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sions, in accordance with these, are also referred to. Our Presidents, their secretaries and foreign ministers, and our eminent American statesmen are largely quoted in the book. Among them are the honored names of Washington, Hamilton, Franklin, John Adams, John Jay, Jefferson, Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, James Buchanan, Edward Livingston, De Witt Clinton, John C. Calhoun ; Secretaries

l Upshur, Clayton, Marcy, Everett and Lewis Cass, with a long line of distinguished public men.

The work explains our general commercial law, the settled judicial rules of navigation, and the common carrier's liability in maritime and internal affreightments.

The usages of war are set forth, but its atrocities are reprobated. The freedom of the seas is maintained, and a practical mode of introducing our American doctrine into the code international is suggested, by which private property by sea and land, and all non-combatants, shall be free from capture or molestation in war. To our merchants, ship-owners, importers and planters, as well as to the peace and industry of mankind, these principles are of the highest importance.

It is shown that our republic reduced our humane principles to practice in the military rule of conquered Mexico, under our distinguished generals, Scott, Taylor, Wool, Smith, Worth, and other gallant chiefs.

The law of comity in all its bearings is set forth.

The self-preserving, military, naval and judicial power of our Union and States against treason, menace and force is stated, and authorities referred to.

In short, the elementary doctrines of our international law, public and private, and the leading principles of our municipal law, common to all our States and Union, are presented in the Institutes. If the ends proposed have been accomplished in some degree, the writer will feel that his great labor has not been bestowed in vain.

NEW-YORK, January, 1860.


Obligations to his friends Acknowledged.

To the Honorable Reuben Hyde Walworth, late Chancellor of the State of New York, to the Honorable John C. Spencer, to the Honorable Joshua A. Spencer, to the Honorable Alexander H. Everett and to the Honorable Elisha R. Potter, the author is greatly obliged on account of examinations of, or suggestions in reference to the Institutes.

To Major-General John E. Wool he is greatly indebted for information and official documents, relative to American military administration during our conquest and occupation of Mexico, treated of in the thirteenth chapter.

On the tombs of his three distinguished friends who have been called away while the work was in progress, the author would inscribe this memorial of his gratitude.

To Mr. Justice Nelson, of the Supreme Court of the United States, the author acknowledges the favor of a consultation upon the limitation of State taxation, treated of in the third chapter.

To General Persifer Smith the writer is indebted for valuable information relative to our humane military government of the conquered Mexicans. And, with deep sorrow, would the author record his gratitude upon the tomb of the fallen hero of Contreras.

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