Scientific Soapmaking: The Chemistry of the Cold Process
Until now, there were just two kinds of books on soapmaking. Books for the commodity soap industry emphasized the economical production of soap by the ton and were written for those with a background in chemistry and chemical engineering. Books for the emerging craft industry emphasized the production of high-quality soap by the pound and were aimed at those familiar with the format of cookbooks. Makers of handcrafted soap often wish they had paid more attention in chemistry class so that the information of the commodity soap books would be accessible to them. Scientific Soapmaking answers that call by bridging the gap between the technical and craft literatures. It explains the chemistry of fats, oils, and soaps, and it teaches sophisticated analytical techniques that can be carried out using equipment and materials familiar to makers of handcrafted soap. Presented in a college textbook format, Scientific Soapmaking guides students and individual soapmakers alike to formulate questions about soap and design experiments to answer those questions scientifically.
Research and Development
A Practice Problems
B Saponiﬁcation Values
B1 Saturated Fats and Oils
acetic acid actual added addition alcohol alkali alkali ratio amount answer appear atoms balance bars base batch become blend bond bottle calculate called carbon Chapter charge chemical citric acid coconut oil color completely concentration contains determine diﬀerent dissolved drop ducks eﬀective equation ethanol example fats fatty acids Figure ﬁrst ﬂask formula give given glasses glycerol grams H3Cit heat hydrogen atoms important labeled less liquid material measure melted method mixed moisture mold molecular molecule oleic olive oil oven palm oil pipet portion possible potassium pounds ppt NaOH practice problem procedure produce question raw soap reaction record relative remains remove salt sample saponiﬁcation value scale simply soap soapmaking sodium hydroxide solid soluble solution standard Table temperature thing tion titrate trace uncertainty water molecules weight