Scientific Soapmaking: The Chemistry of the Cold Process
Until now, there were just two kinds of books on soapmaking. Books for the commodity soap industry emphasized the economical production of soap by the ton and were written for those with a background in chemistry and chemical engineering. Books for the emerging craft industry emphasized the production of high-quality soap by the pound and were aimed at those familiar with the format of cookbooks. Makers of handcrafted soap often wish they had paid more attention in chemistry class so that the information of the commodity soap books would be accessible to them. Scientific Soapmaking answers that call by bridging the gap between the technical and craft literatures. It explains the chemistry of fats, oils, and soaps, and it teaches sophisticated analytical techniques that can be carried out using equipment and materials familiar to makers of handcrafted soap. Presented in a college textbook format, Scientific Soapmaking guides students and individual soapmakers alike to formulate questions about soap and design experiments to answer those questions scientifically.
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Research and Development
A Practice Problems
B Saponiﬁcation Values
B1 Saturated Fats and Oils
500 ppt NaOH acetic acid alcohol alkali alkali ratio ammonia amount bars of soap batch bond calculate carbon atoms castor oil centigram balance Chapter chemical chemist citric acid coconut oil cold-process color contains diﬀerent dissolved eﬀective endpoint equation Erlenmeyer ﬂask ethanol eugenol fatty acids ﬁlled ﬁnd ﬁnished soap ﬁrst formula funnel g NaOH g of oil g of water g/mol glycerol Goggles or glasses handcrafted soap heat hotdog hydrogen atoms hydronium hydroxide ion kernel oil lauric acid linoleic liquid lye discount melted mixed moisture concentration mol NaOH mold mole molecular weight msds notebook oil blend oil soap oleic acid olive oil oxygen palm oil palmitic phenolphthalein pipet potassium hydroxide ppt H3Cit ppt KOH procedure proton raw soap react reaction salt saponiﬁcation value Section soapmaking sodium hydroxide soluble solution superfatting swirl Synthetically weigh tare target weight temperature titrate total alkali triacylglyceride vial water molecules