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briefly to preferve some traits of his genealogy, which the in. quisitive reader may depend upon to be as follow.

• Mr. John Newton, the father of Sir Isaac, had a paternal estate in Woolsthorpe and the neighbourhood, of about fifty pounds a year. He was a wild, extravagant, and weak man, but married a woman of good fortune, His wife's name was Ayscough, whose father lived in Woolfhorpe likewise, and was jord of that manor. The said manor with some other property, defcended to Sir Isaac, upon the death of his grandfather, Ayf cough. Sir Isaac made some trifing purchases himself; and his whole estate in that neighbourhood, amounted at the time of his death to about 1051. per annum, which fell to the share of his second cousin, Robert Newton; who being diffolute and illiterate, soon dilipated his estate in extravagance, dying about the 30th year of his age in 1737, at Coltersworth, by a tobaccopipe breaking in his throat, in a fall, occasioned by ebriety.

• The father of the above Robert, was John Newton, a cars penter, afterwards game-keeper to Sir Isaac, and died at the age of sixty, in 1725. In the Rolls or Records, that are sometimes read at the Court Leets in Grantham, mention is made of the above Ayscough, who is ftiled Gentleman, and Guardian and Truliee to Isaac Newton under age.

• It is very ceriain that Sir Isaac had no full brothers or sisters; but his mother, by her second marriage with Mr. Smith, the Rector of North-Witham, a parish adjoining to Coltersworth, bad a son and two or three daughters—which issue, female, afterwards branching by marriages with persons of the names of Barion and Conduit, families of property, and respectable character, partook with the Smiths of Sir Isaac's personal effects, which were very confiderable.

Sir Isaac, when a boy, was sometimes employed in servilc offices, even to an attendance on the servant to open gates in carrying corn to Grancham market, and watching the sheep; in which last occupation, tradition says, that a gentleman found him, near Woolsthorpe, looking into a book of the mathematical kind, and asking some questions, perceived such dawnings of genius, as induced him to follicit the mother to give her son an university education, promising to allist in the youth's maintenance at college if there was occasion. But whether that peceffity took place, is a point I have not been able to determine.

! He lived a bachelor, and died in his 85th year, having, as a relation informed me, who quoted the authority of Sir Ifaac's own confeflion, never violated the laws of chastity.'

This Poem, though not finely finished, contains many good Įines; and we recommend it to our Readers, as well to gratify jheir curiosity as their benevolence,

ART. ART. VIII. Critical Remarks on the Books of Job, Proverbs, Psalms,

Ecclefiaftes, and Canticles. By. D. Durell, D.D. Principal of Hert ford College, and Prebendary of Canterbury. 4to. 8 s. sewed. Oxford, printed at the Clarendon Press. Sold by Cadell in Lon

don. 1772.


REAT caution and exactness are requisite in a critical

examination of the Hebrew scriptures. A small variation in a word or phrase in that ancient language, as in all others, will make a very considerable alteration in the sense, and consequently much opportunity is afforded for fancy and conjecture. Dr. Durell appears to us to have paid a just atten. tion to this point, in the collection of criticisms which he now offers to the public. As the books here examined are all in Retre, some difficulties arise from that circumstance, beside which, he properly observes, many great obscurities in them owe their being to enigmatical and proverbial expressions, or to allusions to local usages and popular sentiments. In proof of this, he proposes to our confideration several instances collected from different parts of the book of Job.. But the chief perplexities, says chis Author, are derived, I am persuaded, from the haste and ignorance of transcribers, who have not given us true copies of the original text. To correct these errors, has been my chief aim; and I Aatter myself that not a few passages will be found to be restored to their primitive genuineness. To this end, a method is frequently pursued, which seems to carry with it the strongest conviction, viz. the investigation of the natural limits of each word and sentence. In confirmation of these new le&ione, it is added, I cannot alledge the authority of any MSS. for I have consulted none. That trouble I thought might be {pared, as Dr. Kennicott was preparing his collations for the press :-besides, MSS. can, at moft, but give a better fense than that which is found in the text: but if that text, wherever it is erroneous, can be so improved by a new combisation of the very fame Letters, without the least addition, transposition, or alteration whatever, from which emerge ather words perfectly clear and consistent; in that case, I say, MSS. are not very effential; for we may rationally conclude that, without their affiftance, we have attained to the VERY TEXT:

From the toove quotation our Readers will form fome judgmeat of the plan upon which the present work proceeds. To which we lould add, that, in determining the signification of the words, he has made the English version now in use, the tandard, correcting it in those places in which he judged it to be faulty, or preferring some of the other old English vertions, particularly that quarto edition of the Genevā tranflation,

I 4


printed by Barker in 1599. He allows that our common English version has conliderable merit, yet he acknowledges its errors and defects, and pleads for a new translation. In the mean time, says he, hoping this very desirable period may not be far diftant, I have thou nt it my duty to lay before the public fome part of the materials whi h have lain by me for a considerable time. My motive for fo doing is, that they may be duly weighed in the interval; in order, that if they meet with approbation, they may be serviceable on that occafion, and that others, blefied with greater abilities and advantages, may hereby be induced to pursue the same course.'

Dr. Durell proceeds to answer fome questions relative to a new translation. After concluding that we have, on some accounts, advantages superior in the piesent day for this purpose, to what were enjoyed in the beginning of the last age, he adds,

Is it pretended that the times will not bear a new version? I answer by another question. Is the temper of the people of these days totally different from that of their ancestors, at the distance of six generations ? On the introduction of the prefent version into our churches in the year 1611, we read of no tumult, clamour, nor discontent. The same pacific disposition prevailed in the reign of Q. Elizabeth, when more than one new translation received the royal fanction. The godly, the larned, the ingenuous, would doubtless rejoice; the gay, the thoughtless, the voluptuous, would still continue uninterested and unaffcct d: but the caviller, the sceptic, and the deilt, would hereby find the sharpest and most trusty arrows of their quiver blunted; and the illiterate vulgar, who always depart reluctantly from old inftitutions, would soon be reconciled ; when, instead of an invasion of their property, they experienced that the old debased coin was only called in, in order that they might be repaid in new, of true sterling value.-- The minds of the people cannot be hereby unsettled. All the leading articles of religion will remain undislurbed. - If there be any foundation for this plea, it seems to me (with due deference to government may I be understood to bint it) to be derived from the legislature itself; which, in its acts of perpetual duration, does not appear to allow fufficient'y for the mutability of human affairs, or the changes incident to time : whereas were it enacted, that these acts should all be revised at the distance of half a century, many of the inconveniences complained of would no longer exist; and the almost sacred vcner. tion the people have for things, which not their morit, but antiquity alone, has confecrated, would gradually fulfide, and leave no traces in their mins.--But may not the eagerness for a reformation carry matters to too great a length? Innovations, it is confeffed, are often dangerous; and the spirit of zealous, the most uncontroulable of any other: tut

in this case, the bounds would be clear and distinct ; and there would be no cause to fear, when the commission expressly fer forth the limits of its extent, that cool and discreet fubjects would overleap them. But, to give the argument its full scope; Would the innovator herewith reft satisfied? Would he not defire after this a revisal of the Liturgy, with the Thirtynine Articles; and proceed from ecclesiastical, to civil, matters? These are not necessary, perhaps not probable, consequences ; but allowing they were, What nobler object could the parliament, could the convocation, have under their contemplation, than the petitions of serious and well-disposed men ; presented, at proper intervals, with becoming humility; praying, not to be released (as in a late instance) from the bands by which fociety is united, but that means might be devised, the most efficacious for quieting their conscientious scruples, and setting them for. ward in the way of religious improvement ?'

As the subject is interesting, we were desirous of laying before our Readers some of this Writer's observations upon it. The reflection in the clofe of the last paragraph appears to be unkind and ungenerous, and moreover, is not, we apprehend, founded in truth : however, as it does not relate to the immea diate subject of his work, we shall dismiss it without farther remarks, and proceed to make one other short extract from his preface :

"I doubt not, says he, but fome of my observations may have been anticipated by other critics, as many are fufficiently obvious : but, if that be the case, it is more than is come to my knowledge; for I have purposely avoided having recourse to such Authors, except perhaps in some perplexing cases, that my remarks might be my own. Such, however, as the public is already in poffeffion of, have doubtless no pretenfions to novelty: they have nevertheless the advantage of being fresh, independent, and unbiafled evidences in fupport of truth.

Some of this Writer's criticisms will, we doube not, be acceptable to several of our Readers, we have therefore extracted the following: * Job, chap

. xii, ver. 5., He that is ready to pip with his feet, is as a lamp despised in the thought of him that is at ease. 712 727 :7 ] fidered as compounded of the prepotitions and 75 a misfortune : I would therefore render literally thus ---TO CALAMITY is CONTEMPT, IN THE THOUGHTS OF HIM THAT IS AT EASE, PREPARED FOR THE SLIPPING FOOT; which may be thus paraphrased -" Calamity generally meets with contempt from the prosperous man, whose self conceit makes him ready to at. tribute the misfortunes of others to want of prudence or conduct.” This was exactly Job's case with his friends.'


When this Critic says in the above quotation, 7995 is here considered as compounded, &c. he must mean in bis translation, and not in our common English version, fince that plainly regards it as an uncompounded word, signifying a lamp, a utenfil very serviceable and necessary in the Eastern countries, and upon fome occafions much adorned : as an extinguished, worn out, useless lamp, was despicable, and disregarded, it might be no improper image by which to represent the neglect, or contempt, with which too frequently the rich and prosperous are disposed to observe the unfortunate. It is remarkable that two translations, so different as this of our Author's and that in our common Bibles, should convey a sentiment, in effect, so much corresponding with each other. It appears highly probable that Dr. Durell's is the true account of this passage. In Taylor's Hebrew Concordance, under the above-mentioned word, we find the same criticism, with this farther illuitration of the passage," as if he had said ; To calamity is added contempt in she thought of him that is at ease: a cutting Aroke to those that nip with the foot ! or that are fallen into distress :' and we are allo referred to Schultens upon the place.

Chap. xviii, ver. 11.-and fall arive him to his feet. 1773071 :14975] Rather-AND SHALL DASH HIM TO PIECES IN HIS GOINGS; 1. e. fhall bring him to destruction when he falls into the snare. Or thus,-AND SHALL SCATTER HIM (according to the sense of this word in the margin of our version) IN HIS GOINGS; i.e. hall drive him from place to place, till at

. Soos is used precisely in this fenfe, Gen. xxxiii. 14, where, in the margin, we read according to the foot : but it ought to be rendered GOINGS there as well as here.'

In regard to the celebrated passage of this book, chap. xix. 25, &c. I know that my Redeemer liveth. &c. this Author explains it, with many others, of a temporal deliverance; but his criticisms upon it are too long for us to insert : we shall therefore only give some of his general remarks :

As for the interpretation, he says, which converts the passage into a prophecy of the resurrection of the body, besides that it implies a degree of light ill corresponding with the times in which either Job is supposed to have lived, or this book to have been wricten; it requires such interpolation of new words, and forced construction of those found in the text, that I am fully persuaded, with the allowance of such liberries, an ingenious conjecturer may make almost any text in scripture de pose in favour of this or of any other doctrine. The best commentators have therefore juftly exploded it. Nor let it be imagined that we are undermining the foundations of our faith, by withdrawing a support that does not belong to it. It remains firmly fixed on the basis of truth, which cannot be moved, and wants no affittance from falsehood and error. But neither are


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