers and measures announced in the royal speech
723
Statistics of France in this year
729
Political inferences from the result of the Spanish revolution
735

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Page 307 - With scutcheons of silver the coffin is shielded, And pages stand mute by the canopied pall : Through the courts, at deep midnight, the torches are gleaming ; In the proudly-arched chapel the banners are beaming ; Far adown the long aisle sacred music is streaming, Lamenting a chief of the people should fall.
Page 715 - It would be disingenuous, indeed, not to admit that the entry of the French army into Spain was, in a certain sense, a disparagement — an affront to the pride— a blow to the feelings of England...
Page 720 - You well know, gentlemen, how soon one of those stupendous masses, now reposing on their shadows in perfect stillness — how soon, upon any call of patriotism, or of necessity, it would assume the likeness of an animated thing, instinct with life and motion — how soon it would ruffle, as it were, its swelling plumage — how quickly it would put forth all its beauty and its bravery — collect its scattered elements of strength, and awaken its dormant thunder.
Page 464 - Such, my Lords, is the case now before you ! Such is the evidence in support of this measure — evidence inadequate to prove a debt — impotent to deprive of a civil right — ridiculous to convict of the lowest offence — scandalous if brought forward to support a charge of the highest nature which the law knows — monstrous to ruin the honour, to blast the name, of an English Queen...
Page 487 - This is one of the happiest days of my life. I have long wished to visit you : my heart has always been Irish — from the day it first beat, I have loved Ireland. This day has shown me that I am beloved by my Irish subjects. Rank, station, honours, are nothing; but to feel. that I live in the hearts of my Irish subjects, is to me the most exalted happiness.
Page 635 - ... opinion, that to animadvert upon the internal transactions of an independent state, unless such transactions affect the essential interests of his Majesty's subjects, is inconsistent with those principles on which his Majesty has invariably acted on all questions relating to the internal concerns of other countries ; that such animadversions, if made, must involve his Majesty in serious responsibility, if they should produce any effect ; and must irritate, if they should not...
Page 235 - Thus having spoke, the illustrious chief of Troy Stretch'd his fond arms to clasp the lovely boy. The babe clung crying to his nurse's breast, Scared at the dazzling helm, and nodding crest. With secret pleasure each fond parent smiled, And Hector hasted to relieve his child, The glittering terrors from his brows unbound, And placed the beaming helmet on the ground; Then...
Page 465 - ... from the roots and the stem of the tree. Save that country, that you may continue to adorn it ; save the crown which is in jeopardy, the aristocracy which is shaken ; save the altar, which must stagger with the blow that rends its kindred throne...
Page 465 - It will go forth your judgment, if sentence shall go against the queen. But it will be the only judgment you ever pronounced which, instead of reaching its object, will return and bound back upon those who give it.
Page 715 - I may say, to the number of weights which might be shifted into the one or the other scale. To look to the policy of Europe in the times of William and Anne for the purpose of regulating the balance of power in Europe at the present day, is to disregard the progress of events, and to confuse dates and facts which throw a reciprocal light upon each other.

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