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and brought on an universal torpidity, which lasted above nine hours. Some of the same liquor being applied to the cavity of the abdomen and the ischiatic nerves of another frog, its hindermoft extremities became altogether paralyớic and insensible in the space of half an hour; and in about an hour atterwards the frog died. On repeating both these experiments on other frogs, with some of the liquor remaining after distillation and likewise with the same liquor evaporated to the consistence of an extract, and rediffolved in water, no sensible effects whatever were produced on the animals to which they were applied.
Though these experiments, in which the distilled liquor was applied in immediate contact with the wounded abdomen and the bare nerves 'of the animal, are far from justifying any con, clusions that may be drawn from them to the prejudice of tea, as containing a deleterious principle, capable of doing mischief when fimply received into the stomach ; yet they prove that its activity chiefly refides in its fragrant and volatile parts; and that if the use of tea be beneficial or injurious to any particular conftitution, it becomes fo principally by means of this odorous fragrant principle. It should follow likewise that those who really suffer, or who apprehend that they do or may suffer, by the use of it, and yet are loath to deprive themselves of this grateful, refreshing, sober, and amusing habitual regale, may continue that indulgence with perfect safety, though not per haps with equal gratification, if they will be conten: ro lip the infusion of the more ordinary kinds of this plant, which abound less with this fragrant principle. Or they may boil their tva a few minutes, in order to diffipate this volatile part, which ftands charged as the cause of those nervous affcétions that are laid to be produced, or aggravated, by the use of this liquor. By this process they will likewise extract more copiously the more fixed, bitter, and stomachic parts of this vegetable.
The Author, who secins to be thoroughly perfuaded of the occasionally noxious effects of this volatile principle, in the finer teas especially, recommends this last-mentioned mode of making tea, or the fubftituting the extract instead of the leaves ; by the use of which 'the nervous relaxing effects, which follow the drinking of tea in the usual manner, would be in great measure avoided.' This extract has been imported hither from China, in the form of small cakes not exceeding a quarter of an ounce each in weight, ten grains of which might suffice one person for breakfast; but it might easily be made here by simple decoction and evaporation, by those who experience the noxious qualities of the volatile, principles of this plant; to ascertain which the Author produces fome instances that have fallen under his own observation. But for these and the other articles here discussed, we must refer to the work itself, which is exe
cuted with accuracy and judgment; though from the nature and circumstances of the subject, many defiderata yet remain to be cleared up relating to it. ART. X. An Elay on the Nature, Cause, and Cure of a Disease incident
to the Liver, hitherto but little known, though very frequent and fatal in hot Climates. By John Crawford, late Surgeon of the Earl of Middlesex East-Indiaman. 8vo. 2 s. Kearily.
E think this pamphlet deserving of particular considera
tion, as it contains the history of a very dreadful dis. order, attended with symptoms so fallacious, as naturaliy to produce the most fatal mistakes concerning its nature, and thereby suggest indications of cure totally opposite to those which would be pursued by one who was acquainted with its real seat and origin Through the too greit neglect, or almoft total disuse of that useful auxiliary to the healing art, the dissection of morbid bodies, this diftemper has probably often pafled unnoticed or undistinguilhed, though there is great reason to believe that it frequently occurs, and is mistaken for very different diseases, to which fome of its symptoins appear to have a near affinity, particularly to those of the scorbutical and dropfical kind : and yet, as is evident from the contents of this publication, the most dangerous consequences must ensue, whenever it is mistaken for any of these maladies, as it undoubtedly requires a very different, nay almost totally opposite method of treatment.
We shall not transcribe, or enter into a minute detail of the Author's account of the progress and symptoms of this disease, the entire perusal of which, in the original, we recommend to the faculty. We cannot however resist the desire of relating some of the most essential particulars
, respecting its history; with a view, among other reasons, of exemplifying the utility, and recommending the practice, of frequent inspections of dead bodies ; by which so much light was, in the present instance, at once thrown upon a very obscure complaint.
The ship's company with which the Author failed, and who had lived for some time on bad provisions and putrid water, were attacked with this disorder in their return to England, not long after their leaving the island of St. Helena, where they þad met with very few refreshments. Its most distinguishable and fa lacious symptoms were, a considerable swelling and hardness of the abdomen, not attended with any sensible fluctuation; ædematous swellings of the legs, which retained the impression of the finger ; a vertigo and fainting on the lealt motion; and the most distreisful difficulty of breathing, which continually increased; so that those who fell victims to this dircale, after a course of the mot horrible agonies, at length died
absolutely absolutely fuffocated. From these and some other appearances, the Author was naturally enough induced to consider this fingular disease, as a particular anomalous species of scorbutical complaint, and to treat it accordingly; although he observed that some of the most diftinguishable fymptoms of the genuine difeafe did not appear in any of his patien's: none of them complaining of sore gums, or having spots on any part of their bodies.
It attacked persons of different ages, constitutions, and degrees of health, indiscriminately, and nearly in the same manner. In a short time the scene which presented itself on board the vessel was exceedingly distressful.-- On each side of the ship there was nothing to be heard but the melancholy sounds occafioned by the obitructed respiration of upwards of thirty men,' labouring under different degrees of oppression in the præcordia, and the other symptoms of this disease : while those who yet continued well, were constantly apprehensive of being soon reduced to the fame horrid situation.
The alarming state of the crew, and the bad success which had attended the Author's endeavours to remove a disorder, with the nature of which he was unacquainted, induced him (after having taken proper mealures to conquer the natural repuge nance of the seamen to enquiries of that kind) to open and inIpect the body of the second person who had died of it. By doing this the nature and seat of the disorder were clearly ascertained. The stomach, the intestines, and, in short, all the viscera of the abdomen, were found in a perfectly found state, except the liver. That organ indeed presented a very extraorfinary appearance. It was enlarged almost beyond' imagination; and weighed, by estimation, not less probably than thirteen or fourteen pounds; occupying the whole of both hypochondria, and descending a considerable way into the hypogartrium. Its convex part had risen upwards into the thorax, wbither it had thrust the diaphragm, and where it had violently compressed the lungs; particularly the right lobe, which was entirely collapsed, covered with tubercles and white spots, and reduced to a size less than that of a common tennis ball. The agonizing difficulty of breathing attending this disease was thus clearly traced to iis hitherto unsuspected cause. This enormous liver however did not thew the leaft symptom of disease, except the fingular enlargement of its substance; nor did there appear in it any thing like adhesion, or the marks of any previous inflammation.
Enlightened by these observations the Author immediately made a total change in his method of treating the fick. He now with confidence took away blood in quantities proportioned to the circumstances of the patient (an operation on which he durft not venture, while he considered them as labouring under
a scorbutic or putrid disorder) and found them considerably reJieved by the evacuation. He likewise put them under a course of deobstruent, opening pills, made of aloes, soap, and calomel; by the use of which they were all either cured or sensibly relieved. In some cases a spitting was accidentally brought on, and even seemed to produce falutary effects, particularly in relieving the difficulty of breathing.
We scarce need to hint of what importance it is that this disease should be known, and diftinguith d from the scurvy, which it resembles in some of its appearances; particularly in the ædematous swellins of the legs, difficuky of breathing upon motion, languor, it if ess of the joints, &c. It is equally evident that ihe praćice appropriated to the cure of the one, may be fatal when applied to the other. Bleeding and mercurial purgatives would undoubtedly precipitate the face of the fcorbutic: whereas, on the contrary, if this liver complaint should be mistaken for the scurvy, and these evacuarions thould at he made, death must ensue from the immense enlargement of the liver anů its distref-lul consequences above-mentioned ; as happened to three of the crew, previous to the Author's discovery of the true nature of this disorder. Art. XI. A Dijërtation on Oriental Gardening. By Sir William
Chambers, Knt. Comptroller General of his Majesty's Works, 4to. 55. fewed., Grittin, &c. 1772.
E had lately the pleasure of perusing an agreeable poem
in praise of our improved national taste in ornamental gardening *; but now we have the mortification to learn, on the authority of Sir William Chambers, thut we are yet in a ftate of ignorance and barbarism, with regard to this pleasing art: of which the Chinese, alone, aic matters. This, howe ever, is a proposition which, we think, the ingenious Writer has by no means demonstrated. The Chinese, indeed, seem to have arrived at the most enormous profusion of expence in gardening ; but luxury and voluptuousness appear to be the objects which they have generally in view; rather than that artful disa play, and improvement, of the beautics of nature, in which conhís (according to our European ideas) all that is required in this innocent, rational, and moral species of amusement.
But, in truth, independent of the point of tajle, which will ever remain a disputable subject,-it is not for even the richest monarchs in this part of the world, to think of emulating the ro al gardens of China; formed, as they are, with more than imperial magnificence, and requiring not only an immense extent of ground (of which the public must be robbed) but a treasury which Englia Garden, a poem. By Mason. See Review for March,
would call for the wealth of almost half the globe for supplies.
We have heard it suggested, that, 'poffibly, one part of our
This Author fets out with observing, that gardening poffeffes a more extensive influence than the other decorative arts; and that it strikes and pleases its observers, without any previous information or skill. This is, perhaps, true, but we must be cautious of allowing it too much latitude ; for, as in painting, and architecture, there are beauties which none can admire, or discover, but those who have made these arts their study; so, in ornamental gardening, there are productions so artificial, and delicate, that they never reveal their charms to vulgar eyes. To be delighted, in these cases, it is necessary to be informed and the man whole taste has not been cultivated by nice observation, and judicious reflections, will neither discern the proportion and beauty of the feparate parts, or the skill with which they are brought to form an harmonious whole. - Accordingly, our Differtator himself, when he comes to characterize our English designers and gardeners, acknowledges, that a capacity of enjoying, and judging of, the dispofition of a pleafureground, appears to him a difficult matter; and he declares, that it cannot be expected, that men uneducated, and doomed 6