Measuring Plant Diversity: Lessons from the Field
Ecologists interested in assessing landscapes and ecosystems must measure biomass, cover, and the density or frequency of various key species. Recently, sampling designs for measuring species richness and diversity, patterns of plant diversity, species-environment relationships, and species distributions have become fine-grained, as it has become increasingly important to accurately map and assess rare species for conservation. This book lays out the range of current methods for mapping and measuring species diversity, for field ecologists, resource managers, conservation biologist, and students, as a tool kit for future measurements of plant diversity.
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0.1 ha plots analysis aspen assess Colorado correlated Daubenmire 1968 dominant species Douglas-fir ecology ecotone elevation environmental gradients evaluate example exclosures exotic plant species exotic species richness Extensive plots field Figure foliar cover forest frequency grasslands grazed and ungrazed habitats heterogeneous homogeneous invasion invasive species landscape scales limber pine locations lodgepole pine long-term m2 plots m2 subplots minimum mapping unit models modified Whittaker plot monitoring Mountain National Park multiple multiscale sampling native and exotic native species richness nitrogen nonnative species richness number of species patterns of plant plant communities plant diversity studies plant ecologists plant species richness ponderosa pine quadrats quantify rare species regression replicate richness and cover riparian zones Rocky Mountain Rocky Mountain National sampling designs sampling techniques single-scale soil characteristics spatial scales species composition overlap species cover species diversity species-area curves Stohlgren et al study area Table tallgrass prairie understory ungrazed sites variables variation vegetation sampling vegetation types